跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(35.172.136.29) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/07/29 08:39
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:姚亭伶
研究生(外文):YAO, TING-LING
論文名稱:應用丙醇胺官能化的螯合樹脂去除水中重金屬離 子之研究
論文名稱(外文):Application of 3-Amino-1-propanol functionalized chelating resin for removing heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions
指導教授:陳志彥陳志彥引用關係江禎立
指導教授(外文):CHEN, CHUH-YEANCHIANG, CHEN‐LI
口試委員:陳志彥江禎立李玉郎陳東煌
口試委員(外文):CHEN, CHUH-YEANCHIANG, CHEN‐LILee, YUH-LANGCHEN, DONG-HWANG
口試日期:2017-06-29
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:南臺科技大學
系所名稱:化學工程與材枓工程系
學門:工程學門
學類:化學工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:73
中文關鍵詞:懸浮聚合螯合樹脂丙醇胺吸附重金屬離子
外文關鍵詞:suspension polymerizationchelating resinheavy metal ionadsorption3-Amino-1-propanol
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:77
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
本研究先以懸浮聚合法製備交聯的聚縮水甘油甲基丙烯酸酯(cPGMA)後,再利用丙醇胺與cPGMA反應而得到簡稱為PAOH的螯合樹脂。由FT-IR與EDS的分析確定PAOH的製備是成功的,而SEM的觀察也得知PAOH是不規則型態、粒徑250~350 μm的多孔隙顆粒。當PAOH吸附單獨的Cu2+ 或Ni2+ 時,約7~8分鐘可達到1.60與0.92 mmol/(g PAOH)的最大吸附容量,而吸附Cd2+ 則需25~30分鐘方可達到0.66 mmol/(g PAOH)的最高值。PAOH的吸附容量也會隨著金屬離子初濃度的增加而上升並在某一高濃度後趨於最大值,其吸附行為符合Langmuir等溫吸附模式。當金屬離子溶液的pH值在4或5以上時,PAOH對Cu2+、Ni2+ 及Cd2+ 的吸附容量均維持在最高值;而pH低於3時,吸附量則顯著的下降並在pH 1時失去吸附能力。在競爭吸附方面,PAOH可自同為26 mM的Cu2+/Cd2+、Cu2+/Ni2+ 混合液中吸附到純的Cu2+ 且具有1.6 mmol/(g PAOH)的高吸附容量;亦可在pH 2的條件下自Ni2+/Cd2+ 混合液中分離出純Ni2+ 並維持0.236 mmol/(g PAOH)的吸附容量。以0.5 M的硝酸水溶液對已吸附金屬離子的PAOH進行5次的連續脫附/再吸附實驗後,確定PAOH對Cu2+、Cd2+ 及Ni2+ 的吸附能力依然可保持在最初吸附量的96%以上,證實PAOH是一個高吸附容量、具分離效能且可以回收再利用的螯合樹脂。

關鍵字:懸浮聚合;螯合樹脂;丙醇胺;吸附;重金屬離子。

A chelating resin, PAOH, was synthesized throug a reaction of crosslinked poly(glycidyl methacrylate) with 3-Amino-1-propanol for adsorbing Cu2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+ from aqueous solutions. PAOH and cPGMA were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer. Scanning electron microscope image showed that the diameter of PAOH was 250-350 μm and there were many pores on the resin’s surface. In non-competitive conditions, The adsorptions tended toward equilibrium at 7-8 min for Cu2+ and Ni2+ or 25 min for Cd2+ and the equilibrium adsorption capacities were ordered, Cu2+ [1.60 mmol/g (PAOH)] > Ni2+ [0.92mmol/g (PAOH)] > Cd2+ [0.66mmol/g (PAOH)]. The adsorption isotherms of Cu2+, Cd2+ and Ni2+ by PAOH followed the Langmuir isotherm. When the pH of Cu2+, Ni2+ and Cd2+ solutions > 4, the variance in adsorption capacity was insignificant. However, the adsorption capacity decreased dramatically from pH 3 to 1 and no adsorption was observed at pH 1. The competitive adsorption tests confirmed PAOH had good adsorption selectivity for the recovery of Cu2+ from Cu2+/Cd2+ and Cu2+/Ni2+ mixtures. When the pH of Ni2+/Cd2+ mixture was 2, PAOH could adsorb Ni2+ only. After 5 cycles of desorption-adsorption operations, the re-adsorption capacities of theses three metal ions could attain 96% of initial values. PAOH had good adsorption efficiency for the recovery Cu2+,Cd2+ and Ni2+ from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: suspension polymerization, chelating resin, adsorption, heavy metal ion, 3-Amino-1-propanol

目 錄
中文摘要 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- I
英文摘要 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- II
誌謝 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- III
