(3.232.129.123) 您好!臺灣時間:2021/03/06 01:57
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果

詳目顯示:::

我願授權國圖
: 
twitterline
研究生:林明勳
研究生(外文):Ming-Hsun Lin
論文名稱:職場負向八卦對退縮行為之影響:以組織認同為中介角色
論文名稱(外文):Examining the Influence of Workplace Negative Gossip on Withdrawal Behavior:The Mediating Role of Organizational Identification
指導教授:汪美伶汪美伶引用關係
指導教授(外文):Mei-Ling Wang
口試委員:陳建丞謝宜樺
口試委員(外文):C.C.ChenYi-Hua Hsieh
口試日期:2017-05-26
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:淡江大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系碩士在職專班
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:68
中文關鍵詞:職場負向八卦組織認同退縮行為
外文關鍵詞:Workplace Negative GossipOrganizational IdentificationWithdrawal Behavior
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
  • 點閱點閱:141
  • 評分評分:系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔系統版面圖檔
  • 下載下載:0
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
八卦是無時不刻存在職場上,因為有人就會有是非、有是非就有八卦,而職場八卦存在工作場所已逐漸受到重視,但是在國內文獻中實徵研究和調查一直都相當稀少,如果有學者研究也多以正向八卦的文獻為主,較少有進一步去談論負向八卦的內容,本研究以職場負向八卦為研究專題,來探討當員工成為負向八卦的受害者時,對員工的退縮行為及組織認同所造成的影響。本研究針對國內某商業銀行的正式員工,利用問卷方式,收集510份資料,進行後續分析。層級迴歸分析結果顯示,職場負向八卦與組織認同間具有顯著負向關係,組織認同與退縮行為有顯著負向關係,職場負向八卦與退縮行為有顯著正向關係。針對上述結果,本研究提出相關理論與實務管理意涵。
Negative gossip is residing in our daily workplace because people are having communications every day and some of them may lead to negative gossips. Negative gossips residing at workplace have been gradually valued, however, the relevant case study and investigations are very minimum. Even though, there are few studies by some scholars, their focus are more on the positive gossips rather than the negative gossips. This thesis is aiming on negative gossips at workplace and how it will influent on the withdraw behavior and organization recognition of an employee when an employee is been the victim of negative gossip target. Using the pre-defined questionnaire, a group of regular employees of one of the commercial banks in Taiwan have been targeted as the audience for the survey. And, there are 510 copies of the survey have been completed by the target audience for the further analysis. Based on the results of hierarchical regression analysis, it shows a dramatic negative relationship between workplace negative gossip and organization recognition, a dramatic negative relationship between organization recognition and withdraw behavior, and a dramatic positive relationship between workplace negative gossip and withdraw behavior. According to the above, this thesis is proposing the relevant theories and what they mean in terms of the management in practice.
目錄
目錄 I
表目錄 III
圖目錄 IV
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景 1
第二節 研究動機 4
第三節 研究目的 6
第四節 研究流程 6
第二章 文獻探討 8
第一節 職場負向八卦 8
第二節 組織認同 16
第三節 退縮行為 20
第四節 職場負向八卦與組織認同之關係 24
第五節 組織認同與退縮行為之關係 26
第六節 職場負向八卦與退縮行為之關係 27
第七節 組織認同的中介效果 29
第三章 研究方法 30
第一節 研究架構 30
第二節 研究設計 31
第三節 變數衡量 31
第四章 分析與討論 34
第一節 描述性統計 34
第二節 信效度分析 36
第三節 差異分析 37
第四節 相關分析 43
第五節 層級迴歸分析 45
第五章 結論及建議 49
第一節 研究結論與發現 49
第二節 管理意涵與建議 51
第三節 研究限制與後續研究之建議 53
參考文獻 55
中文文獻 55
英文文獻 56

表目錄
表4-1 樣本特性 35
表4-2 變數之信度表 36
表4-3 性別與各變數間的差異分析 37
表4-4婚姻狀況與各變數間的差異分析 38
表4-5 直屬主管性別與各變數間的差異分析 39
表4-6 年齡與各變數間的差異分析 40
表4-7 服務年資與各變數間的差異分析 41
表4-8 職稱與各變數間的差異分析 42
表4-9 研究變數之平均數、標準差分析表 44
表4-10職場負向八卦對組織認同之直接效果 45
表4-11組織認同對退縮行為之直接效果 46
表4-12職場負向八卦對退縮行為之直接效果 47
表4-13組織認同對職場負向八卦與退縮行為之中介效果 48


