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研究生:賴德欣
研究生(外文):De-Shin Lai
論文名稱:設計一直流串聯電弧故障偵測器於太陽光電系統之保護
論文名稱(外文):Design of a DC Series Arc Fault Detector for Photovoltaic Systems Protection
指導教授:辜志承辜志承引用關係
指導教授(外文):Jyh-Cherng Gu
口試委員:何子儀陳在相楊金石辜志承
口試委員(外文):Tze-Yee HoTsai-Hsiang ChenJin-Shi YangJyh-Cherng Gu
口試日期:2017-06-26
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:電機工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:直流串聯電弧故障偵測器直流串聯電弧太陽光電系統
外文關鍵詞:DC Series Arc Fault DetectorDC series ArcPV system
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地球暖化的溫室效應與石化燃料的日益枯竭,促使世界各國朝向再生能源發電技術發展,太陽光電系統是主要發展項目之一,其所帶來的安全問題亦引發重視。太陽光電系統含括直流電力系統,電路中有發生直流串聯電弧故障的可能性,此型態之故障,其線路電流不增反減,因此傳統過電流保護設備並無法隔離此種故障,串聯電弧伴隨高熱,若持續時間過久,會導致嚴重的火災事故,因此,國際上均有針對太陽光電系統制訂電弧故障保護之要求。
本文利用48.83 kHz ~ 93.99 kHz高頻電流雜訊含量,於串聯電弧故障發生後明顯高於故障前之特性,將此頻段電流訊號進行快速傅立葉轉換,利用轉換結果進行運算分析及判斷,並建立一套故障偵測方法。依據此偵測方法設計一可判別太陽光電直流串聯電弧故障之偵測器,並採用以多晶矽太陽光電模組串接而成之市電併網型系統作為實驗平台,於不同運轉條件下測試新設計之偵測器,並與兩款商用偵測器進行比較。結果顯示,新設計之偵測器與兩款商用偵測器,皆能完全準確偵測太陽光電直流串聯電弧故障,但其中一款商用偵測器因遮蔭效應所導致之劇烈電流變化而有誤動作情形。
To deal with problems such as global energy shortage and climate changes caused by the greenhouse effect, distributed generation techniques on renewable power energies are under development by many countries. One of the most important renewable power energies is the PV systems. However, there are some safety issues about PV systems which need to be addressed. PV systems contain DC power systems. DC arc fault may present in DC power systems. In a DC series arc fault, the post-fault current is even smaller so this kind of fault couldn’t be isolated by conventional overcurrent protection devices. The arcing accompanied with high thermal. If arcing last long, it may cause a serious fire event. Thus, many countries have developed code about arcing fault protection.
In this thesis, the current noise between 48.83 kHz ~ 93.99 kHz which contains a characteristic that post-fault magnitude of noise current is bigger than pre-fault. The current noise is converted by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Analyze the result of FFT and propose a series arc fault detecting method.
According to this detecting method, a DC series arc fault detector for PV systems is implemented and an experiment platform is constructed by grid connected PV systems. The grid connected PV systems are constructed by Ploy Silicon panels connected serially. The proposed detector is tested in different kinds of condition and compared with two commercial detectors in experiment platform. According to the test result, the proposed detector and two commercial detectors can detect series arc fault with 100% accuracy but one of the commercial detectors have false actions when system current changed drastically by shading effect.
中文摘要 I
Abstract III
目錄 VI
圖目錄 X
表目錄 XIV
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2 文獻探討 3
1.3 研究方法 7
1.4 論文架構 8
第二章 太陽光電直流串聯電弧故障保護 9
2.1 前言 9
2.2 太陽光電系統 9
2.2.1 太陽光電系統種類 9
2.2.1.1 獨立型系統 9
2.2.1.2 市電併聯型系統 10
2.2.1.3 防災型系統 10
2.2.2 太陽光電電池種類 11
2.2.3 我國太陽光電近期推廣目標 14
2.2.4 太陽光電系統火災危害 14
2.2.4.1 火災事故案例 15
2.2.4.2 消防議題 17
2.2.4.3 火災成因分析 18
2.3 直流電弧故障種類與特性 21
2.3.1 直流電弧故障型態 21
2.3.2 直流串聯電弧故障現象 23
2.3.3 直流串聯電弧特性 24
2.4 太陽光電系統直流串聯電弧故障相關法規 24
2.4.1 NEC與屋內線路裝置規則 25
2.4.2 UL 26
2.5 商用太陽光電直流串聯電弧保護設備 27
2.6 本章小結 29
第三章 太陽光電直流串聯電弧故障之偵測方法 31
3.1 前言 31
3.2 實驗系統架構與實驗設備 31
3.2.1 實驗系統架構 31
3.2.2 實驗設備 34
3.3 實驗內容與方法 35
3.3.1 太陽光電系統運轉實驗 36
3.3.1.1 實驗方法 37
3.3.1.2 實驗結果 37
3.3.2 太陽光電系統切離實驗 40
3.3.2.1 實驗方法 40
3.3.2.2 實驗結果 40
3.3.3 串聯電弧故障實驗 43
3.3.3.1 實驗方法 43
3.3.3.2 實驗結果 44
3.4 偵測原理與電流訊號處理方式 47
3.4.1 傅立葉轉換 47
3.4.1.1 離散傅立葉轉換 47
3.4.1.2 快速傅立葉轉換 48
3.4.2 電流訊號之檢測頻段與擷取週期 49
3.4.2.1 電流訊號檢測頻段 49
3.4.2.2 電流訊號擷取週期 52
3.5 偵測規則與偵測流程 52
3.6 偵測規則模擬與分析 55
3.6.1 太陽光電系統運轉實驗之模擬結果 55
3.6.2 太陽光電系統切離實驗之模擬結果 56
3.6.3 串聯電弧故障實驗之模擬結果 59
3.7 本章小結 61
第四章 太陽光電直流串聯電弧故障偵測器設計 63
4.1 前言 63
4.2 硬體電路設計 63
4.2.1 電路架構 63
4.2.2 電源供應電路 64
4.2.3 電流感測電路 64
4.2.4 八階主動式帶通濾波器 66
4.2.5 類比轉數位電路 67
4.2.6 數位訊號處理器 67
4.3 軟體程式規劃 68
4.4 本章小結 71
第五章 太陽光電直流串聯電弧故障偵測器之測試 73
5.1 前言 73
5.2 偵測器測試內容與結果 73
5.2.1 串聯電弧故障測試 73
5.2.2 太陽光電系統切離測試 79
5.2.3 劇烈電流變化測試 82
5.2.4 太陽光電系統運轉測試 83
5.3 測試結果討論 83
5.4 本章小結 84
第六章 結論與未來研究方向 87
6.1 結論 87
6.2 未來研究方向 88
參考文獻 90
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