目錄 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ IV
表目錄------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Vl
圖目錄------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Vll
附錄目錄-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Vlll
第一章 緒論 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 1
1-1 前言------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
1-2 處理水中重金屬的方法 ------------------------------------------------------------ 2
1-3螯合高分子 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4
1-3-1 螯合高分子的簡介 -------------------------------------------------------------- 4
1-3-2 螯合高分子的分類 -------------------------------------------------------------- 5
1-4螯合高分子的合成方式--------------------------------------------------------------- 9
1-5螯合高分子的應用--------------------------------------------------------------------- 9
1-6吸附理論 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12
1-6-1吸附類型 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12
1-6-2影響螯合樹脂吸附金屬離子的因素-------------------------------------------- 12
1-6-3吸附模式 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15
1-6-4吸附動力----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16
1-7 研究動機 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 17
第二章實驗內容 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 20
2-1藥品--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 20
2-2 儀器設備 ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21
2-3 實驗步驟------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 22
2-3-1 cPGMA的合成--------------------------------------------------------------------- 22
2-3-2螯合樹脂PAOH的製備---------------------------------------------------------- 23
2-3-3螯合樹脂(PAOH)的組成及結構分析------------------------------------------- 23
2-3-4 PAOH 吸附單一金屬離子之研究---------------------------------------------- 24
2-3-5連續脫附/再吸附 ------------------------------------------------------------------ 25
2-3-6 競爭吸附---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 26
第三章 結果與討論-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 27
3-1螯合樹脂PAOH的製備 ------------------------------------------------------------ 27
3-2螯合樹脂PAOH的分析與鑑定------------------------------------------------------ 27
3-2-1傅立葉紅外線光譜儀(FT-IR)之分析-------------------------------------------- 27
3-2-2掃描式電子顯微鏡觀察PAOH表面型態-------------------------------------- 29
3-2-3能量分散光譜儀(EDS)對吸附金屬離子前後的PAOH之分析------------- 29
3-3 PAOH吸附單一金屬離子之研究 ------------------------------------------------ 35
3-3-1 不同吸附時間對PAOH吸附容量的影響 ---------------------------------- 35
3-3-2 吸附容量與Cu2+、Ni2+、Cd2+ 之初濃度的關係 ---------------------------- 38
3-3-3不同的溶液pH值對吸附容量的影響------------------------------------------- 42
3-3-4 連續脫附/再吸附實驗 --------------------------------------------------------- 43
3-3-5同濃度之競爭吸附----------------------------------------------------------------- 45
第四章結論------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 49
參考文獻--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 50


[1]行政院環保署,"安全飲用水手冊",第五版,第78-79頁(2017)。
[2]F. Fu, Q. Wang, "Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters: A review", Journal of Environmental Management, 92, 407-418(2011).
[3]S.M. El-Bahy, Z.M. El-Bahy, "Synthesis and characterization of polyamidoxime chelating resin for adsorption of Cu(II), Mn(II) and Ni(II) by batch and column study", Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 4, 276-286(2016).
