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研究生:Angaw Abay
研究生(外文):Angaw Abay
論文名稱:Catalytic Reduction of Selected Organic Contaminants Using Oxysulfide-Based Catalyst
論文名稱(外文):Catalytic Reduction of Selected Organic Contaminants Using Oxysulfide-Based Catalysts
指導教授:Dong-Hau Kuo
指導教授(外文):Dong-Hau Kuo
口試委員:Dong-Hau KuoRen-Kae ShiueChing-Hwa HoShih-Yun ChenYung-Kang Kuo
口試委員(外文):Dong-Hau KuoRen-Kae ShiueChing-Hwa HoShih-Yun ChenYung-Kang Kuo
口試日期:2017-06-29
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立臺灣科技大學
系所名稱:材料科學與工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:材料工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:英文
論文頁數:213
中文關鍵詞:V-doped Bi2(OS)3CuNiOSReduction reactionorganic pollutants
外文關鍵詞:V-doped Bi2(OS)3CuNiOSReduction reactionorganic pollutants
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Water contamination caused by the release of nitroaromatic species and dyes in effluents is one of the most alarming menaces to the healthy green environment. Complete removal of such harmful organic pollutants is required to have a healthy environment and enables to make water healthy for different purposes. Unfortunately, conventional wastewater treatment methods can not eliminate entirely all these contaminants in water. Recently, the applications of catalytic reduction process for organic pollutant treatments, for example, toxic dyes and nitro-aromatic pollutants in wastewater have gained immense research interest as a promising technique for wastewater treatment owing to its low cost, the simplicity of design, ease of operation, and efficacy in removing the hazardous organic pollutants.
The main objective of this study is to explore a new type of convenient, and environmentally friendly, vanadium doped bismuth oxysulfide and copper nickel oxysulfide solid solution catalysts for the reduction of organic pollutants with a focus on commonly employed organic dye and nitroaromatic compounds.
In this research work, a novel and noble metal-free vanadium doped bismuth oxysulfide and copper nickel oxysulfide catalysts have been successfully fabricated by using a simple, cost-effective, eco-friendly and low-temperature solution-based method. The structures, morphologies and the optical properties of the obtained solid solution catalysts were carefully characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area techniques. Furthermore, UV-visible spectroscopy was used to characterize and analyze performance of the as-prepared catalyst systems.
The overall study of this thesis can be divided into two parts. In the first part, the catalytic performance of vanadium doped bismuth oxysulfide catalysts was investigated by using model dyes and nitroaromatic compounds in the presence of NaBH4 as a reducing agent at room temperature. This work is the first report for bismuth-based oxysulfide nanoparticles which employed as a catalyst for reduction of commonly used organic dyes and nitroaromatic compounds.
The data showed that the introduction of V can improve the catalytic performance, and 20%V-Bi2(O, S)3 was found to be the optimal V doping concentration for the reduction of 2-NA, MB and RhB dyes. For comparative purpose, V-free Bi2(O, S)3 oxysulfide material was synthesized and tested as the catalyst. The superior activity of V-doped Bi2 (O,S)3 over pure Bi2(O, S)3 was ascribed mainly to an increase in active sites of the material. The presence of V5+ as found from XPS analysis, may interact with Bi atoms and enhance the catalytic activity of the sample. In the catalytic reduction of 2-NA, MB and RhB, the obtained V-doped Bi2(O, S)3 oxysulfide catalyst exhibited excellent catalytic activity as compared with other reported catalysts. Furthermore, this highly efficient, low-cost and easily reusable V-doped Bi2(O, S)3 catalyst is anticipated to be of great potential in catalysis in the future.
In the second part of our work, we report the design and synthesis a novel CuNiOS catalyst as a highly efficient noble metal free oxysulfide nanoparticles for catalytic reductions of 4-nitrophenol, Methyl blue, and Rhodamine-B organic pollutants. The results achieved from ultraviolet−visible (UV−vis) spectroscopy indicated that CuNiOS-0.6 prepared with a Cu: Ni precursor mole ratio of 1:0.6 had the best catalytic performance for the reduction of 4-NP, MB, and RhB in comparison to other CuNiOS species at different compositions and the monometallic catalyst (CuOS) due to synergistic effects. In addition, the CuNiOS-0.6 catalyst is also better than other CuNiOS ones due to the presence of optimum amounts of Ni in CuNiOS sample. Thus, the present approach provides a promising way to fabricate different noble metal free bimetallic oxysulfide catalysts for extensive applications in catalysis and reduction/removal of other organic pollutants.
Water contamination caused by the release of nitroaromatic species and dyes in effluents is one of the most alarming menaces to the healthy green environment. Complete removal of such harmful organic pollutants is required to have a healthy environment and enables to make water healthy for different purposes. Unfortunately, conventional wastewater treatment methods can not eliminate entirely all these contaminants in water. Recently, the applications of catalytic reduction process for organic pollutant treatments, for example, toxic dyes and nitro-aromatic pollutants in wastewater have gained immense research interest as a promising technique for wastewater treatment owing to its low cost, the simplicity of design, ease of operation, and efficacy in removing the hazardous organic pollutants.
