跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.192.38.248) 您好!臺灣時間:2022/11/27 05:58
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:呂昂衛
研究生(外文):LU, ANG-WEI
論文名稱:探討健康成人之舌肌力與舌耐力:系統性回顧與整合分析
論文名稱(外文):Tongue Strength and Endurance on Healthy Adults:Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
指導教授:藍守仁藍守仁引用關係盛華盛華引用關係
指導教授(外文):LAN, SHOU-JENCHEN, SHENG-HWA
口試委員:藍守仁盛華嚴雅音
口試委員(外文):LAN, SHOU-JENCHEN, SHENG-HWAYAN, YA-YIN
口試日期:2017-06-28
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:亞洲大學
系所名稱:健康產業管理學系長期照護組碩士在職專班
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:護理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:125
中文關鍵詞:舌肌力舌耐力吞嚥障礙愛荷華口腔功能評量器整合分析
外文關鍵詞:Tongue strengthTongue enduranceDysphagiaIowa oral performance instrumentMeta-analysis
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:881
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:55
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:3
背景
我國高齡化速度遠超過其他已開發國家,且高齡化程度仍持續增加。面臨緊迫的人口老化壓力下,建構一個能讓老年人活躍老化的環境是重要的課題,這意味著提供促進身體健康、參與及安全等面向的生活品質有最適機會過程。
「吃」雖是與生俱來的能力,但老年人的吞嚥功能易受到許多因素影響,而失去獨立進食的功能與樂趣,甚至藉由改變食物質地或長期以鼻胃管、胃造廔等方式攝取必需營養,但這樣的改變也造成社會上許多爭論。
談及吞嚥障礙治療策略時,口腔吞嚥肌肉動作運動是不可或缺的一環。其中因舌頭在吞嚥過程中有重要的功能,因此各種舌頭肌肉運動常被列為建議的項目之ㄧ,測量舌頭功能常用來評估運動成效或相關性分析。截至目前為止,國內外雖然有許多文獻針對舌頭的年齡、性別變項進行相關性的探討,也有不少以舌頭運動介入前後的吞嚥功能變化,但多數研究的受試者人數偏少、組間或全體受試者年齡分布較大等因素限制。本研究透過系統性回顧及整合分析(Meta-Analysis)在此主題上來呈現更客觀且實證的探討。
目的
描述健康成年人之年齡、性別、測量位置與地區之於舌肌力、舌耐力的分布
方法
使用關鍵字在11個英文電子資料庫、2個中文電子資料庫及Google Scholar學術搜尋文獻,日期至西元2017年04月30日止,未限制英文或中文發表文獻。研究對象於測量前需通過口腔及吞嚥功能等評估,且文獻中標示為health或normal之受試者,大於20歲之成年人,測量儀器為愛荷華口腔功能評量器(Iowa oral performance instrument ,IOPI),納入之文獻使用系統性回顧(systematic review)及整合分析方法(meta-analysis)分別呈現。
結果
健康成人舌頭前端之舌肌力與年齡成顯著負相關、男性舌頭前端及後端之舌肌力均比女性高,但未達顯著差異。舌頭前端及後端之舌耐力與年齡無顯著差異、男性舌頭前端舌耐力比女性高,但未達顯著差異,男性舌頭後端之舌耐力比女性低,但未達顯著差異。
建議
一、 將舌肌力運動列為擬定老年人健康促進活動之建議項目。
二、 宣導定期測量與紀錄舌肌力,早期發現舌頭運動異常及進食困難的徵兆。


Background
The aging population in Taiwan grows much faster than other developed countries, and the degree of population aging continues to increase. Under the stress of population aging, it is important to build an active aging environment for the elderly, which provides an optimal opportunity to promote health, participation and safety to ensure quality of life.
"Eating" is a biological instinct, but the elderly's ability to swallow is susceptible to many factors. They gradually lose the ability to swallow and the fun of eating. They have to change the texture of food or depend on an N-G tube or PEG to take essential nutrients. These changes have also led to many issues of concern in the society.
Oral motor exercises play a key role in dysphagia intervention. The tongue has an important function in the swallowing process; therefore, tongue movement is one of the suggested exercises. So far, many studies have investigated the effect of age and gender have on tongue movement, and the changes in swallowing after tongue exercises. However, most of the studies were limited to a small sample size, covering a vast difference in age, etc. This current study presents a more objective and empirical discussion on this subject through systematic review and meta-analysis.
Objective
To explore the effect of age, gender, tongue area, and region differences on the muscle strength and endurance of the tongue in healthy adults.
Methods
Eleven English electronic databases, two Chinese electronic databases and Google Scholar academic search literature were systematically searched for articles up to April 30, 2017, not limited to English or Chinese published literatures. The inclusion criteria of the articles were: (1)The participants’ oral and swallowing functions should be evaluated before measuring the muscle strength and endurance of the tongue; (2)The participants were marked as healthy or normal in the literature, and over 20 years of age; (3)The Iowa oral performance instrument (Iowa oral performance instrument, IOPI) was used in the study. The current study presents the results of the systematic review and meta-analysis separately.
Conclusion
The tongue strength in the front and back of healthy adults’ tongue was significantly negatively correlated with age. The tongue strength in the front of the <60 male’s tongue was significantly higher than that of the >60 male’s. The tongue strength in the front of the <60 female’s tongue was significantly higher than that of the >60 female’s. The tongue endurance in the front and back of the tongue was significantly negatively correlated with age. The difference between the tongue endurance of the male and female was not significant (p <0.05).
Recommendations
1. Exercises improving tongue strength should be on the list of elderly health promotion activity suggestions.
2. Regular evaluation and record of tongue strength for early detection of signs of dysphagia is suggested.

中文摘要
英文摘要
誌謝
第一章 緒論
第一節 研究背景與動機 2
第二節 研究目的 4
第三節 名詞釋義 4
第二章 文獻探討
第一節 老化對吞嚥功能之影響 9
第二節 舌頭組織結構與功能 16
第三節 愛荷華口腔功能評量器(Iowa oral performance instrument, IOPI) 20
第四節 舌頭肌肉運動對改善吞嚥功能之實證 21
第五節 系統性回顧及整合分析 26
第三章 研究方法
第一節 文獻檢索 29
第二節 研究文獻選取 30
第三節 研究文獻品質的評估方法 31
第四節 資料選取 32
第五節 統計分析 34
第四章 研究結果
第一節 研究文獻檢索結果 35
第二節 研究文獻的特性 36
第三節 研究文獻資料的品質 36
第四節 舌肌力與舌耐力之系統性回顧 37
第五節 出版偏差 43
第六節 舌肌力與舌耐力之整合分析 45
第五章 討論
第一節 研究品質討論 55
第二節 性別結果討論 55
第三節 年齡結果討論 56
第四節 地區結果討論 58
第五節 研究限制 59
第六章 結論與建議
第一節 結論 60
第二節 建議 60
參考文獻
一、 英文部分 61
二、 中文部分 68
附錄
附錄一 愛荷華口腔功能評量器IOPI 72
附錄二 球狀物放置位置示意圖 72
附錄三 球狀物放置舌頭後端示意圖 73
表目錄
表一 文獻蒐集樹狀圖 74
表二 資料選取說明表 75
表三 文獻特性表 75
表四 系統性文獻回顧 76
表五 健康成人舌肌力與舌耐力數據表 84
表六 舌頭運動改善吞嚥功能實證列表 93
圖目錄
圖1 病例對照文獻品質 96
圖2 類實驗研究文獻品質 97
圖3 隨機試驗文獻品質 98
圖4 橫斷面研究文獻品質 99
圖5 舌前舌肌力文獻漏斗圖 100
圖6 舌後舌肌力文獻漏斗圖 100
圖7 舌前舌耐力文獻漏斗圖 101
圖8 舌後舌耐力文獻漏斗圖 101
圖9 男性舌前舌肌力整合分析 102
圖10 女性舌前舌肌力整合分析 102
圖11 男性舌前舌肌力迴歸分析 103
圖12 女性舌前舌肌力迴歸分析 103
圖13 男性舌前舌肌力地區分組 104
圖13 女性舌前舌肌力地區分組 104
圖15 男性舌後舌肌力整合分析 105
圖16 女性舌後舌肌力整合分析 105
圖17 男性舌後舌肌力迴歸分析 106
圖18 女性舌後舌肌力迴歸分析 106
圖19 男性舌後舌耐力地區分組 117
無20 女性舌後舌耐力地區分組 117
圖21 男性舌前舌耐力整合分析 108
圖22 女性舌前舌耐力整合分析 108
圖23 男性舌前舌耐力迴歸分析 109
圖24 女性舌前舌耐力迴歸分析 109
圖25 男性舌前舌耐力地區分組 110
圖26 女性舌前舌耐力地區分組 110
圖27 男性舌後舌耐力整合分析 111
圖28 女性舌後舌耐力整合分析 111
圖29 男性舌後舌耐力迴歸分析 112
圖30 女性舌後舌耐力迴歸分析 112
圖31 男性舌後舌耐力地區分組 113
圖32 女性舌後舌耐力地區分組 113

Adams, V., Mathisen, B., Baines, S., Lazarus, C., & Callister, R. (2013). A systematic review and meta-analysis of measurements of tongue and hand strength and endurance using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI). Dysphagia, 28(3), 350-369. doi: 10.1007/s00455-013-9451-3
Adams, V., Mathisen, B., Baines, S., Lazarus, C., & Callister, R. (2014). Reliability of measurements of tongue and hand strength and endurance using the iowa oral performance instrument with healthy adults. Dysphagia, 29(1), 83-95. doi: 10.1007/s00455-013-9486-5
Alsanei, W. A., Chen, J., & Ding, R. (2015). Food oral breaking and the determining role of tongue muscle strength. Food Research International, 67, 331-337. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2014.11.039
Argolo, N., Sampaio, M., Pinho, P., Melo, A., & Nobrega, A. C. (2013). Do swallowing exercises improve swallowing dynamic and quality of life in Parkinson's disease? NeuroRehabilitation, 32(4), 949-955. doi: 10.3233/nre-130918
Aviv, J. E., Martin, J. H., Jones, M. E., Wee, T. A., Diamond, B., Keen, M. S., & Blitzer, A. (1994). Age-related changes in pharyngeal and supraglottic sensation. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol, 103(10), 749-752. doi: 10.1177/000348949410301001
Barczi, S. R., Sullivan, P. A., & Robbins, J. (2000). How should dysphagia care of older adults differ? Establishing optimal practice patterns. Semin Speech Lang, 21(4), 347-361.
