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研究生:朱沁靈
研究生(外文):Chin Ling Chu
論文名稱:兩岸NBA新聞編譯語料庫研究
論文名稱(外文):Corpus-based Approaches in Relation to NBA News and its Trans-editing into Chinese across the Taiwan Strait
指導教授:高照明高照明引用關係
指導教授(外文):Zhao Ming Gao
口試日期:2017-06-28
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣大學
系所名稱:翻譯碩士學位學程
學門:人文學門
學類:翻譯學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:英文
論文頁數:96
中文關鍵詞:目的論運動新聞編譯可比語料文本分析文化翻譯
外文關鍵詞:skopossports news trans-editingcomparable corporatext analysiscultural translation
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隨著科技日新月異,全球化及「地球村」的概念已成趨勢,為了因應各國文化,翻譯在其中扮演的角色不單是幫助人們跨越語言差異,還是介紹與協調異國與本國文化的媒介。由於新聞是現代人獲取資訊的重要管道,為了讓當地人快速了解國內外重要資訊,新聞譯者必須以符合當地文化與讀者取向的方式傳達訊息,因此新聞譯者常得結合翻譯即編輯兩種技巧改寫文本,促使了「編譯」一詞的產生。進入十九世紀末期後,在媒體全球化的風潮帶動下,現代運動也跟著快速發展,兩者之間的密切關係讓運動不再只是種休閒娛樂,而是可牟利之獨立產業,同時也是建立並宣傳國家形象的手段,美國職籃〈National Basketball Association, NBA〉在全球的發展就是典型例子。
NBA是美國運動文化的象徵,並在中台兩地皆享有高知名度與人氣,但先前研究指出中美台三地運動文化並不相同,造就了兩地人民觀看NBA的不同動機,舉例而言,原先國族認同是吸引中國人民觀看NBA的主要動機,而NBA的娛樂性則為台灣人民喜愛NBA的原因。鑒於運動為文化的一環,又新聞翻譯或編譯以當地文化為取向之特性,由NBA呈現的美國運動文化並未完全經由兩岸NBA新聞翻譯或編譯被當地人所接受,反而形成了運動文化混合的現象,且撇除字體與用詞差異,兩岸NBA新聞翻譯或編譯也具有相似與相異之處。
本研究結合了語料庫與翻譯之目的論剖析促使兩岸NBA新聞翻譯或編譯呈現相似與相異的背後原因,包括文化動機、〈編〉譯者目的、翻譯策略,以及敘事風格。本研究先以語料庫分析工具AntConc取得字詞頻率表,確認NBA新聞翻譯或編譯相異,再透過人工判定文本首句主題,輔以機器計算取得首句主題頻率,並搭配先前研究結果進行假設,探討文化動機,包括團隊合作、社區榮譽、國族認同、勝利導向、團隊意識、個人成就,以及娛樂導向與兩岸新聞〈編〉譯者目的之相關性,又其與翻譯策略及風格之關係,並採用概似比檢定驗證假設,最後再透過文本分析名字翻譯與文章結構差異所導致的相異敘事風格。經研究結果發現,「林來瘋」現象出現後,台灣NBA新聞編譯者在目的與主題選擇上皆受到國族認同影響,而中國NBA新聞編譯者仍強調團隊意識與勝利導向的價值觀念,且台灣NBA新聞編譯者善用刪減與主題改變策略突顯主要球員的表現與比賽的精采部分,而中國NBA新聞編譯者則採用增添與主題改變策略提供更多比賽細節及強調比賽結果。此外,中國NBA新聞編譯者也經常藉由使用球員綽號及僅使用中文譯名的方式拉近報導內容與讀者之間的距離,增添其譯文之非正式性及主觀性。
另,本研究試圖證明運動新聞翻譯或編譯即文化翻譯,運動新聞〈編〉譯者會隨著不同文化背景與讀者取向改變目的,並透過不同翻譯策略達成目的,形成不同風格之文本。在NBA對中文翻譯需求依然存在,且簡繁中文翻譯的需求因兩岸關係逐漸密切而增長的情況下,本研究結果可作為翻譯資源以供未來兩岸NBA新聞〈編〉譯者參考。
Advances in science and technology have made the world the global village and translators have become a medium of international and intercultural communication. Translation, a translational action, which always has at least one skopos that a translator aims to achieve by translation strategies, leads to a translatum finally. News is a way for people to acquire information that they want or need to know. The general skopos of new translation is to deliver foreign information that target audiences want or need to know in a way fitting in with the conventions of target cultures. Translated news texts, as a result, are often edited, rewritten, or reorganized by news translators based on target cultures. Actually, a new term trans-editing has been proposed to describe an adaptation to the needs and conventions of target cultures through the both skills of translating and editing.