[4]陳志彥,"具側鏈亞胺乙二酸高分子與金屬離子之螯合性質的探討及其應用",國立成功大學化學工程系博士論文(2002)。
[5]Q. Liu, Q.Liu, Z.Ruan, X. Chang,J. Yao, "Removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solution using synthetic poly(catechol-diethylenetriamine-p-phenylenediamine) particles", Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 129, 273-281(2016).
[6]C. Li, H. Duan, X. Wang, X. Meng, D. Qin, "Fabrication of porous resins via solubility differences for adsorption of cadmium(II)", Chemical Engineering Journal, 262, 250–259( 2015).
[7]S.R. Ryu, E.K. Jeon, J.S. Yang, K. Baek, "Adsorption of As(III) and As(V) in groundwater by Fe–Mn binary oxide-impregnated granular activated carbon (IMIGAC)", Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 72, 62-69(2017).
[8]X.J. Liu, H.Y. Zeng, S. Xu, C.R. Chen, Z.Q. Zhang, J.Z. Du, "Metal oxides as dual-functional adsorbents/catalysts for Cu2+/Cr(VI) adsorption and methyl orange oxidation catalysis", Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 60, 414-422(2016).
[9]H. Tounsadia, A. Khalidi, M. Abdennouri, N. Barka, "Activated carbon from Diplotaxis Harra biomass: Optimization of preparation conditions and heavy metal removal", Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 59, 348-358(2016).
[10]F. Ciardelli, E. Tsuchida, D. Wohrle, "Macromolecule-Metal Complexes", Berlin:Springer, 1996.
[11]L. Qin, Y. Ge , B. Deng, Z. Li,"Poly (ethylene imine) anchored lignin composite for heavy metals capturing in water", Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 71, 84-90(2017).
[12]A.A. Yakouta, R.H. El-Sokkary, M.A. Shreadah, O.G.A. Hamid, "Removal of Cd(II) and Pb(II) from wastewater by using triethylenetetramine functionalized grafted cellulose acetate-manganese dioxide composite", Carbohydrate Polymers, 148, 406-414(2016).
[13]H.T. Xing, J.H. Chen, X. Sun, Y.H. Huang, Z.B. Su, S.R. Hu, W. Weng, S.X. Li, H.X. Guo, W.B. Wu, Y.S. He, F.M. Li, Y. Huang, "NH2-rich polymer/graphene oxide use as a novel adsorbent for removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solution", Chemical Engineering Journal, 263, 280-289(2015).
[14]M.Z. Corazza, E.S. Ribeiro, M.G. Segatelli, C.R.T. Tarley, "Study of cross-linked poly(methacrylic acid) and polyvinylimidazole as selective adsorbents for on-line preconcentration and redox speciation of chromium with flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination", Microchemical Journal, 117, 18-26(2014).
[15]Z. Dong, J. Zhao, J. Du, C. Li, L. Zhao, "Radiation synthesis of spherical cellulose-based adsorbent for efficient adsorption and detoxification of Cr(VI)", Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 126, 68-74(2016).
[16]A.A. Taha, J. Qiao, F. Li, B. Zhang, "Preparation and application of amino functionalized mesoporous nanofiber membrane via electrospinning for adsorption of Cr3+ from aqueous solution", Journal of Environmental Sciences, 24(4), 610-616(2012).
[17]M. Ozmen, K. Can, I. Akin, G. Arslan, A. Tor, Y. Cengeloglu, M. Ersoz, "Surface modification of glass beads with glutaraldehyde: Characterization and their adsorption property for metal ions", Journal of Hazardous Materials, 171, 594-600(2009).
[18]M. Li, Z. Zhang, R. Li, J.J. Wang, A. Ali, "Removal of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions from aqueous solution by thiosemicarbazide modified chitosan", International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 86, 876-884(2016).