Bhattacharyya, N. (2014). The prevalence of dysphagia among adults in the United States. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 151(5), 765-769. doi: 10.1177/0194599814549156
Bloem, B., Lagaay, A., Van Beek, W., Haan, J., Roos, R., & Wintzen, A. (1990). Prevalence of subjective dysphagia in community residents aged over 87. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 300(6726), 721.
Buehring, B., Hind, J., Fidler, E., Krueger, D., Binkley, N., & Robbins, J. (2013). Tongue strength is associated with jumping mechanography performance and handgrip strength but not with classic functional tests in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 61(3), 418-422. doi: 10.1111/jgs.12124
Carrau, R. L., Murry, T., & Howell, R. J. (2016). Comprehensive management of swallowing disorders: Plural Publishing.
Carroll, W. R., Locher, J. L., Canon, C. L., Bohannon, I. A., McColloch, N. L., & Magnuson, J. S. (2008). Pretreatment swallowing exercises improve swallow function after chemoradiation. Laryngoscope, 118(1), 39-43. doi: 10.1097/MLG.0b013e31815659b0
Chang, C.-W., Chen, S. H., Ko, J.-Y., & Lin, Y.-H. (2008). Early radiation effects on tongue function for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a preliminary study. Dysphagia, 23(2), 193-198. doi: 10.1007/s00455-007-9128-x
Clark, H. M. (2012). Specificity of training in the lingual musculature. J Speech Lang Hear Res, 55(2), 657-667. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2011/11-0045)
Clark, H. M., O'Brien, K., Calleja, A., & Corrie, S. N. (2009). Effects of directional exercise on lingual strength. J Speech Lang Hear Res, 52(4), 1034-1047. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0062)
Clark, H. M., & Shelton, N. (2014). Training Effects of the Effortful Swallow Under Three Exercise Conditions. Dysphagia, 29(5), 553-563. doi: 10.1007/s00455-014-9544-7
Clark, H. M., & Solomon, N. P. (2012). Age and sex differences in orofacial strength. Dysphagia, 27(1), 2-9. doi: 10.1007/s00455-011-9328-2
Conn, V. S., & Armer, J. S. (1995). Older spouses: Similarity of health promotion behaviors. Journal of Family Nursing, 1(4), 397-414.
Cook, I. J., Weltman, M. D., Wallace, K., Shaw, D. W., McKay, E., Smart, R. C., & Butler, S. P. (1994). Influence of aging on oral-pharyngeal bolus transit and clearance during swallowing: scintigraphic study. Am J Physiol, 266(6 Pt 1), G972-977.
Crary, M. A., Carnaby, G. D., LaGorio, L. A., & Carvajal, P. J. (2012). Functional and physiological outcomes from an exercise-based dysphagia therapy: a pilot investigation of the McNeill Dysphagia Therapy Program. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 93(7), 1173-1178. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2011.11.008
Crow, H. C., & Ship, J. A. (1996). Tongue strength and endurance in different aged individuals. Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 51(5), M247-M250.
Daggett, A., Logemann, J., Rademaker, A., & Pauloski, B. (2006). Laryngeal penetration during deglutition in normal subjects of various ages. Dysphagia, 21(4), 270-274.
Dodds, W. J., Taylor, A. J., Stewart, E. T., Kern, M. K., Logemann, J. A., & Cook, I. J. (1989). Tipper and dipper types of oral swallows. AJR Am J Roentgenol, 153(6), 1197-1199. doi: 10.2214/ajr.153.6.1197
Ekberg, O., & Feinberg, M. J. (1991). Altered swallowing function in elderly patients without dysphagia: radiologic findings in 56 cases. AJR. American journal of roentgenology, 156(6), 1181-1184.
Gingrich, L. L., Stierwalt, J. A., Hageman, C. F., & LaPointe, L. L. (2012). Lingual propulsive pressures across consistencies generated by the anteromedian and posteromedian tongue by healthy young adults. J Speech Lang Hear Res, 55(3), 960-972. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2011/10-0357)
Higgins, J. P., & Green, S. (2011). Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions (Vol. 4): John Wiley & Sons.
Ibayashi, H., Fujino, Y., Pham, T. M., & Matsuda, S. (2008). Intervention study of exercise program for oral function in healthy elderly people. Tohoku J Exp Med, 215(3), 237-245.
Ickenstein, G. W., Kelly, P. J., Furie, K. L., Ambrosi, D., Rallis, N., Goldstein, R., . . . Stein, J. (2003). Predictors of feeding gastrostomy tube removal in stroke patients with dysphagia. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis, 12(4), 169-174. doi: 10.1016/s1052-3057(03)00077-6
Jones, B. (2012). Normal and abnormal swallowing: imaging in diagnosis and therapy: Springer Science & Business Media.
Kawashima, K., Motohashi, Y., & Fujishima, I. (2004). Prevalence of dysphagia among community-dwelling elderly individuals as estimated using a questionnaire for dysphagia screening. Dysphagia, 19(4), 266-271.
Kays, S. A., Hind, J. A., Gangnon, R. E., & Robbins, J. (2010). Effects of dining on tongue endurance and swallowing-related outcomes. J Speech Lang Hear Res, 53(4), 898-907. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2009/09-0048)
Kikuchi, R., Watabe, N., Konno, T., Mishina, N., Sekizawa, K., & Sasaki, H. (1994). High incidence of silent aspiration in elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 150(1), 251-253.
Kim, H. D., Choi, J. B., Yoo, S. J., Chang, M. Y., Lee, S. W., & Park, J. S. (2017). Tongue-to-palate resistance training improves tongue strength and oropharyngeal swallowing function in subacute stroke survivors with dysphagia. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 44(1), 59-64. doi: 10.1111/joor.12461
Kirkendall, D. T., & Garrett, W. E. (1998). The effects of aging and training on skeletal muscle. The American journal of sports medicine, 26(4), 598-602.
Kjellén, G., & Tibbling, L. (1981). Manometric oesophageal function, acid perfusion test and symptomatology in a 55‐year‐old general population. Clinical Physiology, 1(4), 405-415.
