(3.220.231.235) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/03/09 07:10
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:林宗翰
研究生(外文):Tsung-Han Lin
論文名稱:斑石鯛人工孵化繁殖與飼料中不同含量蛋白質對斑石鯛幼魚成長與體組成之影響
論文名稱(外文):Artificial Breeding, Rearing and Dietary Protein Levels onJuvenile Growth of Spotted Knifejaw, Oplegnathus punctatus
指導教授:廖文亮冉繁華冉繁華引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wen-Liang LiaoFan-Hua Nan
口試日期:2017-07-03
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:漁業科學研究所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:漁業學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:126
中文關鍵詞:斑石鯛人工孵化繁殖胚胎發育仔稚魚發育蛋白質需求
外文關鍵詞:Oplegnathus punctatusspotted knifejawartificial breedingembryonic developmentlarval developmentdietary protein requirement.
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:437
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
本實驗分為二個部分: 實驗一為開發斑石鯛人工孵化繁殖技術。實驗二為飼料中添加不同蛋白質對斑石鯛幼魚成長與體組成之影響。實驗一對斑石鯛種魚藉由人工催熟使其性腺成熟,並培育斑石鯛,建立斑石鯛胚胎發育、仔稚魚形態發育及人工孵化繁殖餌料生物投餵序列。生殖季期間以塑膠軟管檢視種魚成熟度後,施打 HCG 1000 I.U. / kg、LHRH - A2 20 μg / kg促進其成熟後於傍晚昏暗時將斑石鯛雌魚取出擠卵後,再以斑石鯛精子進行人工授精,平均受精率為 71.20 ± 0.10 %,受精卵為淡黃色、單一油球之浮性透明卵,受精卵平均直徑為1.03 ± 0.04 mm,油球徑為0.23 ± 0.01 mm。水溫 23 ± 1 ℃ 下,受精後 3 hr 40 min 進入桑椹期;受精後 7 hr 50 min 進入原腸期;受精後 14 hr 25 min 進入神經胚期,受精後 15 hr 10 min 進入器官形成期;受精後 29 hr 30 min 胚胎孵化,剛孵出仔魚體標準長1.96 ± 0.01 mm,具一橢圓卵黃囊,長徑 1.05 ± 0.01 mm;短徑0.65 ± 0.01 mm;油球徑 0.21 ± 0.01 mm,孵化後第 3 天卵黃囊完全吸收,魚體標準長 3.65 ± 0.05 mm。仔魚一開口可攝食輪蟲與橈腳類無節幼蟲,隨成長投餵較大體型之橈腳類幼生及成蟲,孵化後第 21 天進入稚魚期,第 23 天後增加餵食豐年蝦無節幼蟲,第 28 天除餵食餌料生物並開始以少量商業飼料馴餌,至第 44 天進入幼魚期,魚體標準長 25.98 ± 3.70 mm,黑色圓點數量增加,體色由乳白色轉為黑褐色,此時已可完全投餵商業人工飼料。斑石鯛仔魚與稚幼魚發育在水溫 26 ± 1 ℃ 下,第 44 天完成變態。實驗二以紅魚粉為蛋白質來源,鱈魚肝油與玉米油為油脂來源,配製等油脂 (7 %) 等能量之六組不同蛋白質 (35 %、40 %、45 %、50 %、55 %、60 %) 飼料投餵平均初重約 16 g 斑石鯛幼魚 8 週。結果顯示水溫29 ± 1 ℃ 下,斑石鯛幼魚增重率在 227.79 ± 46.2 % - 477.47 ± 24.42 % 之間,SGR 在 2.10 ± 0.26 - 3.13 ± 0.08之間,FCR在 1.05 ± 0.13 - 1.67 ± 0.49之間,各成長指標隨著飼料蛋白質含量增加而增加,並在蛋白質含量55 % 組有最高增重率 (477.47 ± 24.42 %),與蛋白質含量 35 % - 50 % 組有顯著差異 ( p < 0.05),折線回歸求得最適蛋白質含量為57.58 %。增重率、飼料轉換率及特殊成長率在蛋白質含量 35 % - 55 % 時會隨著蛋白質含量增加而改善。蛋白質效率 (PER) 在1.61 ± 0.24 - 1.91 ± 0.38 之間,隨著飼料蛋白質含量上升而下降,並在蛋白質含量 60 % 組為最低 (1.61 ± 0.24 ),各組之活存率最佳為 96 %,飼料蛋白質含量 35 % 組別之活存率為 36 %,低於飼料蛋白質含量 40 % - 60 % 組別。
This study aims to promote artificial rearing and breeding techniques of Oplegnathus punctatus via record of embryonic ontogeny, larval and juvenile development and establishment of a feeding program for the species, and then assigned toexperiment II to know the effect of dietary protein level on the growth and body composition of O. punctatus juvenile.In the first trial, used the injection of hCG 1000 IU/kg BW and LHRH - α 20μg / kg treatment to induce spawning of female O. punctatus and were artificially fertilized from April to May 2017. The fertilized pelagic eggs are transparent with diameter of 1.03 ± 0.04 mm and single oil globule with diameter of 0.23 ± 0.01 mm. The eggs hatched in 30 hours after fertilization at 23 ± 1 ℃. The newly-hatched larvae are 1.96 ± 0.01 mm in standard length. From 3 to 33 dph the larvae can be fed with rotifers and copepods enriched with Nannochloropsis oculata and Tetraselmis chui, bigger copepods and nauplii can be fed as larvae grows up. Metamorphosis occurred in 28 dph and artificial feed was mixed with artemia to train the larvae to accept. After 44 dph, the larvae developed into juvenile stage with 26 mm in standard length. In the second trial, O. punctatus juvenile with initial weight 16 g fed on six diets with same energy and lipid level (7 %) but different dietary protein levels of 35, 40, 45, 50 %, 55 % and 60 % for eight weeks. The result showed the weight gain were between 227.79 ± 46.24 % - 477.47 ± 24.42 %, specific growth rate (SGR) were between 2.10 ± 0.26 - 3.13 ± 0.08, feed conversion ratio (FCR) were between 1.05 ± 0.13 - 1.67 ± 0.49. Fish fed diet with 55 % protein has the highest weight gain (477.47 ± 24.42 %), and was significant higher than diets with 35 - 50 % protein (p< 0.05). Based on the weight gain using broken-line model analysis showed the optimal dietary protein level for O. punctatus juvenile with initial weight of 16 g cultured under 29 ± 1 ℃ is 57.58 %. Weight gain, SGR were between 2.10 ± 0.26 - 3.13 ± 0.08 and were improved with dietary protein increased from 35 % to 55 %. SGR in diets with 55 % protein was significant higher than diets with 35 - 50 % protein (p< 0.05). FCR were between 1.05 ± 0.13 - 1.67 ± 0.49 and improved with dietary protein increased. Fish fed 55 % has lowest FCR (1.05 ± 0.13) and significant lower than groups fed 35 - 45 % protein diets. Coefficient factor (CF) was not significantly increased by dietary protein level among 40 - 60 % groups (p> 0.05). Hepatosomatic index (HSI) and viscerosomatic index (VSI) was not generally affected with dietary protein. Crude protein in muscle increased with increasing dietary protein. Crude lipid and Ash in muscle was not significantly affected with dietary protein among 40 - 60 % groups.