[19]A.F. Shaaban, D.A. Fadel, A.A. Mahmoud, M.A. Elkomy, S.M. Elbahy, "Synthesis and characterization of dithiocarbamate chelating resin and its adsorption performance toward Hg(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) by batch and fixed-bed column methods", Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 1, 208-217(2013).
[20] W.S.W. Ngah, S. Fatinathan, "Adsorption characterization of Pb(II) and Cu(II) ions onto chitosan-tripolyphosphate beads: Kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies", Journal of Environmental Management, 91, 958-969(2010).
[21]Q. Cao, Y. Liu, C. Wang, J. Cheng", Phosphorus-modified poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene)–PAMAM chelating resin for the adsorption of uranium(VI) in aqueous", Journal of Hazardous Materials, 263, 311-321(2013).
[22]H.R. Yua, J.Q. Hua, Z. Liu, X.J. Jua, R. Xie, W. Wang, L.Y. Chu, "Ion-recognizable hydrogels for efficient removal of cesium ions from aqueous environment", Journal of Hazardous Materials, 323(B), 632-640 (2017).
[23]O. Duman, E. Ayranci, "Attachment of benzo-crown ethers onto activated carbon cloth to enhance the removal of chromium, cobalt and nickel ions from aqueous solutions by adsorption", Journal of Hazardous Materials, 176, 231-238(2010).
[24]A.F. Shaaban, D.A. Fadel, A.A. Mahmoud, M.A. Elkomy, S.M. Elbahy, "Synthesis of a new chelating resin bearing amidoxime group for adsorption of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II) by batch and fixed-bed column methods", Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 2, 632-641(2014).
[25]N.A.M. Zahri, S.N.A.M. Jamil, L.C. Abdullah, S.J. Huey, T.C.S. Yaw, M.N. Mobarekeh, N.S.M. Rapeia, "Equilibrium and kinetic behavior on cadmium and lead removal by using synthetic polymer", Journal of Water Process Engineering, 17, 277-289(2017).
[26]S. Emik, "Preparation and characterization of an IPN type chelating resin containing amino and carboxyl groups for removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions", Reactive & Functional Polymers , 75, 63–74(2014).
[27]X. Yi, Z. Xu, Y. Liu, X. Guo, M. Ou, X. Xu, " Highly efficient removal of uranium(VI) from wastewater by polyacrylic acid hydrogels", Royal Society of Chemistry , 7, 6278–6287(2017).
[28]G. Sharma, M. Naushadb, A.H. Al-Muhtaseb, A. Kumar, M.R. Khan, S. Kalia, M. Bala, A. Sharma, "Fabrication and characterization of chitosan-crosslinked-poly(alginicacid) nanohydrogel for adsorptive removal of Cr(VI) metal ion from aqueous medium", International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 95, 484-493(2017).
[29]L. Zhijiang, L. Meng, X. Huining, H. Zhihong, "Novel Amino Acid Modified Cellulose for Copper(Ⅱ) Adsorption via Spectrophotometry", Imaging Science and Photochemistry, 35, 274-280(2017).
[30]Q. Rong, F. Feng, Z. Ma, "Metal ions doped chitosan–poly(acrylic acid) nanospheres: Synthesis and their application in simultaneously electrochemical detection of four markers of pancreatic cancer", Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 75, 148-154(2016).
[31]P. Liu, L. Jiang, L. Zhu, J. Guo, A. Wang, "Synthesis of covalently crosslinked attapulgite/poly(acrylic acid-co-acrylamide) nanocomposite hydrogels and their evaluation as adsorbent for heavy metal ions", Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 23, 188-193(2015).
[32]W. Maatar, S. Boufi, "Poly(methacylic acid-co-maleic acid) grafted nanofibrillated cellulose as a reusable novel heavy metal ions adsorbent", Carbohydrate Polymers, 126, 199-207(2015).