Kraaijenga, S. A., van der Molen, L., Stuiver, M. M., Teertstra, H. J., Hilgers, F. J., & van den Brekel, M. W. (2015). Effects of Strengthening Exercises on Swallowing Musculature and Function in Senior Healthy Subjects: a Prospective Effectiveness and Feasibility Study. Dysphagia, 30(4), 392-403. doi: 10.1007/s00455-015-9611-8
Laguna, L., Hetherington, M. M., Chen, J., Artigas, G., & Sarkar, A. (2016). Measuring eating capability, liking and difficulty perception of older adults: A textural consideration. Food Quality and Preference, 53, 47-56. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2016.05.013
Laguna, L., Sarkar, A., Artigas, G., & Chen, J. (2015). A quantitative assessment of the eating capability in the elderly individuals. Physiology & Behavior, 147, 274-281. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.04.052
Layne, K. A., Losinski, D. S., Zenner, P. M., & Ament, J. A. (1989). Using the Fleming index of dysphagia to establish prevalence. Dysphagia, 4(1), 39-42.
Lazarus, C. L., Logemann, J. A., Huang, C. F., & Rademaker, A. W. (2003). Effects of two types of tongue strengthening exercises in young normals. Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica, 55(4), 199-205. doi: 10.1159/000071019
Lazarus, C. L., Logemann, J. A., Pauloski, B. R., Rademaker, A. W., Larson, C. R., Mittal, B. B., & Pierce, M. (2000). Swallowing and Tongue Function Following Treatment for Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 43(4), 1011-1023.
Lindgren, S., & Janzon, L. (1991). Prevalence of swallowing complaints and clinical findings among 50-79-year-old men and women in an urban population. Dysphagia, 6(4), 187-192.
Logemann, J. (1998). 吞嚥障礙評估與治療 (周芳綺, 陳秀文, 曾鳳菊, 張靜文, 葉麗華, 廖尉淞譯). 臺北市: 心理: 原著出版於.
Logemann, J. A. (1983). Evaluation and treatment of swallowing disorders.
Logemann, J. A., Pauloski, B. R., Rademaker, A. W., Colangelo, L. A., Kahrilas, P. J., & Smith, C. H. (2000). Temporal and biomechanical characteristics of oropharyngeal swallow in younger and older men. J Speech Lang Hear Res, 43(5), 1264-1274.
Logemann, J. A., Pauloski, B. R., Rademaker, A. W., & Kahrilas, P. J. (2002). Oropharyngeal swallow in younger and older women: videofluoroscopic analysis. J Speech Lang Hear Res, 45(3), 434-445.
Logemann, J. A., Rademaker, A., Pauloski, B. R., Kelly, A., Stangl-McBreen, C., Antinoja, J., . . . Easterling, C. (2009). A randomized study comparing the Shaker exercise with traditional therapy: a preliminary study. Dysphagia, 24(4), 403.
McKenna, V. S., Zhang, B., Haines, M. B., & Kelchner, L. N. (2017). A Systematic Review of Isometric Lingual Strength-Training Programs in Adults With and Without Dysphagia. Am J Speech Lang Pathol, 26(2), 524-539. doi: 10.1044/2016_ajslp-15-0051
Mendes, A. E., Nascimento, L., Mansur, L. L., Callegaro, D., & Jacob Filho, W. (2015). Tongue forces and handgrip strength in normal individuals: Association with swallowing. Clinics, 70(1), 41-45. doi: 10.6061/clinics/2015(01)08
Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G., & Group, P. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS med, 6(7), e1000097.
Namasivayam, A. M., Steele, C. M., & Keller, H. (2016). The effect of tongue strength on meal consumption in long term care. Clinical Nutrition, 35(5), 1078-1083. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2015.08.001
Neel, A. T., & Palmer, P. M. (2012). Is tongue strength an important influence on rate of articulation in diadochokinetic and reading tasks? J Speech Lang Hear Res, 55(1), 235-246. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2011/10-0258)
Neel, A. T., Palmer, P. M., Sprouls, G., & Morrison, L. (2015). Muscle weakness and speech in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. J Speech Lang Hear Res, 58(1), 1-12. doi: 10.1044/2014_jslhr-s-13-0172
O'Day, C., Frank, E., Montgomery, A., Nichols, M., & McDade, H. (2005). Repeated tongue and hand strength measurements in normal adults and individuals with Parkinson's disease. The International journal of orofacial myology : official publication of the International Association of Orofacial Myology., 31, 15-25.
Oh, D. H., Park, J. S., Jo, Y. M., & Chang, M. (2016). Differences in maximal isometric tongue strength and endurance of healthy young vs. older adults. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 28(3), 854-856. doi: 10.1589/jpts.28.854
Oh, J.-C. (2015). Effects of Tongue Strength Training and Detraining on Tongue Pressures in Healthy Adults. Dysphagia, 30(3), 315-320. doi: 10.1007/s00455-015-9601-x
Oh, J. C. (2016). A Pilot Study of the Head Extension Swallowing Exercise: New Method for Strengthening Swallowing-Related Muscle Activity. Dysphagia, 31(5), 680-686. doi: 10.1007/s00455-016-9732-8
Ono, T., Hori, K., Tamine, K.-i., & Maeda, Y. (2009). Evaluation of tongue motor biomechanics during swallowing—from oral feeding models to quantitative sensing methods. Japanese Dental Science Review, 45(2), 65-74.
Palmer, P. M., Jaffe, D. M., McCulloch, T. M., Finnegan, E. M., Van Daele, D. J., & Luschei, E. S. (2008). Quantitative contributions of the muscles of the tongue, floor-of-mouth, jaw, and velum to tongue-to-palate pressure generation. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 51(4), 828-835. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2008/060)
Palmer, P. M., Neel, A. T., Sprouls, G., & Morrison, L. (2010). Swallow characteristics in patients with oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 53(6), 1567-1578. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2010/09-0068)
Park, J. S., Oh, D. H., & Chang, M. (2016). Comparison of maximal tongue strength and tongue strength used during swallowing in relation to age in healthy adults. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 28(2), 442-445.
Park, J. S., You, S. J., Kim, J. Y., Yeo, S. G., & Lee, J. H. (2015). Differences in orofacial muscle strength according to age and sex in East Asian healthy adults. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 94(9), 677-686. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0000000000000230
Park, T., & Kim, Y. (2016). Effects of tongue pressing effortful swallow in older healthy individuals. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 66, 127-133. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2016.05.009
Peyron, M.-A., Blanc, O., Lund, J. P., & Woda, A. (2004). Influence of age on adaptability of human mastication. Journal of neurophysiology, 92(2), 773-779.
Plante, E. M., & Beeson, P. M. (2012). Communication and communication disorders: a clinical introduction: Pearson Higher Ed.
Potter, N. L., Johnson, L. R., Johnson, S. E., & VanDam, M. (2015). Facial and lingual strength and endurance in skilled trumpet players. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, 30(2), 90-95.
Prandini, E. L., Totta, T., Bueno, M. R. S., Rosa, R. R., Giglio, L. D., Trawitzki, L. V., . . . Genaro, K. F. (2015). Analysis of tongue pressure in Brazilian young adults. CODAS, 27(5), 478-482. doi: 10.1590/2317-1782/20152014225
Robbins, J., Gangnon, R. E., Theis, S. M., Kays, S. A., Hewitt, A. L., & Hind, J. A. (2005). The effects of lingual exercise on swallowing in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc, 53(9), 1483-1489. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53467.x
Robbins, J., Hamilton, J. W., Lof, G. L., & Kempster, G. B. (1992). Oropharyngeal swallowing in normal adults of different ages. Gastroenterology, 103(3), 823-829.
Robbins, J., Kays, S. A., Gangnon, R. E., Hind, J. A., Hewitt, A. L., Gentry, L. R., & Taylor, A. J. (2007). The effects of lingual exercise in stroke patients with dysphagia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 88(2), 150-158. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2006.11.002
Robbins, J., Levine, R., Wood, J., Roecker, E. B., & Luschei, E. (1995). Age effects on lingual pressure generation as a risk factor for dysphagia. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 50(5), M257-262.
Robbins, J. A., Levine, R., Wood, J., Roecker, E. B., & Luschei, E. (1995). Age effects on lingual pressure generation as a risk factor for dysphagia. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 50(5), M257-M262.
Robin, D. A., Goel, A., Somodi, L. B., & Luschei, E. S. (1992). Tongue strength and endurance: relation to highly skilled movements. J Speech Hear Res, 35(6), 1239-1245.