口試委員審定書 i
謝辭 ii
中文摘要 iii
英文摘要 v
目錄 viii
表目錄 ix
圖目錄 xi
前言 1
文獻整理 3
材料方法 27
結果 38
討論 50
結論 72
參考文獻 73
參考文獻
丁立雲,張利民,王際英,孫麗慧,帥繼祥,崔立嬌,孫永智,2010。飼料蛋白水平對星斑川鰈幼魚生長、體組成及血漿生化指標的影響。中國水產科學,第 17 卷,第 6 期,1285-1292。
于道德,2008。三種海水經濟魚類早期發育生物學的研究。中國科學院海洋研究所博士論文。
王中櫸,2008。飼料中不同蛋白質與油脂含量對白條海葵魚幼苗成長與活存率之影響。國立台灣海洋大學水產養殖學系碩士論文。
王立改,魯瓊,詹煒,陳睿毅,肖志忠,樓寶,2016。斑石鯛肌肉營養成分分析。食品工業科技,第9期,357-362。
王雨福,2015。斑石鯛 (Oplegnathus punctatus) 早期生長特徵及消化系統發育的研究。中國科學院海洋研究所碩士論文。
尤宏爭,韓天,劉永鴿,逯雲召,顧中華,于燕光,錢紅,2015。斑石鯛工廠化養殖技術初探。中國水產,第 9 期,82-84。
史海東,毛國民,王海嶽,2004。溫度和鹽度對橫帶髭鯛胚胎發育的影響。上海水產大學學報,第 17 卷,第 3 期,230-234。
江玉媖,鄭明忠,何源興,張文炳,彭仁君,陳文義,2012。棘頰海葵魚之生殖行為及初期發育。水產研究,第 22 卷,第1期,35-49。
江玉瑛,吳雅琪,何源興,鄭明忠,陳文義,2014。條石鯛胚胎發育與育苗研究。水產研究,第 22 卷,第 1 期,71-80。
江福松,陳顥文,2000。世界魚粉市場與台灣魚粉需求概況。中國水產月刊,第 567 期,3-18。
朱仙龍,吳小易,李偉峰,王珺,陳國華,2015。不同蛋白與脂肪日投餵水平對斜帶石斑魚生長的影響。熱帶生物學報,第 6 卷,第 1 期,1-10。
朱興華,王桂芹,2011。飼料能量和蛋白水平對烏鱧生長、飼料利用和體組成的影響。飼料工業,第32 卷,第 2 期,15-18。
全漢鋒,肖志忠,2007,條石鯛人工繁養殖技術研究,台灣海峽,第26 卷,第 2 期,295-300。
曲漱蕙,李嘉泳,黃浙,張天蔭,1980。動物胚胎學。高教出版社。
沈世傑,1993。台灣魚類誌,286。
李愛傑,1998。水產動物營養與飼料學。水產出版社。
邱昀範,2005。飼糧二十二碳六烯酸與蝦紅素對豐年蝦的抗氧化狀態的共同影響。國立台灣海洋大學水產養殖學系碩士論文。
呂明毅,2015。臺灣珊瑚礁魚類人工繁殖技術研發的瓶頸與突破。觀賞魚與周邊產業,農業生技產業季刊,第 43 期,26-33。
呂逸林,冼宜樂,鐘金水,林志遠,陳世欽、蔡萬生,2012。寒潮威脅下澎湖海域養殖管理的作為。水試專訊,第 37 期,21-25。
佟雪紅,2010。大菱鮃早期發育及其相關生理特性研究。中國科學院海洋研究所博士論文。
何滔,2011。條石鯛早期發育及相關酶活性的研究。中國科學院海洋研究所博士論文。
何源興,陳哲明,施勝中,陳文義,2006。粉紅海葵魚之生殖行為及育苗研究。水產研究,第 14 卷,第 2 期,57-67。
邵慶均,蘇小鳳,許梓榮,舒妙安,2004。飼料蛋白水平對寶石鱸生長和體組成影響研究。水生生物學報,第 28 卷,第 4期,367-373。
林翌涵,邱韻霖,歐俊龍,謝恒毅,蔡萬生,2013。條石鯛養殖試驗及低溫耐受性探討。水試專訊,第 44 期,16-19。
林偉雄,蔡發盛,陳偉洲,陳楷亮,賴學文,黃美珍,1998。溫鹽度對斜帶髭鯛孵化率及仔魚存活率的影響。臺灣海峽,第 17 卷,第 3 期,305-308。
林寶林,2008。飼料中不同蛋白質量與蛋白質來源對藍身大石斑成長及體組成之影響。國立台灣海洋大學水產養殖學系碩士論文。
奉琳娜,林向東,成一偉,2016。不同養殖模式對斑石鯛魚肉品質的影響及分析。漁業現代化,第 42 卷,第 4 期,35-38。
周瑞良,2012。人工飼料。科學發展,第473期,38-43。
周華,樊啟學,宗克金,宋林,張雲龍,楊威,2011。飼料碳水化合
物水平對鱤幼魚生長和體成分的影響。水生態學雜誌。第 32 卷,第 3 期,108-113。
洪平,1980。科學飼料及其配置。
范超,2016。斑石鯛卵鞭蟲病和上皮囊腫病的研究。上海海洋大學碩士論文。
柳學周,徐永江,劉新富,陳超,王妍妍,馬愛軍,2009。條斑星鰈 (Verasper moseri) 的早期生長發育特徵。海洋與湖沼,第 40 卷,第 6 期,699-706。
徐奇友,黃金鳳,2011。環境溫度和蛋白質水平對魚類生長和代謝的影響。東北農業大學學報,第 42 卷,第12 期,1-8。
徐恭昭,1984。魚類的生命週期及其發育階段。海洋科學,第 1 卷, 61-63。
殷名稱,1991。魚類早期生活史研究與其進展。水產學報,第 15 卷,第 4 期,348-358。
殷名稱,1995。魚類仔魚期的攝食和生長。水產學報,第 19卷,第4期,336-341。
孫忠業,2009。不同蛋白質含量對褐石斑幼魚成長與免疫反應之影響及不同油脂含量對珍珠石斑幼魚成長與體組成之影響。國立台灣 海洋大學水產養殖學系碩士論文。
陳紫媖,蘇惠美,2005。水產種苗的生產。科學發展,第385期,32-41。
倪夢麟,範衛明,毛志增,羅海忠,2007。舟山沿海條石鯛人工育苗 技術研究。浙江海洋學院學報,第 26 卷,第2期,143-146。
區又君,李加兒,林鋒,2014。南海區馴養條石鯛親魚的初次性成熟和產卵。南方水產科學,第 10 卷,第 5 期,82-86。
常抗美,毛建平,吳劍峰,張科傑,2005。條石鯛胚胎及仔稚魚的發育。上海水產大學學報,第 14 卷,第 4 期,401-405。
張旭,鐘鴻幹,張海濱,2015。南方地區斑石鯛養殖技術要點。河北漁業,第 2 期,41-42。
張道南,1997。褶皺臂尾輪蟲的培養。餌料生物培養,水產出版社,43-164。
國際漁產資訊,2013。祕魯鯷魚減產導致魚粉價格漲破每公噸 2000美元大關。行政院農委會漁業署,246。
國際漁產資訊,2014。OECD與FAO共同發表3014年漁業及水產品展望。行政院農委會漁業署,264。
黃丁士,林金榮,顏枝麟,劉繼源,陳其林,1986。鮭形石斑魚之人工繁殖-I 種魚的催熟,採卵及胚胎的發育。臺灣省水產試驗所。
黃永春,胡石柳,周澤斌,鄭建輝,2006。鮸狀黃姑魚早期發育特徵及對溫鹽度的適應性。中國海洋大學學報,第36卷,第 1 期101-106。
黃春紅,曾斌,陸東東,羅昌,肖調義,2015。生物學指標在評定養殖鯽肝臟脂肪蓄積程度中的作用。水產學報,第 39 卷,第 1 期。
黃熙弼,2011。飼料中不同蛋白質與油脂含量對條石鯛幼魚成長及體組成之影響。國立臺灣海洋大學水產養殖研究所碩士論文。
彭志蘭,柳敏海,羅海忠,傅榮兵,張鳳萍,毛志增,2010。條石鯛仔魚饑餓試驗及不可逆點的確定。水產科學,第 29 卷,第 3 期,152-155。
溫憑,蔡良候,葉金聰,林向陽,1998。鱸魚親魚海水網箱培育研究。福建水產,第 4 期,26-30。
趙文榮,曾金成,陶申秋,2002。餌料生物學I、II。
鄭安倉,2006。不同能量來源取代魚粉蛋白能量對點帶石斑之效應。國立台灣海洋大學水產養殖學系博士論文。
鄭新鴻,陳子媖,2009。海水魚苗的重要餌料-橈足類。水試專訊,第 26 期,34。
鄧昭彬,2008。龍膽石斑魚苗養成技術之研究。國立高雄師範大學生物科技系碩士論文。
樓允東,1996。組織胚胎學。中國農業出版社。
劉付永忠,王雲新,黃國光,劉曉春,林浩然,2000。斜帶石斑魚親魚強化培育及自然產卵研究。中山大學學報 (自然科學版),第 39 卷,第 6 期,81-85。
劉宗柱,張培軍,宋聚彪,宋現君,1997。海水魚類營養需要特點和配合餌料生產。飼料研究,第 2 期,2-4。
劉迎隆,2014。不同添加量的糖對軍曹魚生長代謝的影響。中國海洋大學水產學院碩士論文。
劉基,詹寶華,蘇展,1986。赤點石斑魚胚胎及仔魚發育的初步觀察。福建水產,第 4 期,16-22。
劉富光,2008。魚類飼料的營養問題與研發策略 (上)。水產試驗所淡水繁養殖研究中心。
劉富光,黃之暘,2012。觀賞水族產業發展與管理。行政院農業委員會水產試驗所。
潘庭雙,程玉冰,侯冠軍,施培松,曹永紅,2008。不同蛋白水平飼料對斑點叉尾鮰生長的影響。飼料研究。第 4 期,56-58。
盧光胤,2016。瓜子鱲種魚繁殖表現評估及大豆粉與發酵豆粉取代魚粉對瓜子鱲幼魚成長之影響。國立台灣海洋大學水產養殖學系碩士論文。
錢雪橋,崔奕波,解綬啟,薛敏,2002。養殖魚類飼料蛋白需要量的研究進展。水生生物學報,第 26 卷,第 4 期,410-416。
謝孟儒,2010。飼料以廚餘粉取代魚粉對吳郭魚、龍膽石斑和點帶石斑成長及體組成的影響。國立台灣海洋大學水產養殖系碩士論文。
羅奇,區又君,艾麗,李加兒,2010。溫度和 pH 對條石鯛幼魚消化酶活力的影響。熱帶海洋學報,第 29 卷,第 5 期,154-158。
蘇惠美,王淑欣,蘇茂森,1998。海水輪蟲培養用餌料之評估。上海水產大學學報 (第三屆世界華人魚蝦營養研討會論文集) 7, 355-359。
蘇惠美,1999。餌料生物之培養與利用。台灣省水產試驗所東港分所出版。
川辺勝俊, 木村ジョンソン, 2007a. 小笠原諸島父島におけるイシガキダイの親魚養成と採卵. 水産増殖 (Aquaculture Science) 55, 135-136.
