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研究生:孟柏凱
研究生(外文):KYLE MULLANEY
論文名稱:台灣留學生在美國大學的溝通經驗:面子、關係、人情
論文名稱(外文):Face, Guanxi, Renqing, and Communicative Experiences of Taiwanese Study-Abroad Students in American Universities.
指導教授:孫一安
指導教授(外文):SERGE DREYER
口試委員:郭宜蕙徐琍沂
口試委員(外文):GUO, YI-HUEYLISA HSU
口試日期:2017-06-13
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:東海大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:英文
論文頁數:127
中文關鍵詞:跨文化溝通面子關係人情
外文關鍵詞:intercultural communicationfacefaceworkguanxirenqing
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有關國際學生英語能力的研究眾多,尤其是以來自華語國家的學生為研究對象,這些研究原本專注於語言能力,後自九零年代擴及國際學生在溝通時面臨的文化差異及相關難題,其中又以愛面子為主要理論。本研究將探究三名台灣交換學生在美國大學的溝通經驗,運用在交換期間學習紀錄、日誌與訪談,其中有兩項分析重點,第一是面子、關係、人情,以及在群體內外與這些經驗相關的顧慮,第二在於瞭解大學在派送與接收這些學生時,應如何協助學生因應文化變遷。研究結果顯示,上述因素大大阻礙課堂內外的溝通,關係與人情考量更限制他們向群體以外發展人脈,因此建議派送與接收機構應採取進一步作為,例如跨文化訓練與文化好友機制,協助學生減少有關面子、關係、人情的顧慮。
Research on international students' English language ability, specifically those from Chinese-speaking countries, is commonplace. Research initially focused on linguistic abilities, but since the 1990s the focus has expanded to include cultural differences and related challenges that international students encounter in communication. A prominent theory that has risen is that of face and facework. This study will explore the communicative experiences of three Taiwanese exchange students at American universities through: learner logs, journals, and interviews carried out over the duration of their exchange experiences. There are two primary focuses for analysis. The first focus is on how face concerns, guanxi, renqing, and in/out-group concerns relate to these experiences. The second is understanding how sending and receiving universities/agencies can help these students manage the cultural shift. The results of the study indicate that the above foci of play a significant role in hindering communication both inside the classroom and outside. Moreover, guanxi and renqing concerns inhibited the development of relationships with those outside a participant’s in-group. Thus is suggested that sending and receiving agencies should take further steps such as intercultural training programs and cultural buddy systems to help students mitigate from concerns for face, guanxi, and renqing.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT II
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Purpose of the Study 2
1.2 Definition of Terms 3
1.3 Significance of the Study 5
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 6
2.1 Previous Research 6
Silence among Asian Students 6
Face 8
Face and Silence 13
Facework 14
Face in Other Cultural Contexts 17
Face and Outsider/Insider Effect 18
CHAPTER 3 METHODS 21
3.1 Participants 21
3.2 Data Collection Procedures 23
3.3 Instruments 24
Learner’s Log 24
Journal 25
Interviews 25
3.4 Data Analysis Procedures 29
3.5 Position of Researcher 30
CHAPTER 4 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION 31
Face 31
Face in Class Communication 31
Professors and Face 36
Face and Small Groups 38
Small Groups in Social Settings 39
Small Groups in Academic Settings 40
Discussion: Face 42
Discussion: Expertness 43
Guanxi and Renqing 48
Previous Guanxi Connections 48
Developing Guanxi and Renqing 51
With Roommates/Housemates 51
Alice and Lance 54
Guanxi and Renqing in Groups: Frances Cooks Dinner 58
Guanxi and Renqing in Groups: Paul and the Fellowship 60
Guanxi and Holiday Homestays 62
Paul: Establishing Gaunxi at Welcoming Events 63
Guanxi and Professors 64
Discussion: Guanxi and Renqing 66
Guanxi and Renqing: Maintaining relationships developed in Taiwan 66
Guanxi and Renqing: Issues concerning the who, how, and why of guanxi 67
In/Out-Group Communication 70
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS 73
5.1 Summary of Study 73
5.2 Summary of Major Findings 73
5.3 Theoretical, Pedagogical, Research, and other Implications 77
Implications for Sending Universities and Agencies 78
Changes to the Selection Process 79
An Intercultural Communication Course 80
Suggestions for Administrators and Department Heads 89
Structuring Language Courses for Cultural Learning 90
Implications for Receiving Universities and Agencies 90
Suggestions for Professors 90
Cultural Exchange Program 92
For Receiving Institutions 93
5.4 Limitations of Study 94
5.5 Suggestions for Further Research 95
5.6 Conclusion 97
APPENDIX A 104
APPENDIX B 105
APPENDIX C 107
APPENDIX D 110
APPENDIX E 115
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