Rogus-Pulia, N. M., Larson, C., Mittal, B. B., Pierce, M., Zecker, S., Kennelty, K., . . . Connor, N. P. (2016). Effects of Change in Tongue Pressure and Salivary Flow Rate on Swallow Efficiency Following Chemoradiation Treatment for Head and Neck Cancer. Dysphagia, 31(5), 687-696. doi: 10.1007/s00455-016-9733-7
Roy, N., Stemple, J., Merrill, R. M., & Thomas, L. (2007). Dysphagia in the elderly: preliminary evidence of prevalence, risk factors, and socioemotional effects. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol, 116(11), 858-865. doi: 10.1177/000348940711601112
Serra-Prat, M., Hinojosa, G., Lopez, D., Juan, M., Fabre, E., Voss, D. S., . . . Clave, P. (2011). Prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia and impaired safety and efficacy of swallow in independently living older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc, 59(1), 186-187. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.03227.x
Shadden, B. B., & Toner, M. A. (1997). Aging and communication (Vol. 9): Pro Ed.
Shaker, R., & Lang, I. M. (1994). Effect of aging on the deglutitive oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal motor function. Dysphagia, 9(4), 221-228.
Smith, C. H., Logemann, J. A., Burghardt, W. R., Zecker, S. G., & Rademaker, A. W. (2006). Oral and oropharyngeal perceptions of fluid viscosity across the age span. Dysphagia, 21(4), 209-217.
Solomon, N. P., Robin, D. A., & Luschei, E. S. (2000). Strength, endurance, and stability of the tongue and hand in Parkinson disease. J Speech Lang Hear Res, 43(1), 256-267.
Solomon, N. P., Robin, D. A., Mitchinson, S. I., VanDaele, D. J., & Luschei, E. S. (1996). Sense of effort and the effects of fatigue in the tongue and hand. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 39(1), 114-125.
Steele, C. M., Bailey, G. L., Molfenter, S. M., & Yeates, E. M. (2009). Rationale for strength and skill goals in tongue resistance training: A review. SIG 13 Perspectives on Swallowing and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia), 18(2), 49-54.
Steele, C. M., Greenwood, C., Ens, I., Robertson, C., & Seidman-Carlson, R. (1997). Mealtime difficulties in a home for the aged: not just dysphagia. Dysphagia, 12(1), 43-50; discussion 51.
Stierwalt, J. A., & Youmans, S. R. (2007). Tongue measures in individuals with normal and impaired swallowing. Am J Speech Lang Pathol, 16(2), 148-156. doi: 10.1044/1058-0360(2007/019)
Su, H., Hsiao, T.-Y., Ku, S.-C., Wang, T.-G., Lee, J.-J., Tzeng, W.-C., . . . Chen, C. C.-H. (2015). Tongue Weakness and Somatosensory Disturbance Following Oral Endotracheal Extubation. Dysphagia, 30(2), 188-195. doi: 10.1007/s00455-014-9594-x
Sugiyama, T., Ohkubo, M., Honda, Y., Tasaka, A., Nagasawa, K., Ishida, R., & Sakurai, K. (2013). Effect of swallowing exercises in independent elderly. Bull Tokyo Dent Coll, 54(2), 109-115.
Takemoto, H. (2001). Morphological analyses of the human tongue musculature for three-dimensional modeling. J Speech Lang Hear Res, 44(1), 95-107.
Takemoto, H. (2008). Morphological analyses and 3D modeling of the tongue musculature of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Am J Primatol, 70(10), 966-975. doi: 10.1002/ajp.20589
Tanaka, N., Nohara, K., Kotani, Y., Matsumura, M., & Sakai, T. (2013). Swallowing frequency in elderly people during daily life. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 40(10), 744-750.
Tibbling, L., & Gustafsson, B. (1991). Dysphagia and its consequences in the elderly. Dysphagia, 6(4), 200-202.
Tracy, J. F., Logemann, J. A., Kahrilas, P. J., Jacob, P., Kobara, M., & Krugler, C. (1989). Preliminary observations on the effects of age on oropharyngeal deglutition. Dysphagia, 4(2), 90-94.
Vanderwegen, J., Guns, C., Van Nuffelen, G., Elen, R., & De Bodt, M. (2013). The influence of age, sex, bulb position, visual feedback, and the order of testing on maximum anterior and posterior tongue strength and endurance in healthy Belgian adults. Dysphagia, 28(2), 159-166. doi: 10.1007/s00455-012-9425-x
VanRavenhorst-Bell, H. A., Mefferd, A. S., Coufal, K. L., Scudder, R., & Patterson, J. (2017). Tongue strength and endurance: Comparison in active and non-active young and older adults. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 19(1), 77-86. doi: 10.3109/17549507.2016.1154983
Vitorino, J. (2010). Effect of age on tongue strength and endurance scores of healthy Portuguese speakers. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 12(3), 237-243. doi: 10.3109/17549501003746160
Wolf, F. M. (1986). Meta-analysis: Quantitative methods for research synthesis (Vol. 59): Sage.
Yajima, Y., Kikutani, T., Tamura, F., & Yoshida, M. (2017). Relationship between tongue strength and 1-year life expectancy in elderly people needing nursing care. Odontology, 1-7.
Yoshida, M., Groher, M. E., Crary, M. A., Mann, G. C., & Akagawa, Y. (2007). Comparison of surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of submental muscles between the head lift and tongue press exercises as a therapeutic exercise for pharyngeal dysphagia. Gerodontology, 24(2), 111-116. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-2358.2007.00164.x
Yoshikawa, M., Yoshida, M., Tsuga, K., Akagawa, Y., & Groher, M. E. (2011). Comparison of three types of tongue pressure measurement devices. Dysphagia, 26(3), 232-237. doi: 10.1007/s00455-010-9291-3
Youmans, S. R., & Stierwalt, J. A. G. (2006). Measures of Tongue Function Related to Normal Swallowing. Dysphagia, 21(2), 102-111. doi: 10.1007/s00455-006-9013-z
Youmans, S. R., Youmans, G. L., & Stierwalt, J. A. G. (2009). Differences in Tongue Strength Across Age and Gender: Is There a Diminished Strength Reserve? Dysphagia, 24(1), 57-65. doi: 10.1007/s00455-008-9171-2
Adams, V., Mathisen, B., Baines, S., Lazarus, C., & Callister, R. (2013). A systematic review and meta-analysis of measurements of tongue and hand strength and endurance using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI). Dysphagia, 28(3), 350-369. doi: 10.1007/s00455-013-9451-3
Adams, V., Mathisen, B., Baines, S., Lazarus, C., & Callister, R. (2014). Reliability of measurements of tongue and hand strength and endurance using the iowa oral performance instrument with healthy adults. Dysphagia, 29(1), 83-95. doi: 10.1007/s00455-013-9486-5
Alsanei, W. A., Chen, J., & Ding, R. (2015). Food oral breaking and the determining role of tongue muscle strength. Food Research International, 67, 331-337. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2014.11.039
Argolo, N., Sampaio, M., Pinho, P., Melo, A., & Nobrega, A. C. (2013). Do swallowing exercises improve swallowing dynamic and quality of life in Parkinson's disease? NeuroRehabilitation, 32(4), 949-955. doi: 10.3233/nre-130918
Aviv, J. E., Martin, J. H., Jones, M. E., Wee, T. A., Diamond, B., Keen, M. S., & Blitzer, A. (1994). Age-related changes in pharyngeal and supraglottic sensation. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol, 103(10), 749-752. doi: 10.1177/000348949410301001
Barczi, S. R., Sullivan, P. A., & Robbins, J. (2000). How should dysphagia care of older adults differ? Establishing optimal practice patterns. Semin Speech Lang, 21(4), 347-361.
Bhattacharyya, N. (2014). The prevalence of dysphagia among adults in the United States. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 151(5), 765-769. doi: 10.1177/0194599814549156
Bloem, B., Lagaay, A., Van Beek, W., Haan, J., Roos, R., & Wintzen, A. (1990). Prevalence of subjective dysphagia in community residents aged over 87. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 300(6726), 721.
Buehring, B., Hind, J., Fidler, E., Krueger, D., Binkley, N., & Robbins, J. (2013). Tongue strength is associated with jumping mechanography performance and handgrip strength but not with classic functional tests in older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 61(3), 418-422. doi: 10.1111/jgs.12124
Carrau, R. L., Murry, T., & Howell, R. J. (2016). Comprehensive management of swallowing disorders: Plural Publishing.