川辺勝俊, 木村ジョンソン, 2007b. 小笠原諸島父島におけるイシガキダイ人工種苗の養成. 水産増殖 (Aquaculture Science) 55, 65-69.
中村章彥, 椎原久幸, 藤田征作, 和田和彥, 松原中, 山口昭宣, 1988.特産高級魚生産試験 (イシガキダイ) –VI. 鹿児島県水産試験場事業報告書. 昭和62年度, 73.
石橋泰典, 2000. イシダイ・イシガキダイ.海産魚の養殖(熊井英水編), 湊文社, 東京, 157-168.
平野禮次郎, 1974. 現狀と問題點 - 海産魚. 魚類の成熟と採卵. (日本水産學會編) , 恒星社厚生閣, 東京, 13-17.
宮下 盛, 2000. 海産魚類の養殖技術の現状と課題. 海産魚の養殖 (熊井英水編), 湊文社, 東京, 18-20.
原田輝雄, 宮下 盛, 横山達雄, 1979. 養成イシガキダイからの採卵・人工ふ化 - 特にふ化に及ぼす水温および比重の影響. 近畿大学農学部紀要, 12, 43-49.
高野瀬和治, 松原 中, 平原 隆, 脇田敏夫, 吉満 敏, 松元正剛, 1999. 特産高級魚生産試験 (イシガキダイ- I)。鹿児島県栽培漁業センター事業報告書, 60.
高野瀬和治, 松原 中,平原 隆, 脇田敏夫, 中野正明, 北上一男, 2000. 特産高級魚生産試験 (イシガキダイ- I). 鹿児島県栽培漁業センター事業報告書, 61.
高野瀬和治, 松原 中, 外薗博人, 脇田敏夫, 中野正明, 清水則和, 2001. 特産高級魚生産試験 - I (イシガキダイ). 鹿児島県栽培漁業センター事業報告書, 53.
高野瀬和治, 松原 中, 外薗博人, 中野正明, 野元 聡, 清水則和, 2002. 特産高級魚生産試験 - I (イシガキダイ). 鹿児島県栽培漁業センター事業報告書, 50.
冨安正藏, 藤田征作, 高野瀬和治, 竹丸 巌, 松原 中, 水野 豊, 1994. 特産高級魚種苗生産試験 (イシガキダイ- XIII). 鹿児島 県栽培漁業センター事業報告書, 67.
冨安正藏, 藤田征作, 高野瀬和治, 竹丸 巌, 松原 中, 椎原久幸, 1995. 特産高級魚生産試験 (イシガキダイ- XIV). 鹿児島県栽培漁業センター事業報告書, 21-24.
道津喜衛, 夏苅 豊, 1967. イシガキダイおよびイシダイの体色はん紋にあらわれた第2次性徴. 長崎大学水産学部研究報告, 1-7.
愛媛県水産試験場, 1994. イシガキダイの養殖マニュアル. 水産庁, (社) 全国かん水養魚協会, 愛媛県, 35.
熊井英水, 2005. イシダイ, イシガキダイおよびその交雑種イシガキイシダイ. 海水魚 (熊井英水編), 恒星社厚生閣, 東京, 205-223.
織田康平, 松原 中, 脇田敏夫, 上村健, 松元則男, 松元正剛, 2000.特産高級魚生産試験 (イシガキダイ) - XIX. 鹿児島県栽培漁業センター事業報告書.
藤田征作, 高野瀬和治, 中村章彦, 松原 中, 成尾隼人, 西原拓夫, 1983.特産高級魚種苗生産試験 (イシガキダイ) - I. 鹿児島県水産試験場事業報告書, 昭和57年度, 65.
藤田征作, 松原 中, 織田康平, 脇田敏夫, 松元則男, 松元正剛, 1999. 特産高級魚生産試験 (イシガキダイ) - XⅧ. 鹿児島県栽培漁業センター事業報告書.
Adrian, E., Shim, K.F., 1997. Growth response of juvenile Barbodes altus fed isocaloric diets with variable protein levels. Aquaculture 158, 321-329.
Ahlstrom, E.H., Moser, H.G., 1980. Characters useful in identification of pelagic marine fish eggs. Reports of California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations 21, 121-131.
Akand, A.M., Mian, M.I., Haque, M.M., 1989. Effect of dietary protein level on growth, feed conversion and body composition of Shingi (Heteropneustes fossilis Bloch). Aquaculture 77, 175-180.
Akiyama, D.M., Dominy, W.G., Lawrence, A.L., 1991. Penaeid shrimp nutrition for the commercial feed industry. American Soybean Association.
Akiyama, T., Arai. S., Murao, T., Nose, T., 1985. Threonine, histidine and lysine requirements of chum salmon fry. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 51, 635-639.
Alam, M.S., Watanabe, W.O., Carroll, P.M., 2008. Dietary Protein Requirements of Juvenile Black Sea Bass, Centropristis striata. J. World Aquacult. Soc. 39, 656-663.
Alam, M.S., Watanabe, W.O., Carroll, P.M., Rezek, T., 2009. Effect of dietary protein and lipid levels on growth performance and body composition of black sea bass Centropristis striata (Linnaeus 1758) during grow-out in a pilot-scale marine recirculating system. Aquac. Res. 40, 442-449.
Alava, V.R., and Lim, C., 1983. The quantitative dietary requirements of Penaeus monodom juveniles in a controlled environment. Aquaculture 30, 53-61.
Anderson, R.J., Kienholz, E.W., Flickinger, S.A., 1981. Protein requirements of smallmouth bass and largemouse bass. J. Nutr. 111, 1085-1097.
Andrews, J.W., Sick, I.V., and Baptist, G.J., 1972. The influence of dietary protein and energy levels on growth and survival of penaeid shrimp. Aquaculture 1, 341-347.
AOAC (Association of Official Analysis Chemists), 1995. Official Method of Analysis. 16 th ed. AOAC, Arlington, VA.
Applebaum S.L., Ronnestad I., 2004. Absorption, assimilation and catabolism of individual free amino acids by larval Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). Aquaculture 230, 313-322.
Arzel, J., Métailler, R., Kerleguer, C., Delliou, H.L., Guillaume, J., 1995. The protein requirement of brown trout (Salmo trutta) fry. Aquaculture 130, 67-78.
Baker, D.H., 1986. Problems and potfalls in animal experiments designed to establish dietary requirements for essential nutrients. J. Nutr. 116, 2339-2349.
Balazs, G.H., 1973. Preliminary studies on preparation and feeding of crustacean diet. Aquaculture 2, 369-377.
Bell, J.G., 1998. Current aspects of lipid nutrition in fish farming. In: K.D. Black, A.D. Pickering (Eds.) Biology of farmed fish. Sheffield Academic, Sheffield (UK), 114-145.
Biswas, B.K., Ji, S.C., Biswas, A.K., Seoka, M., Kim, Y.S., Kawasaki, K.I., Takii, K., 2009. Dietary protein and lipid requirements for the Pacific Bluefin tuna Thunnus orientalis juvenile. Aquaculture 288, 114-119.
Blaxter, J.H.S., Hempel., 1963. The influence of egg size on herring larae (Clupea harengus L.). J. Cons. Int. Explo. Mer 28, 211-240.
Blaxter, J.H.S., 1986. Development of sense organs and behavior in teleost larvae with special reference to feeding and predator avoidance. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 115, 98-114.
Bowen, S.H., 1987. Dietary protein requirements - A reassessment. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 44, 1995-2001.
Bromage, N., Cumaranatunga, R., 1988. Egg production in the rainbow trout. Rec. Adv. Aquacult. 3, 63-138.
Brooks, S., Tyker, C. R., Sumpter, J. P., 1997. Egg quality in fish: what makes a good egg? Rev. Fish Biol. Fisheries 7, 387-416.
Brown, P.B., Dabrowski, K., Garling, D.L., 1996. Nutrition and feeding of yellow perch (Perca flavescens). J. Appl. Ichthyol. 12, 171-174.