The main objective of this study is to explore a new type of convenient, and environmentally friendly, vanadium doped bismuth oxysulfide and copper nickel oxysulfide solid solution catalysts for the reduction of organic pollutants with a focus on commonly employed organic dye and nitroaromatic compounds.
In this research work, a novel and noble metal-free vanadium doped bismuth oxysulfide and copper nickel oxysulfide catalysts have been successfully fabricated by using a simple, cost-effective, eco-friendly and low-temperature solution-based method. The structures, morphologies and the optical properties of the obtained solid solution catalysts were carefully characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area techniques. Furthermore, UV-visible spectroscopy was used to characterize and analyze performance of the as-prepared catalyst systems.
The overall study of this thesis can be divided into two parts. In the first part, the catalytic performance of vanadium doped bismuth oxysulfide catalysts was investigated by using model dyes and nitroaromatic compounds in the presence of NaBH4 as a reducing agent at room temperature. This work is the first report for bismuth-based oxysulfide nanoparticles which employed as a catalyst for reduction of commonly used organic dyes and nitroaromatic compounds.
The data showed that the introduction of V can improve the catalytic performance, and 20%V-Bi2(O, S)3 was found to be the optimal V doping concentration for the reduction of 2-NA, MB and RhB dyes. For comparative purpose, V-free Bi2(O, S)3 oxysulfide material was synthesized and tested as the catalyst. The superior activity of V-doped Bi2 (O,S)3 over pure Bi2(O, S)3 was ascribed mainly to an increase in active sites of the material. The presence of V5+ as found from XPS analysis, may interact with Bi atoms and enhance the catalytic activity of the sample. In the catalytic reduction of 2-NA, MB and RhB, the obtained V-doped Bi2(O, S)3 oxysulfide catalyst exhibited excellent catalytic activity as compared with other reported catalysts. Furthermore, this highly efficient, low-cost and easily reusable V-doped Bi2(O, S)3 catalyst is anticipated to be of great potential in catalysis in the future.
In the second part of our work, we report the design and synthesis a novel CuNiOS catalyst as a highly efficient noble metal free oxysulfide nanoparticles for catalytic reductions of 4-nitrophenol, Methyl blue, and Rhodamine-B organic pollutants. The results achieved from ultraviolet−visible (UV−vis) spectroscopy indicated that CuNiOS-0.6 prepared with a Cu: Ni precursor mole ratio of 1:0.6 had the best catalytic performance for the reduction of 4-NP, MB, and RhB in comparison to other CuNiOS species at different compositions and the monometallic catalyst (CuOS) due to synergistic effects. In addition, the CuNiOS-0.6 catalyst is also better than other CuNiOS ones due to the presence of optimum amounts of Ni in CuNiOS sample. Thus, the present approach provides a promising way to fabricate different noble metal free bimetallic oxysulfide catalysts for extensive applications in catalysis and reduction/removal of other organic pollutants.
Acknowledgements -----------------------------------------------------------------------i
Abstract--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------iv
Table of contents vii
List of figures xiii
List of tables------------------------------------------------------------------------------xxiii
List of schemes xxiv
List of scronyms and symbols xxv
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1. Background of the study 1
1.2. Wastewater treatment processes 3
1.2.1. Biological treatments 3
1.2.2 Physico-chemical treatment 3
1.2.2.1. Membrane separation 3
1.2.2.2. Coagulation or flocculation 4
1.2.2.3. Adsorption 4
1.2.3. Photocatalytic degradation 4
1.2.4. Catalytic reduction 5
1.2.4.1. Reduction reaction by heterogeneous catalysts 5
1.3. Objectives of this Study 8
1.4. Thesis Structure 9
Chapter 2. Basic theory and literature review-----------------------------------------10
2.1. Heterogeneous catalysis 10
2.1.1. Metal oxide catalysts 12
2.1.2. Metal sulfide catalysts 13
2.1.3. Bimetallic catalysts 13
2.1.4. Oxysulfide-based catalysts 14
2.2. Literature review 17
2.2.1. Heterogeneous catalysts for the reduction reaction 17
2.2.2. Oxide-based catalysts for reduction/photodegradation of organic dyes or nitro aromatic compounds 18