Carroll, W. R., Locher, J. L., Canon, C. L., Bohannon, I. A., McColloch, N. L., & Magnuson, J. S. (2008). Pretreatment swallowing exercises improve swallow function after chemoradiation. Laryngoscope, 118(1), 39-43. doi: 10.1097/MLG.0b013e31815659b0
Chang, C.-W., Chen, S. H., Ko, J.-Y., & Lin, Y.-H. (2008). Early radiation effects on tongue function for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a preliminary study. Dysphagia, 23(2), 193-198. doi: 10.1007/s00455-007-9128-x
Clark, H. M. (2012). Specificity of training in the lingual musculature. J Speech Lang Hear Res, 55(2), 657-667. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2011/11-0045)
Clark, H. M., O'Brien, K., Calleja, A., & Corrie, S. N. (2009). Effects of directional exercise on lingual strength. J Speech Lang Hear Res, 52(4), 1034-1047. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0062)
Clark, H. M., & Shelton, N. (2014). Training Effects of the Effortful Swallow Under Three Exercise Conditions. Dysphagia, 29(5), 553-563. doi: 10.1007/s00455-014-9544-7
Clark, H. M., & Solomon, N. P. (2012). Age and sex differences in orofacial strength. Dysphagia, 27(1), 2-9. doi: 10.1007/s00455-011-9328-2
Conn, V. S., & Armer, J. S. (1995). Older spouses: Similarity of health promotion behaviors. Journal of Family Nursing, 1(4), 397-414.
Cook, I. J., Weltman, M. D., Wallace, K., Shaw, D. W., McKay, E., Smart, R. C., & Butler, S. P. (1994). Influence of aging on oral-pharyngeal bolus transit and clearance during swallowing: scintigraphic study. Am J Physiol, 266(6 Pt 1), G972-977.
Crary, M. A., Carnaby, G. D., LaGorio, L. A., & Carvajal, P. J. (2012). Functional and physiological outcomes from an exercise-based dysphagia therapy: a pilot investigation of the McNeill Dysphagia Therapy Program. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 93(7), 1173-1178. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2011.11.008
Crow, H. C., & Ship, J. A. (1996). Tongue strength and endurance in different aged individuals. Journals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 51(5), M247-M250.
Daggett, A., Logemann, J., Rademaker, A., & Pauloski, B. (2006). Laryngeal penetration during deglutition in normal subjects of various ages. Dysphagia, 21(4), 270-274.
Dodds, W. J., Taylor, A. J., Stewart, E. T., Kern, M. K., Logemann, J. A., & Cook, I. J. (1989). Tipper and dipper types of oral swallows. AJR Am J Roentgenol, 153(6), 1197-1199. doi: 10.2214/ajr.153.6.1197
Ekberg, O., & Feinberg, M. J. (1991). Altered swallowing function in elderly patients without dysphagia: radiologic findings in 56 cases. AJR. American journal of roentgenology, 156(6), 1181-1184.
Gingrich, L. L., Stierwalt, J. A., Hageman, C. F., & LaPointe, L. L. (2012). Lingual propulsive pressures across consistencies generated by the anteromedian and posteromedian tongue by healthy young adults. J Speech Lang Hear Res, 55(3), 960-972. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2011/10-0357)
Higgins, J. P., & Green, S. (2011). Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions (Vol. 4): John Wiley & Sons.
Ibayashi, H., Fujino, Y., Pham, T. M., & Matsuda, S. (2008). Intervention study of exercise program for oral function in healthy elderly people. Tohoku J Exp Med, 215(3), 237-245.
Ickenstein, G. W., Kelly, P. J., Furie, K. L., Ambrosi, D., Rallis, N., Goldstein, R., . . . Stein, J. (2003). Predictors of feeding gastrostomy tube removal in stroke patients with dysphagia. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis, 12(4), 169-174. doi: 10.1016/s1052-3057(03)00077-6
Jones, B. (2012). Normal and abnormal swallowing: imaging in diagnosis and therapy: Springer Science & Business Media.
Kawashima, K., Motohashi, Y., & Fujishima, I. (2004). Prevalence of dysphagia among community-dwelling elderly individuals as estimated using a questionnaire for dysphagia screening. Dysphagia, 19(4), 266-271.
Kays, S. A., Hind, J. A., Gangnon, R. E., & Robbins, J. (2010). Effects of dining on tongue endurance and swallowing-related outcomes. J Speech Lang Hear Res, 53(4), 898-907. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2009/09-0048)
Kikuchi, R., Watabe, N., Konno, T., Mishina, N., Sekizawa, K., & Sasaki, H. (1994). High incidence of silent aspiration in elderly patients with community-acquired pneumonia. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 150(1), 251-253.
Kim, H. D., Choi, J. B., Yoo, S. J., Chang, M. Y., Lee, S. W., & Park, J. S. (2017). Tongue-to-palate resistance training improves tongue strength and oropharyngeal swallowing function in subacute stroke survivors with dysphagia. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 44(1), 59-64. doi: 10.1111/joor.12461
Kirkendall, D. T., & Garrett, W. E. (1998). The effects of aging and training on skeletal muscle. The American journal of sports medicine, 26(4), 598-602.
Kjellén, G., & Tibbling, L. (1981). Manometric oesophageal function, acid perfusion test and symptomatology in a 55‐year‐old general population. Clinical Physiology, 1(4), 405-415.
Kraaijenga, S. A., van der Molen, L., Stuiver, M. M., Teertstra, H. J., Hilgers, F. J., & van den Brekel, M. W. (2015). Effects of Strengthening Exercises on Swallowing Musculature and Function in Senior Healthy Subjects: a Prospective Effectiveness and Feasibility Study. Dysphagia, 30(4), 392-403. doi: 10.1007/s00455-015-9611-8
Laguna, L., Hetherington, M. M., Chen, J., Artigas, G., & Sarkar, A. (2016). Measuring eating capability, liking and difficulty perception of older adults: A textural consideration. Food Quality and Preference, 53, 47-56. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2016.05.013
Laguna, L., Sarkar, A., Artigas, G., & Chen, J. (2015). A quantitative assessment of the eating capability in the elderly individuals. Physiology & Behavior, 147, 274-281. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.04.052
Layne, K. A., Losinski, D. S., Zenner, P. M., & Ament, J. A. (1989). Using the Fleming index of dysphagia to establish prevalence. Dysphagia, 4(1), 39-42.
Lazarus, C. L., Logemann, J. A., Huang, C. F., & Rademaker, A. W. (2003). Effects of two types of tongue strengthening exercises in young normals. Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica, 55(4), 199-205. doi: 10.1159/000071019
Lazarus, C. L., Logemann, J. A., Pauloski, B. R., Rademaker, A. W., Larson, C. R., Mittal, B. B., & Pierce, M. (2000). Swallowing and Tongue Function Following Treatment for Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 43(4), 1011-1023.
Lindgren, S., & Janzon, L. (1991). Prevalence of swallowing complaints and clinical findings among 50-79-year-old men and women in an urban population. Dysphagia, 6(4), 187-192.
Logemann, J. (1998). 吞嚥障礙評估與治療 (周芳綺, 陳秀文, 曾鳳菊, 張靜文, 葉麗華, 廖尉淞譯). 臺北市: 心理: 原著出版於.
Logemann, J. A. (1983). Evaluation and treatment of swallowing disorders.
Logemann, J. A., Pauloski, B. R., Rademaker, A. W., Colangelo, L. A., Kahrilas, P. J., & Smith, C. H. (2000). Temporal and biomechanical characteristics of oropharyngeal swallow in younger and older men. J Speech Lang Hear Res, 43(5), 1264-1274.
Logemann, J. A., Pauloski, B. R., Rademaker, A. W., & Kahrilas, P. J. (2002). Oropharyngeal swallow in younger and older women: videofluoroscopic analysis. J Speech Lang Hear Res, 45(3), 434-445.
Logemann, J. A., Rademaker, A., Pauloski, B. R., Kelly, A., Stangl-McBreen, C., Antinoja, J., . . . Easterling, C. (2009). A randomized study comparing the Shaker exercise with traditional therapy: a preliminary study. Dysphagia, 24(4), 403.
McKenna, V. S., Zhang, B., Haines, M. B., & Kelchner, L. N. (2017). A Systematic Review of Isometric Lingual Strength-Training Programs in Adults With and Without Dysphagia. Am J Speech Lang Pathol, 26(2), 524-539. doi: 10.1044/2016_ajslp-15-0051
Mendes, A. E., Nascimento, L., Mansur, L. L., Callegaro, D., & Jacob Filho, W. (2015). Tongue forces and handgrip strength in normal individuals: Association with swallowing. Clinics, 70(1), 41-45. doi: 10.6061/clinics/2015(01)08
Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G., & Group, P. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS med, 6(7), e1000097.