C. Dong, S. Weng, Y. Luo, M. Huang, H. Ai, Z. Yin, J. He., 2010. A new marine megalocytivirus from spotted knifejaw, Oplegnathus punctatus, and its pathogenicity to freshwater mandarinfish, Siniperca chuatsi. Virus. Res. 147, 98-106.
Chen, H.Y., Chen, L.L., 1986. The experiment for the development of artificial diet for the grouper Epinephelus salmonids. In: Chuang J.L. and Shiau S.Y. (Eds.), Research and development of Aquatic Animal Feed in Taiwan. J. Fish. Soc. Taiwan 1, 95-100.
Chen, H.Y., Tsai, J.C., 1994. Optimal dietary protein level for the growth of juvenile grouper, Epinephelus malabaricus, fed semipurified diets. Aquaculture 119, 256-271.
Chen, J.M., Ye, J.Y., Pan, Q., Shen, B.Q., Wang, Y.H., 2010. Effect of dietary protein levels on growth performance and whole body composition of summerling and winterling spotted barbell (Hemibarbus maculates Beeker). Aquac. Nutr. 16, 412-418.
Cheng, Z.J., Hardy, R.W., Ursy, J.L., 2003. Effects of lysine supplementation in plant protein-base diets on the performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients. Aquaculture 215, 225-265.
Chong, A.S.C., Hashim, R., Ali, A.B., 2000. Dietary protein requirements for discus (Symphysodon spp.). Aquac. Nutr. 6, 275-278.
Chou, R.L., Su, M.S., Chen, H.Y., 2001. Optimal dietary protein and lipid levels for juvenile cobia (Rachycentron canadum). Aquaculture 193, 81-89.
Chou, Y.H., Liou, C.H., Lin, S.C., Wu, C.H., 1993. Effects of highly unsaturated fatty acids in broodstock diets on spawning and egg quality of black porgy (Acanthopagrus schlegeli). J. Fish. Soc. Taiwan 20, 167-176.
Clark, A.E., Watanabe, W.O., Olla, B.L., Wicklund, R.I., 1990. Growth, feed conversion and protein utilization of Florida red tilapia fed isocaloric diets with different protein levels in seawater pools. Aquaculture 88, 75-85.
Clarke, W.C., Higgs, A.D., Markert, J.R., Shelbourn, J.E., Castledine, A.J., 1982. Effect of varing dietary protein: lipid ratios on growth and body composition of coho salmon (Oncorynchus kisutch) reared at different temperatures. Can. Data Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 373, 18.
Clarke, W.C., Higgs, A.D., 1984. Influence of varying dietary protein: lipid ratios and water temperature of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorynchus kisutch). Proc. Int. Symp. Feeding Nutrition in Fish, Aberdeen, Scotland, 10-13.
Corraze, G., 2001. Lipid nutrition. In: Guillaume, J., Kaushik, S., Bergot, P., Metailler, R., (Eds), Nutrition and Feeding of Fish and Crustaceans. Praxis press, Chichester, UK, 111-131.
Craik J.C. A., Harvey S. M., 1984. Biochemical changes occurring during final maturation of eggs of some marine and freshwater teleosts. J. Fish Biol. 24, 599-610.
Dabrowski, K., 1977. Protein requirements of grass carp fry (Ctenopharyngodon idella Val.). Aquaculture 12, 63-73.
De Assis J.M.F., Carvalho R.F., Barbosa L., Agostinho‚ C.A., Dal Pai-Silva‚ M., 2004. Effects of incubation temperature on muscle morphology and growth in the pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus). Aquaculture 237, 251-267.
De la Higuera M., García-Gallego M., Sanz A., Hidalgo M.C., Suárez M.D., 1989. Utilization of dietary protein by the eel (Anguilla anguilla): optimum dietary protein level. Aquaculture 79, 53-61.
De long, D.C., Halver, J.E., Mertz, E.T., 1958. Nutrition of salmoniod fishes. VI. Protein requirements of chinook salmon at two water temperatures. J. Nutr. 65, 589-599.
De Pauw, N and G. Pruder, 1984. Use and production of microalgae as food in aquaculture. In M. Bilio, H. Rosenthal and G.J. Sindermann (eds.), Realism in aquaculture: achievements, constraints, perspectives.
Deng, D.F., Refstie, S., Hemre, G.I., Crocker, C.E., Chen, H.Y., Cech, J.J., Hung, S.S.O., 2000. A new technique of feeding repeated sampling of blood and continuous collection of urine in white sturgeon. Fish Physiol. Biochem. 22, 191-197.
Dong, C., Weng, S., Luo, Y., Huang, M., Ai, J., Yin, Z and He, J., 2010. A new megalocytivirus from spotted knifejaw, Oplegnathus punctatus, and pathogenicity to freshwater mandarinfish, Sinoperca chuatsi. Virus Res. 147, 98-106.
Dosoretz, C., Degani, D., 1987. Effect of fat-rich diet and temperature on growth and body composition of European eels (Anguilla anguilla). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 87A, 733-736.
Egusa, S., Miyazaki, T., Shiomitsu, T., Fujita., S., 1987. Epitheliocystis-like disease occurred among hatchery-reared fly of Oplegnathus punctatus. Fish. Pathol. 22, 33-34.
El-Sayed, A.M., Teshima, S., 1992. Protein and energy requirements of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fry. Aquaculture 103, 55-63.
Essner, J.J., Vogan, K.J., Wagner, M.K., Tabin, C.J., Yost, H.J., Brueckner, M., 2002. Conserved function for embryonic nodal cilia. Nature 418, 37-38.
Essner, J.J., Amack, J.D., Nyholm, M.K., Harris, E.B., Yost, H.J., 2005. Kupffer’s vesicle is a ciliated organ of asymmetry in the zebrafish embryo that initiates left-right development of the brain, heart and gut. Development 132, 1247-1260.
Falk-Petersen I.B., 2005. Comparative organ differentiation during early life stages of marine fish. Fish & Shellfish Immunolgy 19, 397-412.
Farkas, T., Csenger, I., Majoros, F., Olah., 1977. Metabolism of fatty acids in fish. I. Development of essential fatty acid deficiency in the carp, Cyprinus carpio L. Aquaculture 11, 147-147.
Fiogbe, E.D., Kestemont, P., Melard, C., Micha, J.C., 1996. The effects of dietary crude protein on growth of the Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis. Aquaculture 144, 239-249.
Folch, J., Lee, M., Stanely, C.H.S., 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification total lipids from animal tissue. J. Biol. Chem. 226, 497-509.
Fournier-Betz, V., Quentel, C., Lamour, F., LeVen, A., 2000. Immunocytochemical detection of Ig-positive cells in blood, lymphoid organs and the gut associated lymphoid tissue of the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Fish & Shellfish Immunology 10, 187-202.
Frank, H.H., 1998. Conditioning, spawing and rearing of fish with emphasis on marine clownfish. Aquarium Sciences & Conservation 2, 43-44.
Fulks, W., Main, K., 1991. The design and operation of commercial scale live feeds production systems. In: Fulks, W., Main, K.L. (Eds), Rotifer and Microalgae Culture Systems. The Oceanic Institute, Honolulu, HI, 3-52.
Furuhara, O., Yamamoto, K., Izumi, W., Ito, K., 1980. Basic study on deformation of seeding of marine fish-1. Abnormalities of vertebrae and color patterns of the parrot fish, Oplegnathus fasciatus. Bull. Nansei Natl. Fish. Res. Inst. 12, 21-30.
Furuichi, M., Yone, Y., 1980. Effect of dietary dextrin levels on the growth and feed efficiency, the chemical composition of liver and dorsal muscle, and the absorption of dietary rotein and dextrin in fishes. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 46, 225-229.
Furuita, H., Tanaka, H., Yamamoto, T., Shiraishi, M., Takeuchi, T., 2000. Effects of n-3 HUFA levels in broodstock diet on the reproductive performance and egg and larval quality of the Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Aquaculture 187, 387-398.
Gao, Y., Lv, J., Lin, Q., Li, L., 2005. Effect of protein levels on growth, feed utilization, nitrogen and energy budget in juvenile southern flounder, Paralichthys lethostigma. Aquac. Nutr. 11, 427-433.
Garling, D.L., Wilson, R.P., 1976. Optimum dietary to energy ratio for channel catfish fingerling, Ictalurus punctatus. J. Nutr. 106, 1368-1375.
Gavlik, S., Albino, M., Specker, J.L., 2002. Metamorphosis in summer flunder: manipulation of thyroid status to synchronize settling behavior, growth and development. Aquaculture 203, 359-373.
Gisbert, E., Piedrahita, R.H., Conklin, D.E., 2004. Ontogenetic development of the digestive system in California halibut (Paralichthys californicus) with notes on feeding practices. Aquaculture 232, 455-470.