2.2.2.1. CuO nanoparticle catalyst 18
2.2.2.2. Hierarchical Cu/Fe3O4 nanocatalysts 20
2.2.2.3. Bi25VO40 microcube catalyst 22
2.2.2.4. rGO-ZnWO4-Fe3O4 nanocomposite catalyst 24
2.2.2.5. Cu2O octahedrons on h BN nanosheet catalyst 25
2.2.2.6. Porous Bi2O3 nanosphere catalyst 28
2.2.2.7. MFe2O4 (M = Ni, Cu, Zn) nano ferrite catalysts 30
2.2.2.8. Cu/CuO-TiO2 catalysts 32
2.2.2.9. Vanadium-doped iron oxide catalysts 35
2.2.3. Sulfide-based catalysts 38
2.2.3.1. Flowerlike Bi2S3 microsphere catalyst 38
2.2.3.2. Bi2S3 nanostructure catalyst 40
2.2.3.3. CuS nanoparticle catalyst 43
2.2.3.4. Flower-like Bi2S3/Cu7.2S4 composite catalyst 45
2.2.3.5. Bi2S3 spheres and CuS/Bi2S3 composite nanostructure catalyst 47
2.2.3.6. Sn-doped Bi2S3 microsphere catalyst 50
2.2.3.7. Three-dimensional CuS catalyst. 51
2.2.3.8. Nickel sulfide nanoparticles catalyst 52
2.2.3.9. Ni-doped CuS nanoparticle catalyst 53
2.2.3.10. CuS nanostructure catalyst 55
2.2.4. Bimetallic-based catalysts 55
2.2.4.1. Bimetallic nickel/copper nanowire catalyst 56
2.2.4.2. Bimetallic CuNi nanocrystal catalyst 58
2.2.4.3. CuNi nanoparticle on rGO catalyst 60
2.2.4.4. Bimetallic NixPd100-x nanocatalyst 62

2.2.5. Oxysulfide-based catalyst 64
2.2.5.1. Nanoflower Bimetal CuMnOS Oxysulfide Catalyst 64
2.2.5.1. Zinc oxysulfide (ZnOxS1-x) composite catalyst 66
2.2. Model contaminants and Sources 67
Chapter 3. Experimental section and characterization 70
3.1. Experimental section 70
3.1.1. Chemicals and reagents 70
3.1.2. Synthesis of catalysts 71
3.1.2.1. Synthesis of vanadium-doped bismuth oxysulfide catalysts with various contents of vanadium (V) precursor 71
3.1.2.2. Preparation of copper nickel oxysulfide (CuNiOS) catalysts with various contents of Ni precursor. 73
3.2. Characterization techniques 74
3.2.1. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) analysis 74
3.2.2. Raman Spectroscopy Analysis --------------------------------------------76
3.2.3. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. 77
3.2.4. Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) Analysis 79
3.2.5. DiffuseReflectance UV-visAbsorption (DRS UV-Vis) Measurement 80
3.2.6. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) 82
3.2.7. Brunauer –Emmette –Teller (BET) analysis 83
3.2.8. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) 84
Chapter 4. A new V-doped Bi2(O,S)3 oxysulfide catalyst for highly efficient catalytic reduction of 2-nitroaniline and organic dyes 89
4.1. Introduction 89
4.2. Experimental approach 91
4.2.1. Catalytic activity measurement 91
4.3. Results and Discussion 92
4.3.1. XRD and Raman analyses 92
4.3.2. SEM observation and EDX analysis 93
4.3.3. TEM observation and EDS mapping analysis 95
4.3.4. XPS analysis 97
4.3.5. BET measurement 99
4.3.6. Catalysis of the nitro compound and dyes reduction over V-doped Bi2(O,S)3 100
4.3.6.1. Catalytic reduction of 2-nitroaniline 100
4.3.6.2. Catalytic reduction of methylene blue 106
4.3.6.3. Catalytic reduction of Rhodamine B 109
4.3.7. Reusability of 20%V-Bi2(O,S)3 catalyst for the 2-NA reduction reaction 112
4 3.8. Catalytic reduction mechanism 114
4.4. Section conclusions 117
Chapter 5. A highly efficient noble metal free copper-nickel oxysulfidenanoparticles for catalytic reductions of 4-nitrophenol, Methyl blue, and Rhodamine B organic pollutants 119
5.1. Introduction 119
5.2. Experimental approach 120
5.2.1. Catalytic activity measurement 120
5.2.1.1. Catalytic reduction of 4-NP 120
5.2.1.2. Catalytic reduction of organic dyes 120
5.3. Results and Discussion 121
5.3.1. XRD and FTIR analyses 121
5.3.2. SEM observation and EDX analysis 123
5.3.3. TEM observation, SAED, and EDX mapping analysis 124
5.3.4. Surface and Optical Study 127
5.3.5. Catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol 130
5.3.6. Catalytic reduction of methylene blue dye 133
5.3.7. Catalytic reduction of Rhodamine B dye 135
5.3.8. Reusability of CuNiOS-0.6 catalyst for the RhB reduction reaction 138
5.3.9. Proposed mechanism of 4-NP over the CuNiOS-0.6 catalyst to 4-AP 142
5.4. Section conclusions 144
Chapter 6. Conclusions and Future Work 146
6.1. Concluding comments 146
6.2. Suggestions for future work 149
References -------------------------------------------------------------------------------151
List of research papers 181
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