Namasivayam, A. M., Steele, C. M., & Keller, H. (2016). The effect of tongue strength on meal consumption in long term care. Clinical Nutrition, 35(5), 1078-1083. doi: 10.1016/j.clnu.2015.08.001
Neel, A. T., & Palmer, P. M. (2012). Is tongue strength an important influence on rate of articulation in diadochokinetic and reading tasks? J Speech Lang Hear Res, 55(1), 235-246. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2011/10-0258)
Neel, A. T., Palmer, P. M., Sprouls, G., & Morrison, L. (2015). Muscle weakness and speech in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. J Speech Lang Hear Res, 58(1), 1-12. doi: 10.1044/2014_jslhr-s-13-0172
O'Day, C., Frank, E., Montgomery, A., Nichols, M., & McDade, H. (2005). Repeated tongue and hand strength measurements in normal adults and individuals with Parkinson's disease. The International journal of orofacial myology : official publication of the International Association of Orofacial Myology., 31, 15-25.
Oh, D. H., Park, J. S., Jo, Y. M., & Chang, M. (2016). Differences in maximal isometric tongue strength and endurance of healthy young vs. older adults. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 28(3), 854-856. doi: 10.1589/jpts.28.854
Oh, J.-C. (2015). Effects of Tongue Strength Training and Detraining on Tongue Pressures in Healthy Adults. Dysphagia, 30(3), 315-320. doi: 10.1007/s00455-015-9601-x
Oh, J. C. (2016). A Pilot Study of the Head Extension Swallowing Exercise: New Method for Strengthening Swallowing-Related Muscle Activity. Dysphagia, 31(5), 680-686. doi: 10.1007/s00455-016-9732-8
Ono, T., Hori, K., Tamine, K.-i., & Maeda, Y. (2009). Evaluation of tongue motor biomechanics during swallowing—from oral feeding models to quantitative sensing methods. Japanese Dental Science Review, 45(2), 65-74.
Palmer, P. M., Jaffe, D. M., McCulloch, T. M., Finnegan, E. M., Van Daele, D. J., & Luschei, E. S. (2008). Quantitative contributions of the muscles of the tongue, floor-of-mouth, jaw, and velum to tongue-to-palate pressure generation. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 51(4), 828-835. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2008/060)
Palmer, P. M., Neel, A. T., Sprouls, G., & Morrison, L. (2010). Swallow characteristics in patients with oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 53(6), 1567-1578. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2010/09-0068)
Park, J. S., Oh, D. H., & Chang, M. (2016). Comparison of maximal tongue strength and tongue strength used during swallowing in relation to age in healthy adults. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 28(2), 442-445.
Park, J. S., You, S. J., Kim, J. Y., Yeo, S. G., & Lee, J. H. (2015). Differences in orofacial muscle strength according to age and sex in East Asian healthy adults. American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 94(9), 677-686. doi: 10.1097/PHM.0000000000000230
Park, T., & Kim, Y. (2016). Effects of tongue pressing effortful swallow in older healthy individuals. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 66, 127-133. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2016.05.009
Peyron, M.-A., Blanc, O., Lund, J. P., & Woda, A. (2004). Influence of age on adaptability of human mastication. Journal of neurophysiology, 92(2), 773-779.
Plante, E. M., & Beeson, P. M. (2012). Communication and communication disorders: a clinical introduction: Pearson Higher Ed.
Potter, N. L., Johnson, L. R., Johnson, S. E., & VanDam, M. (2015). Facial and lingual strength and endurance in skilled trumpet players. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, 30(2), 90-95.
Prandini, E. L., Totta, T., Bueno, M. R. S., Rosa, R. R., Giglio, L. D., Trawitzki, L. V., . . . Genaro, K. F. (2015). Analysis of tongue pressure in Brazilian young adults. CODAS, 27(5), 478-482. doi: 10.1590/2317-1782/20152014225
Robbins, J., Gangnon, R. E., Theis, S. M., Kays, S. A., Hewitt, A. L., & Hind, J. A. (2005). The effects of lingual exercise on swallowing in older adults. J Am Geriatr Soc, 53(9), 1483-1489. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2005.53467.x
Robbins, J., Hamilton, J. W., Lof, G. L., & Kempster, G. B. (1992). Oropharyngeal swallowing in normal adults of different ages. Gastroenterology, 103(3), 823-829.
Robbins, J., Kays, S. A., Gangnon, R. E., Hind, J. A., Hewitt, A. L., Gentry, L. R., & Taylor, A. J. (2007). The effects of lingual exercise in stroke patients with dysphagia. Arch Phys Med Rehabil, 88(2), 150-158. doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2006.11.002
Robbins, J., Levine, R., Wood, J., Roecker, E. B., & Luschei, E. (1995). Age effects on lingual pressure generation as a risk factor for dysphagia. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 50(5), M257-262.
Robbins, J. A., Levine, R., Wood, J., Roecker, E. B., & Luschei, E. (1995). Age effects on lingual pressure generation as a risk factor for dysphagia. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 50(5), M257-M262.
Robin, D. A., Goel, A., Somodi, L. B., & Luschei, E. S. (1992). Tongue strength and endurance: relation to highly skilled movements. J Speech Hear Res, 35(6), 1239-1245.
Rogus-Pulia, N. M., Larson, C., Mittal, B. B., Pierce, M., Zecker, S., Kennelty, K., . . . Connor, N. P. (2016). Effects of Change in Tongue Pressure and Salivary Flow Rate on Swallow Efficiency Following Chemoradiation Treatment for Head and Neck Cancer. Dysphagia, 31(5), 687-696. doi: 10.1007/s00455-016-9733-7
Roy, N., Stemple, J., Merrill, R. M., & Thomas, L. (2007). Dysphagia in the elderly: preliminary evidence of prevalence, risk factors, and socioemotional effects. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol, 116(11), 858-865. doi: 10.1177/000348940711601112
Serra-Prat, M., Hinojosa, G., Lopez, D., Juan, M., Fabre, E., Voss, D. S., . . . Clave, P. (2011). Prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia and impaired safety and efficacy of swallow in independently living older persons. J Am Geriatr Soc, 59(1), 186-187. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.03227.x
Shadden, B. B., & Toner, M. A. (1997). Aging and communication (Vol. 9): Pro Ed.
Shaker, R., & Lang, I. M. (1994). Effect of aging on the deglutitive oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal motor function. Dysphagia, 9(4), 221-228.
Smith, C. H., Logemann, J. A., Burghardt, W. R., Zecker, S. G., & Rademaker, A. W. (2006). Oral and oropharyngeal perceptions of fluid viscosity across the age span. Dysphagia, 21(4), 209-217.
Solomon, N. P., Robin, D. A., & Luschei, E. S. (2000). Strength, endurance, and stability of the tongue and hand in Parkinson disease. J Speech Lang Hear Res, 43(1), 256-267.
Solomon, N. P., Robin, D. A., Mitchinson, S. I., VanDaele, D. J., & Luschei, E. S. (1996). Sense of effort and the effects of fatigue in the tongue and hand. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 39(1), 114-125.
Steele, C. M., Bailey, G. L., Molfenter, S. M., & Yeates, E. M. (2009). Rationale for strength and skill goals in tongue resistance training: A review. SIG 13 Perspectives on Swallowing and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia), 18(2), 49-54.
Steele, C. M., Greenwood, C., Ens, I., Robertson, C., & Seidman-Carlson, R. (1997). Mealtime difficulties in a home for the aged: not just dysphagia. Dysphagia, 12(1), 43-50; discussion 51.
Stierwalt, J. A., & Youmans, S. R. (2007). Tongue measures in individuals with normal and impaired swallowing. Am J Speech Lang Pathol, 16(2), 148-156. doi: 10.1044/1058-0360(2007/019)
Su, H., Hsiao, T.-Y., Ku, S.-C., Wang, T.-G., Lee, J.-J., Tzeng, W.-C., . . . Chen, C. C.-H. (2015). Tongue Weakness and Somatosensory Disturbance Following Oral Endotracheal Extubation. Dysphagia, 30(2), 188-195. doi: 10.1007/s00455-014-9594-x
Sugiyama, T., Ohkubo, M., Honda, Y., Tasaka, A., Nagasawa, K., Ishida, R., & Sakurai, K. (2013). Effect of swallowing exercises in independent elderly. Bull Tokyo Dent Coll, 54(2), 109-115.
Takemoto, H. (2001). Morphological analyses of the human tongue musculature for three-dimensional modeling. J Speech Lang Hear Res, 44(1), 95-107.