Grisdale-Helland, B., Shearer, K., Gatlin, D., Helland, S., 2008. Effects of dietary protein and lipid levels on growth, protein digestibility, feed utilization and body composition of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Aquaculture 283, 156-162.
Grisdale-Helland, S.J., Helland, B., 1997. Replacement of protein by fat and carbohydrate in diets for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at the end of the freshwater stage. Aquaculture 152, 167-180.
Gunasekera, R.M., Silva, S.S.D., Collins, R.A., Gooley, G., Ingram, B.A., 2000. Effect of dietary protein level on growth and food utilization in juvenile Murray cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii). Aquac. Res. 31, 181-187.
Helland, B., Grisdale-Helland, S.J., 1998. Growth, feed utilization and body composition of juvenile Atlantic halibut (Hioglossus hippoglossus) fed diets differing in the ratio between the macronutrients. Aquaculture 166, 49-56.
Heming, T.A., Buddington, R.K., 1988. Yolk absorption in embryonic and larval fishes. In: W.S. Hoar and D.J. Randall (Eds.), Fish Physiology, Vol XI, Academic Press, London, 407-446.
Hemre, G.I., Sandnes, K., Lie, Ø., Torrissen, Ø., Waagbø, R., 1995. Carbohydrate nutrition in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., growth and feed utilization. Aquac. Res. 26, 149-154.
Hernandez, M., Takeuchi, T., Watanabe, T., 1995. Effect of dietary energy sources on the utilization of protein by Colossoma macropomum fingerlings. Fish. Sci. 61, 507-511.
Hsieh, H.J., Hsien, Y.L., Jeng, M.S., Tsai, W.S., Su, W.C., Chen, C.A., 2008. Tropical fishes killed by the cold. Coral Reefs 27, 599-599.
Hubbs, C.L., 1943. Terminology of early stages of fishes. Copeia, 260-260.
Ikeda T., Chuma S., Okiyama M., 1991. Identification of pelagic eggs of marine fishes by rearing method. Jpn. J. Ichthyol. 38, 199-206.
Immanuel, G., Palavesam, A., Petermarian, M., 2001. Effects of feeding lipid enrich Artemia nauplii on survival, growth, fatty acids and stress resistance of postlarvae penaeus indicus. Asian Fish. Sci. 14, 377-388.
Inui, Y., Miwa, S., 1985. Thyroid hormone induces metamorphosis of flunder larvae. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 60, 450-454.
Izquierdo, M.S., Fernández-Palacios. H., Tacon, A.G.J., 2001. Effect of broodstock nutrition on reproductive performance of fish. Aquaculture 197, 25-42.
Jantrarotai, W., Sitasit, P., Jantraorai, P., Viputhanumas, T., Srabua, P., 1998. Protein and energy levels for maximum growth, dets utilization, yield of edible flesh and protein sparing of hybrid Clarias catfish (Clarias microcephalus × Claria gariepinus). J. World Aquacult. Soc. 29, 281-289.
Jauncey, K., 1982. The effects of varing dietary protein level on the growth, food conversion, protein utilization and body composition of juvenile tilapias (Sarotherodon mossambicus). Aquaculture 27, 43-54.
Jobling, M., Wandsvik, M., 1983. Quantitive protein requirement of arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.). J. Fish Biol. 22, 705-712.
Kaushik, S.J., Médale, F., 1994. Energy requirements, utilization and dietary supply to salmonids. Aquaculture 124, 81-97.
Kaushik, S.J., 2001. Carbohydrate nutrition: importance and limits of carbohydrate supplies. In: Guillaume, J., Kaushik, S., Bergot, P., Metailler, R. (Eds), Nutrition and Feeding of Fish and Crustaceans. Praxis Press, Chichester, UK, 131-144.
Kendall, A.W. Jr., E.H. Ahlstrom., H.G. Moser., 1984. Early life history of fishes and their characters. Ontogeny & systematics of fishes, 11-22.
Khan, M.S., Ang, K.J., Ambak, M.A., Saad, C.R., 1993. Optimum dietary protein requirement of a Malaysian freshwater catfish, Mystus nemurus. Aquaculture 112, 227-235.
Khan, M.A., Jafri, A.K., Chadha, N.K., 2005. Effects of varing dietary protein levels on growth, reproductive performance, body and egg composition of rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton). Aquac. Nutr. 11, 11-17.
Kimmel, C. B., Ballard, W.W., Kimmel, S.R., Ullmann, B., Schilling, T. F., 1995. Stages of embryonic development of the zebrafish. Dev. Dyn. 203, 253-310.
Kim, J.D., Lall, S.P., Milley, J.E., 2001. Dietary protein requirements of juvenile haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus L.). Aquac. Res. 32, 1-7.
Kim, K.I., 1997. Re-evaluation of protein and amino acid raquirements of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 151, 3-7.
Kim, K.W., Wang, X.J., Bai, S.C., 2001. Reevaluation od the optimum protein level for the maximum growth of juvenile Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli (Hilgendorf). Aquac. Res. 32, 110-125.
Kim, K.W., Wang, X.J., Bai, S.C., 2002. Optimum dietary protein level for maximum growth of juvenile olive flounder Paralichyhts olivaceus. Aquac. Res. 33, 673-679.
Kim, K.W., Wang, X.J., Bai, S.C., 2003. Reevaluation of the Dietary Protein Requirement of Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. J.World Aquacult. Soc. 34, 133-139.
Kim, K.W., Wang, X.J., Han, K., Kang, J.C., Bai, S.C., 2004. Optimum dietary protein level and protein-to-energy ratio for growth of juvenile Korean rockfish Sebastes schlegeli. J. World Aquacult. Soc. 35, 305-314.
Kim, K.W., Mohammad, M., Kim, K.D., Han, S.H., Yun, H., Lee, S., Bai, S.C., 2016. Re-evaluation of the optimum dietary protein level for maximum growth of juvenile barred knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus reared in cages. Fish. Aquatic Sci. 19, 24.
Kiron, V., Watanabe, T., Fukuda, H., Okamoto, N., Takeuchi, T., 1995. Protein nutrition and degense mechanisms in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 111A, 351-359.
Kitajima, C., Arakawa, T., Oowa, F., Fujita, S., Imada, O., Watanabe, T., Yone, Y., 1980, Dietary value for red sea bream larvae of rotifer Brachionus plicatilis cultured with new type of yeast. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 46, 43-46.
Kjorsvik, E., Mangor-Jensen, A., Holmefjord, I., 1990. Egg quality in fishes. Adv. Mar. Biol. 26, 71-113.
Kohno, H., Diani, S., Sunyoto, P., Slamet, B. and Imanto, P., 1990. Early development events associated with changeover of nutrient sources in the grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus larvae. Bull. Pen. Perikanan, 51-64.
Kohno, H., Ordonio-Aguilar, R.S., Ohno, A., Taki, Y., 1997. Why is grouper larval rearing difficult ?: an approach from the development of the feeding apparatus in early stage larvae of the grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Ichthyol. Res. 44, 267-274.
Kreiling, J.A., Prabhat, Williams, G., Creton, R., 2007. Analysis of kupffer’s vesicle in zebrafish embryos using a cave automated virtual environment. Dev. Dyn. 236,1963-1969.
Kupffer, C., 1868. Beobachtungea uber die Entwicklung der Knochenfische. Arch. Mikrob. Anat. 4, 209-272.
Kureshy, N., Davis, D.A., 2002. Protein requirement for maintenance and maximum weight gain for the Pacific shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture 204, 125-143.
Laining, A., Usman., Kabangnga, N., 2004. The effect of dietary protein level on apparent digestibility coefficient and biological performances of tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) raised at floating net cages. Journal Penelitian Perkanan Indonesia 9, 29-34.
Lee, D.J., Sinnhuber, R.O., 1972. Lipid requirements. In: Halver, J.E. (Eds.), Fish Nutrition, Academic Press. New York, 145-180.
Lee, H.Y., Cho, K.C., Lee, J.E., Yang, S.G., 2001. Dietary protein requirement of juvenile giant croaker, Nibea japonica Temminck and Schlegel. Aquac. Res. 32, 112-118.
Lee, J.Y., Kang, J.Y., Lee, S.M., Kim, I.B., 1993. Protein requirements of the Korean rockfish Sebastes schlegeli. Aquaculture 6, 13-27.
Lee, S.M., Park, C.S., Bang, I.C., 2002. Dietary protein requirement of young Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus fed isocaloric diets. Fish. Sci. 68, 158-164.
Léger, P.H., Bengtson, D.A., Simpson, K.L., Sorgeloos, P., 1986. The use and nutritional value of Artemia as a food source. Oceanogr. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev. 24, 521-623.
Lemos, D., Ezquerea, J.M., Garcia-Carreno, F.L., 2000. Protein digestion in penaeid shrimp: digestive proteinases, proteinase inhibitors and feed digestibility. Aquaculture 186, 89-105.