The NBA, a league reflecting American sports culture, has had high popularity in both Taiwan and China since its execution of global expansion strategies and development of a closer relationship with the media. However, previous studies have shown cultural motivation for people to pay attention to the NBA was different in America, Taiwan, and China. For example, Chinese people were seriously influenced by national identity and Taiwanese people preferred the entertainment of the NBA. Similarly, every nation has its own sports culture, which might have a conflict with American sports culture. American sports culture embodying in the NBA, thus, might not be completely transferred to China and Taiwan by trans-edited NBA news. The above means differences, with the exceptions of Chinese characters and word usage, between translated NBA news texts in Traditional and Simplified Chinese could be observed. Additionally, with globalization, the demand for English-Simplified or Traditional Chinese has grown; with the development of cross-strait relation, the demand for Simplified-Traditional Chinese translation has appeared.
Hence this thesis, first, compared similarities and differences between trans-edited NBA news in Traditional and Simplified Chinese through corpus analysis, including word frequency lists generated by AntConc and the first theme selections. Then Vermeer’s skopos theory and different cultural motivation, including teamwork, community pride, national identity, team-orientation, individual performance, winning-orientation, and entertainment, were used to hypothesize the cause and effect of the similarities and differences. The log-likelihood tests of the hypotheses were conducted to verify the arguments. Finally, text analysis was applied to study text structures, including the ordering of facts and the choice of reporting information, and the different practices of name translation, both of which led to different writing styles.
The research found national identity was an important cultural motivation for Taiwanese trans-editors in the process of translating and editing and choosing the first theme. The values of team and winning, however, were the most important values for the Chinese trans-editors. Besides, the Chinese trans-editors applied the adding and theme-changing strategies to provide more game details for their readers and to emphasize the values of team and winning. The Taiwanese ones, on the other hand, applied the reducing and theme-changing strategies to emphasize the highlights of games and popular players’ performances. The Chinese trans-editors would use players’ nicknames in China without providing their translated full names and use players’ translated names without providing their original names. The both strategies successfully shortened the distance between the NBA and its Chinese fans, but led to an increase in the level of informality and subjectivity of their texts.
This thesis demonstrates that sports news translation/trans-editing as a medium of intercultural communication is actually cultural negotiation between foreign and local cultures, leading to cultural hybridization. The research results provided translation resources for NBA news translators/trans-editors in China and Taiwan for reference in the future.
Table of Contents
Verification Letter’s from the Oral Defense Committee......i
Acknowledgements............................................ii
Name Conventions............................................iii
Chinese Abstract............................................iv
English Abstract............................................vi
Table of Contents...........................................ix
Lists of Figures............................................xi
Lists of Tables.............................................xii
Chapter 1 Introduction......................................1
1.1 Research Purposes.......................................3
1.2 Research Motivation.....................................4
1.3 Research Questions and Hypotheses.......................6
1.4 NBA Background Information..............................11
1.4.1 NBA’s Global Expansion Strategies....................11
1.4.2 NBA’s Development in China...........................12
1.4.3 NBA’s Development in Taiwan..........................14
1.5 Summary of Chapter 1....................................15
1.6 Outline of the Thesis...................................17
Chapter 2 Literature Review.................................19
2.1 Skopos Theory and News Translation......................19
2.2 Modern Sports Culture and Cultural Translation..........20
2.3 Discourse Analysis and Corpus-based Translation
Studies.................................................24
2.4 Summary of Chapter 2....................................27
Chapter 3 Methodology.......................................30
3.1 Data Collection and Corpus Construction.................31
3.2 Chinese Word Segmentation...............................31
3.3 Frequency Lists.........................................32
3.4 Text Annotation.........................................32
3.5 Research Hypotheses and Log-likelihood Tests............36
3.6 Text Analysis...........................................39
3.7 Summary of Chapter 3....................................39
Chapter 4 Research Results..................................42
4.1 Preliminary Results of Corpus Analysis..................42
4.2 Log-likelihood Test Results of the Research Hypotheses..51
4.3 Text Analysis...........................................64
4.4 The Practice of Name Translation........................69
Chapter 5 Discussion........................................72
5.1 Summary of the Findings for the Research Questions......72
5.2 Implication and Contribution............................75
5.3 Limitations of the Research.............................77
5.4 Recommendations for Future Research.....................79
Chapter 6 Conclusion........................................82
References..................................................85
Appendices..................................................92
Appendix A..................................................92
Appendix B..................................................94
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