Takemoto, H. (2008). Morphological analyses and 3D modeling of the tongue musculature of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Am J Primatol, 70(10), 966-975. doi: 10.1002/ajp.20589
Tanaka, N., Nohara, K., Kotani, Y., Matsumura, M., & Sakai, T. (2013). Swallowing frequency in elderly people during daily life. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 40(10), 744-750.
Tibbling, L., & Gustafsson, B. (1991). Dysphagia and its consequences in the elderly. Dysphagia, 6(4), 200-202.
Tracy, J. F., Logemann, J. A., Kahrilas, P. J., Jacob, P., Kobara, M., & Krugler, C. (1989). Preliminary observations on the effects of age on oropharyngeal deglutition. Dysphagia, 4(2), 90-94.
Vanderwegen, J., Guns, C., Van Nuffelen, G., Elen, R., & De Bodt, M. (2013). The influence of age, sex, bulb position, visual feedback, and the order of testing on maximum anterior and posterior tongue strength and endurance in healthy Belgian adults. Dysphagia, 28(2), 159-166. doi: 10.1007/s00455-012-9425-x
VanRavenhorst-Bell, H. A., Mefferd, A. S., Coufal, K. L., Scudder, R., & Patterson, J. (2017). Tongue strength and endurance: Comparison in active and non-active young and older adults. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 19(1), 77-86. doi: 10.3109/17549507.2016.1154983
Vitorino, J. (2010). Effect of age on tongue strength and endurance scores of healthy Portuguese speakers. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 12(3), 237-243. doi: 10.3109/17549501003746160
Wolf, F. M. (1986). Meta-analysis: Quantitative methods for research synthesis (Vol. 59): Sage.
Yajima, Y., Kikutani, T., Tamura, F., & Yoshida, M. (2017). Relationship between tongue strength and 1-year life expectancy in elderly people needing nursing care. Odontology, 1-7.
Yoshida, M., Groher, M. E., Crary, M. A., Mann, G. C., & Akagawa, Y. (2007). Comparison of surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of submental muscles between the head lift and tongue press exercises as a therapeutic exercise for pharyngeal dysphagia. Gerodontology, 24(2), 111-116. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-2358.2007.00164.x
Yoshikawa, M., Yoshida, M., Tsuga, K., Akagawa, Y., & Groher, M. E. (2011). Comparison of three types of tongue pressure measurement devices. Dysphagia, 26(3), 232-237. doi: 10.1007/s00455-010-9291-3
Youmans, S. R., & Stierwalt, J. A. G. (2006). Measures of Tongue Function Related to Normal Swallowing. Dysphagia, 21(2), 102-111. doi: 10.1007/s00455-006-9013-z
Youmans, S. R., Youmans, G. L., & Stierwalt, J. A. G. (2009). Differences in Tongue Strength Across Age and Gender: Is There a Diminished Strength Reserve? Dysphagia, 24(1), 57-65. doi: 10.1007/s00455-008-9171-2
Zemlin, W. R. (1968). Speech and Hearing Science, Anatomy and Physiology.
中華民國內政部統計處. 2015 World Population Data Sheet.
中華民國國家發展委員會. (2016). 中華民國人口推估(105年至150年). 90.
方怡堯, 何信弘, & 張少熙. (2014). 在地老化運動促進策略之探討:以芬蘭高齡者運動促進方案為例. [Analysis for Exercise Strategy of Aging in Place: The Case Study of the Finland Exercise Promotion Project for Older Adults]. 中華體育季刊, 28(2), 137-144. doi: 10.6223/qcpe.2802.201406.1006
王秀紅. (1999). 統合分析的概念及其在護理的應用. 護理研究, 7(2), 183-192.
王宜斌, & 游翔博. (2016). 口乾症與唾液腺機能不足之診斷與處置-文獻回顧. [Diagnosis and Management of Xerostomia and Salivary Gland Hypofunction - A Review]. 中華民國家庭牙醫學雜誌, 11(3), 4-16. doi: 10.6566/jfd/2016.11(3).4
王亭貴, 陳思遠, 連倚南, & 黃士峰. (2001). 台北某社區老人之吞嚥障礙. [Swallowing Disorder in the Elderly of a Taipei Community]. 台灣醫學, 5(5), 523-529. doi: 10.6320/fjm.2001.5(5).04
王思涵, & 王俊毅. (2013). 台灣中老年人慢性期中風患者身心健康之退化狀況. [The Decline in Physical and Mental Health among Older Chronic Stroke Patients in Taiwan]. 台灣公共衛生雜誌, 32(4), 383-392. doi: 10.6288/tjph2013-32-04-10
石雅慧, 羅恆廉, 翁逸豪, 丁賢偉, 許志成, 陳杰峰, . . . 郭耿南. (2010). 醫師對實證醫學之接受度: 全國區域醫院之分析. 醫學教育, 14(3), 173-182.
曲同光, 彭美琪, & 白其怡. (2015). 規劃長照保險重要基礎資料庫-國民長期照護需要調查. 國土及公共治理季刊, 3(1), 108-114.
吳孟璋, 陳弘洲, 康峻宏, & 陳適卿. (2008). 鼻胃管症候群:病例報告. [Nasogastric Tube Syndrome: A Case Report]. 台灣復健醫學雜誌, 36(4), 265-270. doi: 10.6315/2008.36(4)09
呂孟純, 楊美都, 何珢鈴, & 詹吟菁. (2013). 營養介入對居家失能營養不良老人病患營養狀況之效益. [Beneficial Effects of a Nutritional Intervention in Disabled Homebound Elderly with Malnutrition]. 臺灣營養學會雜誌, 38(2), 60-70.
李智貴, & 陳恆順. (1995). 統合分析 (Meta-Analysis) 之簡介. 當代醫學(256), 167-172.
林幸君, 李慧琳, 許聖民, 林國榮, 李篤華, 張靜貞, & 徐世勳. (2015). 少子化與高齡化下的臺灣人口預測與經濟分析. [Baseline Forecasting for Taiwan's Population in the Face of Low Fertility Rate and Ageing Problems]. 臺灣經濟預測與政策, 46(1), 113-156.
林泰祐, & 林麗娟. (2011). 阻力訓練對減緩老年人骨骼肌減少症的效益. 中華體育季刊, 25(1), 10-21. doi: 10.6223/qcpe.2501.201103.2102
林蕙秋, 莊曜嘉, 蘇王麟, 呂衍達, 黃福昭, & 賴允亮. (2000). 以隱藏式吸入性肺炎表現之腦幹畸胎瘤:病例報告. [A Brain Stem Teratoma Manifested by Silent Aspiration Pneumonia : A Case Report]. 中華民國復健醫學會雜誌, 28(2), 109-116.
金惠民, 田玫, & 廖英茵. (2002). 老人居家照護個案營養專業介入之成效探討. [The Effectiveness of Home Visits by Registered Dietitians to the Elderly in Taiwan]. 臺灣營養學會雜誌, 27(4), 232-238.
柯宜伶. (2014). 苗栗縣長期照護居家復健個案吞嚥問題盛行率之研究. (碩士), 國立臺北護理健康大學, 台北市.
洪牧瑜, 李家和, 黃英家, 陳大洲, 許永忠, & 阮愷輝. (1993). 復發性多軟骨炎: 病例報告及文獻回顧. The Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences, 9(9), 553-558.
張欽凱, & 郭旭格. (2006). 衰弱症候群. [Frailty]. 長期照護雜誌, 10(3), 203-206.
張靜文. (2004). 放射線治療對鼻咽癌患者舌頭功能與吞嚥功能之早期效應:初步研究. (碩士), 國立台北護理學院, 台北市.
莊其穆. (2011). 臨床醫師如何閱讀統合分析 (Meta-analysis) 的論文. 臺灣醫界, 54(2), 74-82.
許安倫. (2005). 老年人常見疾病的運動與營養-物理治療師的觀點. [Exercise and Nutrition for Disease Commonly Seen in the Elderly-Physical Therapist's Point of View]. 長期照護雜誌, 9(1), 39-46.
許坤榮, 嚴雅音, 吴逸民, 黄瑞典, 李坤宗, 雷曜寧, . . . 李惠娥. (2009). 存留齒健康狀況及數量與中老年人咀嚼能力之相關性研究. [Relationship between the Number and Healthy Status of Remaining Teeth and Chewing Ability of the Middle-aged and Elderly]. Taiwan Journal of Oral Medicine Sciences, 25(1), 64-77.
許俊傑, 陳慧霞, & 藍守仁. (1995). 統合分析的概念與方法: 公共衛生.