Li, M., Lovell, R.T., 1992. Effect of dietary protein concentration on nitrogenous waste in intensively fed catfish ponds. J. World Aquacult. Soc. 23, 122-127.
Liang, M.Q., Lu, Q.K., Qian, C., Zheng, K.K., Wang, X.X., 2014. Effects of dietary n-3 to n-6 fatty acid ratios on spawning performance and larval quality in tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis. Aquac. Nutr. 20, 79-89.
Lie, O., Lied, E., Lambertsen, G., 1988. Feed optimization in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua): fat versus protein content in the feed. Aquaculture 68, 333-341.
Lilianna Solnica-Krezel, 2005. Conserved Patterns of Cell Movements during Vertebrate Gastrulation. Curr. Boil. 15, 213-228.
Lim, C., Sukhawongs, S., Pascual, F.P., 1979. A preliminary study on the protein requirements of Chanos chanos (Forskal) fry in a controlled environment. Aquaculture 17, 195-201.
Lim, C., 1996. Substitution of cottonseed meal for marine animal protein in diets for Penaeus vannamei. J. World Aquacult. Soc. 27, 402-409.
Lim, L.C., 1993. Larviculture of the greasy grouer Epinephelus tauvina and brownmarbled grouer E. fuscoguttatus in Singapore. J. World Aquacult. Soc. 24, 262-274.
Lipton, D.W., Kim, D.H., 2007. Assessing the Economic Viability of Offshore Aquaculture in Korea: An Evaluation Based on Rock Bream, Oplegnathus fasciatus, Production. J. World Aquacult. Soc. 38, 506-515.
Liu, Y., Feng, L., Jiang, J., Liu, Y., Zhou, X.Q., 2009. Effects of dietary protein levels on the growth performance, digestive capacity and amino acid metabolism of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). Aquac. Res. 40, 1073-1082.
Lovell, R.T., 1996. Feed deprivation increases resistance of channel catfish to bacterial infection. Aquacult. Mag. 22, 65-67.
Lund, E.D., Plac, A.R., Sullivan, C.V., 1995. Lipid contents of female striped bass plasma andovaries exhibit seasonal changes associated with oocyte maturation. Fish symposium, Austin, TX (USA), 371.
Luo, L., Ai, L.C., Li, T.L., Xue, M., Wang, J., Li, W.T., Wu, X.F., Liang ,X.F., 2015. The impact of dietary DHA/EPA ratio on spawning performance, egg and offspring quality in Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baeri). Aquaculture 437, 140-145.
Luo, Z., Liu, Y.J., Mai, K.S., Tian, L.X., Liu, D.H., Tan, X.Y., 2004. Optimal dietary protein requirement of grouper Epinephelus coioides juveniles fed isoenergetic diets in floating net cages. Aquac. Nutr. 10, 247-252.
Lønning, S., Køjrsvik, E., Falk-petersen, I.B., 1988. A comparative study of pelagic and demersal eggs from common marine fishes in Northern Norway. Sarsia 73, 49-60.
Marte, C.L., Quinitio, G., Caberoy, N., 1994. Spontaneous spawning of sex-inversed grouer Epinephelus coioides administered 17-alpha methyl-testosterone implants. Fourth Asian Fisheries Forum 16-20 Beijing, China, 5.
Martinez-Cordova, L.R., Campana-Torres, A., and Porchas-Cornejo, M.A., 2002. The effects of variation in protein level on the culture of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in low-water exchange experimental ponds. Aquac. Res. 33, 995-998.
Mazorra, C., Bruce, M., Bell, J.G., Davie, A., Alorend, E., Jordan, N., Rees, J.F., Papanikos, N., Porter, M.J.R., Bromage, N.R., 2003. Dietary lipid enhancement of broodstock reproductive performance and egg and larval quality in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus). Aquaculture 227, 21-33.
McGurk, M.D., 1984. Effects of delayed feeding and temperature on the
age of irreversible starvation and on the rates of growth and mortality of Pacific herring larvae. Mar. Biol. 84, 13-26.
Meyer, G., Fracalossi, D.M., 2004. Protein requirement of jundia fingerlings, Rhamdia quelen, at two dietary energy concentrations. Aquaculture 240, 331-343.
Miller, C.L., Davis, D.A., Phelps, R.P., 2005. The effects of dietary protein and lipid on growth and body composition of juvenile and sub-adult red snapper, Lutjanus compechanus (Poey, 1860). Aquac. Res. 36, 52-60.
Millikin, M.R., 1982. Effects of dietary protein concentration on growth, feed efficiency, and body composition of age-0 striped bas. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 111, 373-378.
Millikin, M.R., 1983. Interactive effects of dietary protein and lipid on growth and protein utilization of age-0 striped bass. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 112, 85-193.
Miwa, S., Yamano, K., Inui, Y., 1992. Thyroid hormone stimulates gastric development in flunder larvae during metamorphosis. J. Exp. Zool. 261, 424-430.
Miwa, S., Inui, Y., 1991. Thtroid hormone stimulates the shift of erythrocyte populations during metamorphosis of the flunder. J. Exp. Zool. 259, 222-228.
Mohanta, K.N., S.N. Mohanty., J.K. Jena., N.P. Sahu., B. Patro., 2009. Carbohydrate level in the diet of silver barb, Puntius gonionotus (Bleeker) fingerlings effect on growth, nutrient utilization and whole body composition. Aquac. Res. 40, 927-937.
Monentcham, S.E., Pouomogne, V., Kestemont, P., 2010. Influence of dietary protein levels on growth performance and body composition of African bonytongue fingerlings, Heterotis niloticus (Cuvier, 1829). Aquac. Nutr. 16, 144-152.
Moore, B.J., Hung, S.S.O., Medrano, J.F., 1988. Protein requirement of hatchery-produced juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus), Aquaculture 71, 235-245.
Morris, P.C. 2001. The Effects of Nutrition on the Composition of Farmed Fish, in Farmed Fish Quality. In: Kestin, S.C., Warris, P.D. (Eds.), Fishing News Books, London, 161-179.
Mourente, G., Odriozola, J.M., 1990. Effects of broodstock diets on lipid lipid classes and their fatty acid composition in eggs of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Fish Physiol. Biochem. 8, 93-101.
Mundy, B.C., 2005 Checklist of the fishes of the Hawaiian Archipelago, Bishop Mus. Bull. Zoo. 6, 1-704.
Murugan, G., Nelis, H.J., Dumont, H.J., De Leenheer, A.P., 1995. Cis- and all-Trans-canthaxanthin levels in fairy shrimps. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 110B, 799-803.
Nakabo, T., 2002. Fishes of Japan with Pictorial Keys to the Species, English Edition. Tokai University Press, Japan, 956.
National Research Council (NRC), 1993. Nutrient Requirements of Fish. National Academy Press, Washington, DC, 114.
Naviner, M., Bergé, J.P., Durand, P., Le-Bris, H., 1999. Anti-bacterial activity of the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum against aquacultural pathogens. Aquaculture 174, 15-24.
Ng, W.K., Soon, S.C., Hashim. R., 2001. The dietary protein requirement of a bagird catfish, Mystus nemurus (Cuvier and Valenciennes), determined using semipurified diets of varing protein level. Aquac. Nutr. 7, 45-51.
Ng, W.K., Abdullah, N., De Silva, S.S., 2008. The dietary protein requirement of the Malaysian mahseer, Tor tambroides (Bleeker), and the lake od protein-sparing action by dietary lipid. Aquaculture 284, 201-206.
O'' Connell C.P., 1981. Development of organ systems in the northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax, and other teleosts. Amer. Zool. 21, 429-446.
Ogino, C., Saito, K., 1970. Protein nutrition in fish-I. The utilization of dietary protein by young carp. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 36, 250-254.
Øie, G., Reitan, K.I., Olsen, Y., 1994. Comparison of rotifer culture quality with yeast plus oil and algal-based cultivation diets. Aquacult. Intern. 2, 225-238.
Osse, J.W.M., Boogaart, van den J.G.M., 1995. Fish larvae, development, allometric growth, and the aquatic environment. ICES Marine Science Symposia, 21-34.
Oliva-Teles, A., 2000. Recent advance in European sea bass and gilthead sea bream nutrition. Aquacult. Intern. 8, 477-492.
Ozorio, R.O.A., Valente, L.M.P., Pousao-Ferreira, P., Oliva-Teles, A., 2006. Growth performance and body composition of white seabream (Diplodus sargus) juvenile fed diets with different protein and lipid levels. Aquac. Res. 37, 255-263.
Padrós, F., Crespo, S., 1996. Ontogeny of the lymphoid organs in the turbot Scophthalmus maximus: a light and electron microscope study. Aquaculture 144, 1-16.