[33]R. Coşkuna, C. Soykana, M. Saçak, "Removal of some heavy metal ions from aqueous solution by adsorption using poly(ethylene terephthalate)-g-itaconic acid/acrylamide fiber", Reactive and Functional Polymers, 66, 599-608(2006).
[34]G. Bayramoglu, M. Yakup Arica, "Synthesis of Cr(VI)-imprinted poly(4-vinyl pyridine-co-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) particles: Its adsorption propensity to Cr(VI)", Journal of Hazardous Materials, 187, 213-221(2011).
[35]P.D. Chethan, B. Vishalakshi, "Synthesis of ethylenediamine modified chitosan microspheres for removal of divalent and hexavalent ions", International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 75, 179–185(2015)
[36]M. Monier, D.A. Abdel-Latif, "Synthesis and characterization of ion-imprinted resin based on carboxymethyl cellulose for selective removal of UO22+", Carbohydrate Polymers, 97, 743-752(2013).
[37]X. Sun, L. Yang, Q. Li, J. Zhao, X. Li, X. Wang, H. Liu, "Amino-functionalized magnetic cellulose nanocomposite as adsorbent for removal of Cr(VI): Synthesis and adsorption studies", Chemical Engineering Journal, 241, 175-183(2014)
[38]H. Ge, T. Hua, X. Chen, "Selective adsorption of lead on grafted and crosslinked chitosan nanoparticles prepared by using Pb2+as template", Journal of Hazardous Materials, 308, 225-232(2016).
[39]C.Y. Chen, C.L. Chiang, C.R. Chen, "Removal of heavy metal ions by a chelating resin containing glycine as chelating groups", Separation and Purification Technology, 54, 396-403(2007).
[40]C.Y. Chen, M.S. Lin, K.R. Hsu, "Recovery of Cu(II) and Cd(II) by a chelating resin containing aspartate groups", Journal of Hazardous Materials, 152, 986-993(2008).
[41]L. Cui, Q. Meng, J. Zheng, X. Wei, Z. Ye, "Adsorption of Cr(VI) on 1,2-ethylenediamine-aminated macroporous polystyrene particles", Vacuum, 89, 1-6(2013).
[42]A. Gupta, R. Jain, D.C. Gupta, "Studies on uptake behavior of Hg(II) and Pb(II) by amine modified glycidyl methacrylate–styrene–N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide terpolymer", Reactive and Functional Polymers, 95, 22-29(2015).
[43]C.C. Wang, M.H. Cheng, C.Y. Chen, C.Y. Chen, "Facilitated Transport of Molecular Oxygen in the Cobalt-Chelated Copolymer Membranes Prepared by Soap-free Emulsion Polymerization", Journal of Membrane Science, 208, 133-145 (2002).
[44]O.G. Nik, X.Y. Chen, S. Kaliaguine, "Functionalized metal organic framework-polyimide mixed matrix membranes for CO2/CH4 separation", Journal of Membrane Science, 413, 48-61(2012).
[45]C.C. Wang, H.C. Chen, H.H. Bin, C.Y. Chen, "Peroxidation of benzaldehyde catalyzed by cobalt(II)-chelated copolymer", Polymers for Advanced Technologies, 14, 349-354(2003).
[46]孫嘉宏,"奈米銀、硫化銀、氯化銀/高分子複合材料的合成與應用",南台科技大學化學工程與材料工程研究所碩士論文(2014)。
[47]Y.H. Liang, C.C. Wang, C.Y. Chen, "Conductivity and characterization of plasticized polymer electrolyte based on (polyacrylonitrile-b-polyethylene glycol) copolymer", Journal of Power Sources, 172(2), 886-892(2007).
[48]Y. Lin, L. Qi, X. Jing, F. Wang, "Study of the conductivity and side chain mobility of a comb-like polymer electrolyte using the dynamic mechanical method", Solid State Ionics, 139, 293-301(2001).