陳思遠, & 張欽凱. (2014). 身體活動與肌少症. [Physical Activity and Sarcopenia]. 台灣醫學, 18(3), 310-316. doi: 10.6320/fjm.2014.18(3).06
陳柏琪, 張靜貞, & 陳肇男. (2015). 臺灣老年長期照護需求之推計─GEMTEE模型之應用. [Projections of Future Long-Term Care Needs of an Aging Population of Taiwan -- An Application of GEMTEE]. 人口學刊(51), 43-93. doi: 10.6191/jps.2015.51.02
陳寬政, 林子瑜, 邱毅潔, & 紀筱涵. (2009). 人口老化、疾病擴張、與健保醫療費用. [Population Aging, Morbidity Expansion, and NHI Medical Expenditures]. 人口學刊(39), 59-83. doi: 10.6191/jps.2009.6
曾美君. (2010). 隨筆談系統性文獻回顧與統合分析. 腦中風會訊, 17(2), 11-13.
游曉微, & 陳雅美. (2015). 臺灣老人失能趨勢之回顧. [Review of Disability Trends among Older Adults in Taiwan]. 長期照護雜誌, 19(2), 157-186. doi: 10.6317/ltc.19.157
鈕東楠, 劉詩彬, & 李憲彥. (1983). 鼻胃管引起的喉部併發症. 當代醫學(120), 858-859.
黃乃炯, 魏大森, & 劉森永. (2006). 中風患者鼻胃管的使用對憂鬱傾向及功能預後的影響. [The Influence of Nasogastric Tube to Post-Stroke Depressive Tendency and Functional Outcome]. 台灣復健醫學雜誌, 34(1), 19-26. doi: 10.6315/2006.34(1)03
黃桂香, 黃純德, 王曉平, & 黃祖源. (2010). 高雄地區長期照護機構中老人咀嚼吞嚥與營養相關之探討. [The Relationship between Swallowing Function and Nutrition Status of long-term Care Facility Residents in Kaohsiung Area]. Taiwan Journal of Oral Medicine Sciences, 26(3), 227-235.
楊聰鎰, 連漢仲, 張繼森, & 陳儉鏗. (1998). Esophageal Strictures Following Nasogastric Intubation: Report of a Case. [鼻胃管引發之食道狹窄:一病例報告 ]. 中華民國消化系醫學雜誌, 15(2), 138-144.
溫馨喬, 唐浩偉, 彭昶仁, 陳冠霖, 蕭靜旻, & 林仲哲. (2015). 中風後急性/亞急性期吞嚥困難病患鼻胃管拔除之相關因子研究. [Factors Associated with Nasogastric Tube Removal in Patients with Post-stroke Dysphagia Following Acute/Subacute Stroke]. 台灣復健醫學雜誌, 43(4), 217-223. doi: 10.6315/2015.43(4)02
萬彝芬, 高毓秀, 林淑芬, & 王國明. (2010). 12週預防跌倒課程對機構老人成效之探討. [An Effective Study of 12 weeks Fall Prevention Programs for Elderly in Residential Care Home]. 臺灣老人保健學刊, 6(1), 20-36.
廖永澄, & 呂淑華. (2014). 以實證探討鼻胃管灌食導致吸入性肺炎之預防措施. [Preventing Nasogastric Tube Feeding Caused Aspiration Pneumonia: An Evidence-based Approach]. 長期照護雜誌, 18(2), 237-250. doi: 10.6317/ltc.18.237
劉春來, 侯傑議, & 涂瑞洪. (2014). 運動對老年人健康之影響. 屏東教大體育(17), 139-144.
劉淑媛, & 陳佳慧. (2014). 老年人的肌肉質量流失. [Loss of Muscle Mass in the Elderly]. 台灣醫學, 18(1), 99-103. doi: 10.6320/fjm.2014.18(1).12
歐陽來祥. (2008). 吞嚥困難評估和治療-臨床實用手冊.
蔡旻璇, 吳國湘, 蘇涵, & 陳佳慧. (2012). 經口氣管插管於口咽及吞嚥功能的影響. [Oropharyngeal and Swallowing Functions after Prolonged Oral Endotracheal Intubation]. 重症醫學雜誌, 13(4), 185-189.
衛生福利部. (2016). 長期照顧十年計畫2.0(106~115年).
簡盟月, & 何靖雯. (2016). 運動訓練對肌少症的治療成效. [Effects of Exercise Training for Sarcopenia]. 長期照護雜誌, 20(2), 125-136. doi: 10.6317/ltc.20.125
蘇涵, & 陳佳慧. (2013). 口腔感覺功能評估. [Assessment of Oral Sensory Function]. 台灣醫學, 17(4), 435-440. doi: 10.6320/fjm.2013.17(4).12


QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
1. 方怡堯, 何信弘, & 張少熙. (2014). 在地老化運動促進策略之探討:以芬蘭高齡者運動促進方案為例. [Analysis for Exercise Strategy of Aging in Place: The Case Study of the Finland Exercise Promotion Project for Older Adults]. 中華體育季刊, 28(2), 137-144. doi: 10.6223/qcpe.2802.201406.1006
2. 王秀紅. (1999). 統合分析的概念及其在護理的應用. 護理研究, 7(2), 183-192.
3. 王宜斌, & 游翔博. (2016). 口乾症與唾液腺機能不足之診斷與處置-文獻回顧. [Diagnosis and Management of Xerostomia and Salivary Gland Hypofunction - A Review]. 中華民國家庭牙醫學雜誌, 11(3), 4-16. doi: 10.6566/jfd/2016.11(3).4
4. 曲同光, 彭美琪, & 白其怡. (2015). 規劃長照保險重要基礎資料庫-國民長期照護需要調查. 國土及公共治理季刊, 3(1), 108-114.
5. 呂孟純, 楊美都, 何珢鈴, & 詹吟菁. (2013). 營養介入對居家失能營養不良老人病患營養狀況之效益. [Beneficial Effects of a Nutritional Intervention in Disabled Homebound Elderly with Malnutrition]. 臺灣營養學會雜誌, 38(2), 60-70.
6. 李智貴, & 陳恆順. (1995). 統合分析 (Meta-Analysis) 之簡介. 當代醫學(256), 167-172.
7. 林幸君, 李慧琳, 許聖民, 林國榮, 李篤華, 張靜貞, & 徐世勳. (2015). 少子化與高齡化下的臺灣人口預測與經濟分析. [Baseline Forecasting for Taiwan's Population in the Face of Low Fertility Rate and Ageing Problems]. 臺灣經濟預測與政策, 46(1), 113-156.
8. 林泰祐, & 林麗娟. (2011). 阻力訓練對減緩老年人骨骼肌減少症的效益. 中華體育季刊, 25(1), 10-21. doi: 10.6223/qcpe.2501.201103.2102
9. 林蕙秋, 莊曜嘉, 蘇王麟, 呂衍達, 黃福昭, & 賴允亮. (2000). 以隱藏式吸入性肺炎表現之腦幹畸胎瘤:病例報告. [A Brain Stem Teratoma Manifested by Silent Aspiration Pneumonia : A Case Report]. 中華民國復健醫學會雜誌, 28(2), 109-116.
10. 張欽凱, & 郭旭格. (2006). 衰弱症候群. [Frailty]. 長期照護雜誌, 10(3), 203-206.
11. 莊其穆. (2011). 臨床醫師如何閱讀統合分析 (Meta-analysis) 的論文. 臺灣醫界, 54(2), 74-82.
12. 許安倫. (2005). 老年人常見疾病的運動與營養-物理治療師的觀點. [Exercise and Nutrition for Disease Commonly Seen in the Elderly-Physical Therapist's Point of View]. 長期照護雜誌, 9(1), 39-46.
13. 許俊傑, 陳慧霞, & 藍守仁. (1995). 統合分析的概念與方法: 公共衛生.
14. 陳柏琪, 張靜貞, & 陳肇男. (2015). 臺灣老年長期照護需求之推計─GEMTEE模型之應用. [Projections of Future Long-Term Care Needs of an Aging Population of Taiwan -- An Application of GEMTEE]. 人口學刊(51), 43-93. doi: 10.6191/jps.2015.51.02
15. 陳寬政, 林子瑜, 邱毅潔, & 紀筱涵. (2009). 人口老化、疾病擴張、與健保醫療費用. [Population Aging, Morbidity Expansion, and NHI Medical Expenditures]. 人口學刊(39), 59-83. doi: 10.6191/jps.2009.6