Page, J.W., Andrews, J.W., 1973. Interactions of dietary levels of protein and energy on channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). J. Nutr. 103, 1339-1346.
Pandian, T.J., 1989. Protein requirements of fish and prawns cultured in Asia. In: De Silva, S. (Ed.), Fish Nutrition Research in Asia Proceedings of The Third Asian Fish Nutrition Network Meeting. Asian Fisheries Society, Manila, 11-22.
Parazo, M.M., 1990. Effect of dietary protein and energy level on growth, protein utilization and carcass composition of rabbitfish, Siganus guttatus. Aquaculture 86, 41-49.
Pavlov, D.A., 1986. Developing the biotechnology of culturing White Sea wolffish, Anarhichas lupus marisalbi. J. Ichthyol. 26,156-169.
Peres, H., Oliva-Teles, A., 1999. Effect of dietary lipid level on growth performance and feed utilization by European sea bass juvenile (Dicentrarchus labrax). Aquaculture 179, 325-334.
Perez-Casanova, J.C., Murray, H.M., Gallant, J.W., Ross, N.W., Douglas, S.E., Johnson, S.C., 2006. Development of the digestive capacity in larvae of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). Aquaculture 251, 377-401.
Peter, R., 2007. The functional ontogeny of the teleost gill: Which comes first, gas or ion exchange. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 148A, 732-742.
Phillips Jr., A.M., Tunison, A.V., Brockway, D.R., 1948. Utilization of carbohydrates by trout. Fish. Res. Bull. 11, 3-44.
Portz, L., Cyrino, J.E.P., Martino, R.C., 2001. Growth and body composition of juvenile Largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides in response to dietary protein and energy levels. Aquac. Nutr. 7, 247-254.
Ren, M.C., Ai, Q.H., Mai, K.S., Ma, H.M., Wang, X.J., 2011. Effect of dietary carbohydrate level on growth performance, body composition, apparent digestibility coefficient and digestive enzyme activities of juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum L. Aquac. Res. 42, 1467-1475.
Reimer, G., 1982, The influence of diet on the digestive enzymes of the amazon fish matrincha, Brycon melanopterus. J. Fish Biol.21,637-642.
Sá, R., Pousão-Ferreira, P., Oliva-Teles, A., 2006. Effect of dietary protein and lipid levels on growth and feed utilization of white sea bream (Diplodus sargus) juveniles. Aquac. Nutr. 12, 310-321.
Salhi, M., Bessonart, M., Chediak, G., Bellagamba, M., Camevia, D., 2004. Growth, feed utilization and body composition of black catish, Rhamdia quelen, fry fed diets comtaining diferent protein and lipids levels. Aquaculture 231, 435-444.
Santiago, C.B., Reyes, O.S., 1991. Optimum dietary level for growth fo bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) fry in a static water system. Aquaculture 93, 155-165.
Santinha, P.J.M., Gomes, E.F.S., Coimbra, J.O., 1996. Effets of protein level of the diet on digestibility and growth of gilthead sea bream, Sparus auratus L. Aquac. Nutr. 2, 81-87.
Sargent, J.R., 1995. Origins and functions of lipids in fish eggs: nutritional implications. In: Bromage, N.R., Roberts, R.J. (Eds.), Broodstock Management and Egg and Larval Quality. Blackwell Science, Oxford, 353-372.
Sargent, J.R., Tocher, D.R., Bell, J.G., 2002. The lipids. In: Halver, J.E., Hardy, R.W. (Eds.), Fish Nutrition, Academic Press, London, 182-257.
Satpathy, B.B., Mukherjee, D., Ray, A.K., 2003. Effects od dietary protein and lipid levels on growth, feed conversion and body composition in rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton), fingerlings. Aquac. Nutr. 9, 17-24.
Serrano, J.A., Nematipour, G.R., Gatlin, D.M., 1992. Dietary protein requirement of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and relative use of dietary carbon hydrate and lipid. Aquaculture 101, 283-291.
Schuchardt, D., Vergara, J.M., Fernández-Palacios, H., Kalinowski, C.T., Hernández Cruz, C.M., Izquierdo, M.S., Robaina, L., 2008. Effects of different dietary protein and lipid levels on growth, feed utilization and body composition of red porgy (Pagrus pagrus) fingerlings. Aquac.Nutr. 14, 1-9.
Schulz, C., Böhm, M., Wirth, M., Rennert, B., 2007. Effect of dietary protein on growth, feed conversion, body composition and survival of pike perch fingerlings (Sander lucioperca). Aquac. Nutr. 13, 373-380.
Shearer, K.D., 1994. Factors affecting the proximate composition of cultured fishes with emphasis on salmonids. Aquaculture 119, 63-88.
Shearer, K.D., 2001. The effect of diet composition and feeding regime on the proximate composition of farmed fishes. In: Kestin, S.C., Earriss, P.D. (Eds.), Farmed Fish Quality, Fishing New Book, Oxford, 31-41.
Shiau, S.Y., Lan, C.W., 1996. Optimum dietary protein level and protein to energy ratio for growth of grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus). Aquaculture 145, 259-266.
Shikata, T., Kheyyali, D., Shimeno, S., 1993. Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in fish. XV. Effect of feeding rates on hepatopancreas enzymes and body composition in common carp. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish 59, 835-839.
Shimada, Y., K. Nokubi., S. Yamamoto., O. Murata., H. Kumai., 2009. Reproduction between Oplegnathus fasciatus and O. punctatus, and fertility of their interspecies. Fish. Sci. 75, 521-523.
Shimeno, S., Hosokawa, H., Takeda, M., Kajiyama, H., 1980. Effects of calorie to protein ratios in formulated diet on the growth, feed conversion and body composition of young yellow-tail. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 46, 1083-1087.
Shimeno, S., 1991. Yellowtail, Seriola quiqueradiata. In: Wilson, R.P.(Ed.), Handbook of nutrient requirement of finfish. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 181-191.
Shimeno, S., Mima, T., Imanaga, T., Tomaru, K., 1993. Inclusion of combination of defatted soybean meal, meat meal, and corn gluten meal to yellowtail diets. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 59, 1889-1895.
Shuang, F; Luo, Y.W., Xiong, X.P., Weng, S.P., Li, Y.M., He, J.G., Dong, C.F., 2013. Virions proteins of an RSIV-type megalocytivirus from spotted knifejaw Oplegnathus punctatus (SKIV-ZJ07). Virology 437, 89-99.
Shiau, S.Y., Chuang, J.L., Sun, C.L., 1987. Inclusion of soybean meal in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus) diets at two protein levels. Aquaculture 65, 251-261.
Shiau, S,Y., Huang, S.L., 1989. Optimal dietary protein level for hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus) reared in seawater. Aquaculture 81, 119-127.
Silva, P., Andrade, C.A.P., Timoteo, V.M.F.A., Rocha, E., Valente, L.M.P., 2006. Dietary protein, growth, nutrient utilization and body composition of juvenile blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo (Brunnich). Aquac. Res. 37, 1007-1014.
Singh, R. K., Desai, A. S., Chavan, S. L., Khandagale, P. A., 2009. Effect of water temperature on dietary protein requirement,growth and body composition of Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus fry. J. Therm. Biol. 34, 8-13.
Sitjà-Bobadilla, A., Pérez-Sánchez, J., 1999. Diet related changes in non-specific immune response of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Fish & Shellfish Immunolgy 9, 637-640.
Snell, T.W., Carrillo, K., 1984. Body size variation among strains of the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis. Aquaculture 37, 359-367.
Snell, T.W., 1991. Improving the design of mass culture systems for the rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis. In: Fulks,W., Main, K.L. (Eds.), Rotifer and Microalgae Culture System. The Oceanic Institute, 61-71.
Southgate, P.C., Lou, D.C., 1995. Improving the n-3 HUFA composition of Artemia using microcapsules containing marine oils. Aquaculture, 134, 91-99.
Su, H.M., M.S. Su., I.C. Liao., 2001. The culture and use of microalgae for larval rearing in Taiwan. Aquacul. Fish Res. Manage, 157-162.
Takeda, M., Shimeno, S., Hosokawa, H., Kajiyama, H., Kaisyo, T., 1975. The effect of dietary calorie-to-protein ratio on the growth, feed conversation and body composition of young yellowtail. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Fish. 41, 443-447.
Takeuchi, T., Watanabe, T., Ogino, C., 1978. Optimal ration of protein to lipid in diets of rainbow trout. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 44, 683-688.
Takeuchi, T., Watanabe, T., Ogino, C., 1979. Avaliability of carbohydrate and lipid as dietary energy sources for carp. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 45, 977-982.
Takeuchi, T., Arakawa, T., Satoh, S., Watanabe, T., 1992. Supplemental effect of phospholipids and requirement of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid of juvenile striped jack. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 58, 707-713.