[49]C.L. Chiang, C.Y. Chen, L.W. Chang, "Purification of recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein expressed in Escherichia coli with new immobilized metal ion affinity magnetic absorbents", Journal of Chromatography B, 864, 116-122(2008).
[50]C.A. Mourão, G. P. Carmignotto, S. M.A. Bueno, "Separation of human IgG fragments using copper, nickel, zinc, and cobalt chelated to CM-Asp-agarose by positive and negative chromatography", Journal of Chromatography B, 1017–1018,163–173(2016).
[51]J. Wang, H. Chen, Z. Chen, Y. Chen, D. Guo, M. Ni, S. Liu, C. Peng, " In-situ formation of silver nanoparticles on poly (lactic acid) film by γ-radiation induced grafting of N-vinyl pyrrolidone", Materials Science and Engineering C, 63, 142–149(2016).
[52]M. Min, L. Shen, G. Hong, M. Zhu, Y. Zhang, X. Wang, Y. Chen, B. S. Hsiao, "Micro-nano structure poly(ether sulfones)/poly(ethyleneimine) nanofibrous affinity membranes for adsorption of anionic dyes and heavy metal ions in aqueous solution", Chemical Engineering Journal, 197, 88-100(2012).
[53]W. Xiong, J. Peng, Y. Hu, "Use of X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) to identify physisorption and chemisorption of phosphate onto ferrihydrite-modified diatomite", Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 368, 528-532(2012).
[54]Ira. N. Levine, "Physical Chemistry", 4th Ed.; New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1995 (Chapter 13.)
[55]A.A. Donia, A.A. Atia, K.Z. Elwakeel, "Selective separation of mercury(II) using a synthetic resin containing amine and mercaptan as chelating groups", Reactive and Functional Polymers, 65, 267-275 (2005).
[56]X. Yao,H. Wang, Z. Ma, M. Liu, X. Zhao, D. Jia, "Adsorption of Hg(II) from aqueous solution using thiourea functionalized chelating fiber", Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, 24(10), 1344–1352(2016).
[57]H. Egawa, M. Nakayama, T. Nonaka, E. Sugihara, "Recovery of uranium from sea water. IV. Influence of crosslinking reagent of the uranium adsorption of macroreticular chelating resin containing amidoxime groups", Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 33, 1993-2005(1987).
[58]Q. Yuan, N. Li, Y. Chi, W. Geng, W. Yan, Y. Zhao, X. Li, B. Dong, "Effect of large pore size of multifunctional mesoporous microsphere on removal of heavy metal ions", Journal of Hazardous Materials, 254-255, 157-165(2013).
[59]L. Li, F. Liu, X. Jing, P. Ling, A. Li, "Displacement mechanism of binary competitive adsorption for aqueous divalent metal ions onto a novel IDA-chelating resin: Isotherm and kinetic modeling", Water Research, 45, 1177-1188(2011).
[60]B.F. Urbano, B.L. Rivas, "Sorption properties of chelating polymer–clay nano-composite resin based on iminodiacetic acid and montmorillonite: water absorbency, metal ion uptake, selectivity, and kinetics", Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 89, 249-258(2014).
[61]廖育嬋,"以側鏈含乙醇胺之螯合樹脂吸附重金屬離子之研究",南台科技大學化學工程與材料工程研究所碩士論文(2009)。
[62]郭恬綺,"側鏈含二乙醇胺之螯合樹脂吸附與分離重金屬離子之研究",南台科技大學化學工程與材料工程研究所碩士論文(2012)。
[63]劉姿韓,"側鏈具 N-(2-羥乙基)乙二胺之螯合樹脂吸附與分離水中重金屬離子之研究",南台科技大學化學工程與材料工程研究所碩士論文(2015)。
[64]R. Chang, "Chemistry", 9th Ed.; New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., page 327, 2008.





電子全文 電子全文(網際網路公開日期:20220701)
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top