Tamaki, T., 1995. Behaviour of the Japanese striped knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus by underwater observation and tagging experiment at the Tajima Coast in the Japan Sea. Journal of Fisheries Engineering 32, 33-38.
Tanaka, M., Tanangonan, J.B., Tagawa, M., Jesus, E.G. de Nishida, H., Isaka, M., Kimura, R., Hirano, T., 1995. Development of the pituitary, thyroid and interrenal glands and applicatiobs of endocrinology to the improved rearing of marine fish larvae. Aquaculture 135, 111-126.
Teng, S.K., Chua, T.E., Lim, P.E., 1978. Preliminary observation on the dietary protein requirement of estuary groupers, Epinephelus salmonids Maxwellm cultured in floating net-cages. Aquaculture 15, 257-271.
Tibaldi, E., Beraldo, P., Volpelli, L.A., Pinosa, M., 1996. Growth response of juvenile dentex (Dentex dentex L.) to varying protein level and protein to lipid ratio in practical diets. Aquaculture 139, 91-99.
Tibbetts, S.M., Lall, S.P., Anderson, D.M., 2000. Dietary protein requirement of juvenile American eel (Anguilla rostrata) fed practical diets. Aquaculture 186, 145-155.
Tidwell, J.H., Webster, C.D., Coyle, S.D., 1996. Effects of dietary protein level on second year growth and water quality for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) raised in ponds. Aquaculture 145, 213-223.
Timmermans L.P.M., 1987. Early development and differentiation in fish. Sarsia 72, 331-339.
Tocher, D.R., Sargent, J.R., 1984. Analysis of lipids and fatty acids in ripe rose of some northwest European marine fish. Lipids 19, 492-499.
Toledo, J.D., M. Golez, M.Doi., Ohno, A., 1999. Use of copepod nauplii during early feeding stage of grouper Epinephelus colonies. Fish. Sci. 65, 390-397.
Tredici, M.R., Biondi, N., Pomis, E., Rodolfi, L., Zittelli, G.C., 2009. Advances in microalgal culture for aquaculture feed and other uses. In: Burnell, G., Allan, G. (Eds.), New Technologies in Aquaculture: Improving Production Efficiency, Quality and Environmental Management. Woodhead Publishing, 610-676.
Tsushima, M., T. Matsuno., 1999. Z-carotenoids in cysts of brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana. Fish. Sci. 65, 173-174.
Tuan, L.A., Williams, K.C., 2007. Optimum dietary protein and lipid specifications for juvenile Malabar grouper (Epinephelus malabaricu). Aquaculture 267, 129-138.
Tucker, J.W., 1998. Marine Fish Culture. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, Massachusetts, USA, 750.
Villegas, C.T., Millamena, O., Escritor, F., 1990. Food value of Brachionus plicatilis fed three selected algal species as live food for milkfish, Chanos chanos Forsskal, fry production. Aquac. Res. 213-220
Walne, P.R., 1974. “Culture of Bivalve Mollusks’’, 50 Years Experience at Conway. Fishing News, 1-173.
Walton, M.J., Cowey, C.B., 1982. Aspects of intermediary metabolism in salmonid fish. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 73B, 59-79.
Wang, N., Teletchea, F., Kestemont, P., Milla, S., Fontaine, P., 2010. Photothermal control of the reproductive cycle in temperate fishes. Rev. Aquacult. 2, 209-222.
Watanabe, K., Ura, K., Yada, T., Kiron, V., Satoh, S., Watanabe, T., 2000. Energy and protein requirements of yellowtail for maximum growth and maintenance of body weight. Fish. Sci. 66, 1053-1061.
Watanabe, T., Arakawa, T., Kilajima, C., Fujita, S., 1984a. Effect of nutritional quality of broodstock diets on reproduction of red sra bream. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 50, 495-501.
Watanabe, T., Ohhashi, S., Itoh, A., Kilajima, C., Fujita, S., 1984b. Effect of nutritional composition of diets on chemical components of red sea bream broodstock and eggs produced. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 50, 503-515.
Watanabe, T., Kiron, T., 1994.Prospects in larval fish dietetics. Aquaculture 124, 223-251.
Watanabe, T., Vassallo-Agius, R., 2003. Broodstock nutrition research on marine finfish in Japan. Aquaculture 227, 35-61.
Watanabe, W.O., Ellis, S.C., Chaves, J., 2001. Effects of dietary lipid and energy to protein ration on growth and feed utilization of juvenile mutton snapper (Lutjanus analis) fed isonitrogenous diets at two temperatures. J. World Aquacult. Soc. 32, 30-40.
Wee, K.L., Tacon, A.G.J., 1982. A preliminary study on the dietary protein requirement of juvenile snakehead. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 48, 1463-1468.
Wiegand, M.D., 1996. Composition, accumulation and utilization of yolk lipids in teleost fish. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisheries. 6, 259-286.
Williams, K.C., Barlow, C.G., Rodgers, L., 2002. Efficiency of crystalline and protein-bound amino acid enrichment of diets for barramundi Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch). Aquac. Res. 32, 415-429.
Williams, K.C., Barlow, C.G., Rodgers, L., Hockings, I., Agcopra, C., Ruscoe, I., 2003. Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer perform well when fed pelleted diets high in protein and lipid. Aquaculture 225, 191-206.
Williams, K.C., Irvin, S., Barclay, M., 2004. Polka dot grouper Cromileptes altivelis fingerlings require high protein and moderate lipid diets for optimal growth and nutrient retention. Aquac. Nutr. 10, 125-134.
Wilson, R.P,, Halver, J.E., 1986. Protein and amino acid requirements of fishes. Ann. Rev. Nutr. 6, 225-244.
Wilson, R.P., 1989. Amino acid and protein. In: Halver, J.E.(Ed.), Fish Nutrition, Academic Press, Sandiego, CA, 112-153.
Wilson, R.P., 1994. Utilization of dietary carbohydrate by fish. Aquaculture 124, 67-80.
Winfree, R.A., Stickney, R.R., 1981. Effect of dietary protein and energy on growth, feed conversion efficiency and body composition of Tilapia aurea. J. Nutr. 111, 1001-1012.
Yamano, K., Miwa, S., Obinata, T., Inui, Y., 1991. Thyroid hormone requlates developmental changes in muscle during flunder metamorph-osis. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 81,464-472.
Yang, S.D., Liou, C.H., Liu, F.G., 2002. Effects of dietary protein level on growth performance, carcass composition and ammonia excretion in juvenile silver perch (Bidyanus bidyanus). Aquaculture 213, 363-372.
Yang, S.D., Lin, T.S., Liou, C.H., Peng, H.K., 2003. Influence of dietary protein levels on growth performance, carcass composition and liver lipid classes of juvenile Spinibarbus hollandi (Oshima). Aquac. Res. 34, 661-666.
Yengkokpam, S., Sahu, N.P., Pal, A.K., Mukherjee, S.C., Debnath, D., 2006. Gelatinized carbohydrates in the diets of Catla catla fingerlings: effects of levels and sources on nutrient utilization, body composition and tissue enzyme activities. Asian-Australasian J. Anim. Sci. 20, 89-99.
Yone, Y., 1976. Nutritional studies of red sea bream, in Pro. First Int. Conf. on Aquaculture Nutrition. In: Price, K.S., Shaw, W.N., Danbergs, K.S. (Eds.), University of Delaware, Lewes, Delaware, USA, 39-64.
Yone, Y., 1980. Essential fatty acides and nutritive value of dietary lipids for marine fish. Pro. No. Pac. Aquaculture Symp. Anchorage, Alaska, 60-70.
Yoshimatus, T., Furuichi, M., Kitajima, C., 1992. Optimum level of protein in purified experimental diets for red lip mullet. Bull. Jpn. Soc. Sci. Fish. 58, 2111-2117.
Yufera, M., Pascual, E., Polo, A., Sarasquete, M.C., 1993. Effect of starvation on the feeding ability of the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) larvae at first feeding. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 169, 252-272.
Zakeri, M., Marammazi, J.G., Kochanian, P., Savari, A., Yavari, V., Haghi, M., 2009. Effects of protein and lipid concentrations in broodstock diets on growth, spawning performance and egg quality of yellowfin sea bream (Acanthopagrus latus). Aquaculture 295, 99-105.
Zeitoun, I.H., Tack, P.I., Halver, J.E., Ullery, D.E., 1973. Infulence of salinity on protein requirements of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) fingerlings. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 30, 1867-1873.
Zeitoun, I.H., Ullery, D.E., Tack, P.I., 1974. Effects of water salinity and dietary protein levels on total serum protein and hematocrit of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) fingerlings. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 31, 1133-1134.
Zhang, J., Zhou, F., Wang, L.L., Shao, Q., Xu, Z., 2010. Dietary Protein Requirement of Juvenile Black Sea Bream, Sparus microcephalus. J. World Aquacult. Soc. 41, 151-164.
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關點閱論文
 
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