圖目錄

圖1-1研究流程圖 7
圖3-1研究架構 30
中文文獻
1.王惠群(2009)。同事霸凌與偏差行為關聯性研究:以職內工作嵌入為中介效果。國防大學管理學院資源管理及決策研究所碩士論文,台北市。
2.呂博能(2006)。員工之組織認同與領導效能認知對其工作滿意度之影響--以 J 金控公司為例。國立中正大學人力資源管理研究所碩士論文,嘉義縣。
3.林錚顗(譯)(2011)。茶水間的八卦效應-透視謠言背後的心理學(原作者:N. DiFonzo)。臺北:博雅書屋有限公司。(原著出版年:2008)
4.梁文彥(2005)。知覺外部聲望對組織認同與組織公民行為關係之跨層次分析-台灣紡織產業實證研究。輔仁大學織品服裝學研究所碩士論文,新北市。
5.梁雙蓮(1984)。中央行政機關公務人員組織認同的研究。國立臺灣大學政治學研究所碩士論文,台北市。
6.陳敬瑋(2006)。運用結構方程模式探討領導型態、組織文化、工作滿足、組織認同與組織承諾之關係-以營建業為例。國立東華大學企業管理學系碩士論文,花蓮縣。
7.黃煥榮(2007)。「組織中八卦/傳聞的理論初探」。中國行政評論,第十六卷第一期,頁61-93。
8.黃詩芸、黃怡芳(2009)。「職」場現形記:以權力依賴理論審視職場霸凌現象」。交通大學傳播研究所,中華傳播學刊。
9.羅竹風(1997)。漢語大辭典。臺北:東華出版社。
10.蔡育菁(2008)。組織中的挫折經驗:偏差管理與退縮行為之研究。中原大學心理學系碩士論文,桃園市。

英文文獻
1. Ajzen, I. & Fishbein, M.(1977). Attitude–behavior relations: A theoretical analysis and review of empirical research. Psychological Bulletin,84, pp.888-918.
2. Akande, A.& Funmilayo, O. (1994). One more time-how to stop company rumors. Leadership and Organisation Development Journal,15(4), pp.27-30.
3. Andersson, L. M. & Pearson, C. M. (1999). Tit for tat? The spiraling effect of incivility in the workplace. Academy of Management Review, 24, pp.452-471.
4. Anthony, D. B., Wood, J. V., & Holmes, J. G. (2007). Testing sociometer theory: Self-esteem and the importance of acceptance for social decision-making. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, pp. 425-432.
5. Aquino, K., Grover, S., Bradfield, M., & Allen, D. G.(1999). The effects of negative affectivity, hierarchical status, and self-determination on workplace victimization. Academy of Management Journal, 42,pp.260-272.
6. Aquino, K., & Bradfield, M. (2000). Perceived victimization in the workplace: The role of situational factors and victim characteristics. Organization Science, 11,pp. 525-537.
7. Aquino, K., & Thau, S. 2009. Workplace victimization: Aggression from the target’s perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 60,pp.717-741.
8. Ashforth, B. E., & Mael, F. (1989). Social identity theory and the organization. Academy of Management Review, 14(1),20-39.
9. Baker, J. S. & Jones, M.A.(1996).The poison grapevine;How destructive are gossip and rumor in the workplace. Human Resource Development Quarterly,7(1), pp.75-86.
10. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator–mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology,51(6),pp.1173-1182
11. Baumeister, R., Zhang, L. Q., & Vohs, K. D. 2004. Gossip as cultural learning Review of General Psychology, 8,pp.111-121.
12. Becker,T.& Martin,S.(1995).Trying to look bad at work:Methods and motives for managing poor impressions in organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 38,pp.174-199.
13. Beersma, B. & Van Kleef, G. (2012). Why people gossip: An empirical analysis of social motives, antecedents, and consequences. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 42,pp.2640-2670.
14. Bergmann, J. R. (1993). Discreet Indiscretions: The Social Organization of Gossip. New York, Aldine de Gruyter.
15. Blau,G.& Peter Michael.(1964). Exchange and Power in Social Life. New York : J. Wiley.
16. Blau, G. (1998).On the aggregation of individual withdrawal behaviors into larger multi-item constructs. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19,pp.437-451.
17. Bluedorn, A. C. 1982. A Unified Model of Turnover from Organizations, Human Relations, 35: 135-153.
18. Boswell,W.R.& Olson-Buchanan,J.B.(2004).Experiencing Mistreatment At Work:The Role of Grievance Filing,Nature of Mistreatment,And Employee Withdrawal. Academy of Management Journal,47(1),pp.129-139.
19. Brown,M.E.(1969). Identification and some conditions of organizational involvement. Administrative Science Quarterly, 14(3),pp.346-355.
20. Buke,L.A.& Wise,J.M.(2003).The effective care handling,and pruning of the office grapevine. Business Horizons,46(3),pp.71-76.
21. Cheney, G. (1983). On the various and changing meanings of organizational membership: A field study of organizational identification. Communication Monographs, 50,pp.343–362.
22. Chi, S.- C. S. & Liang, S.-G. (2013). When do subordinates'' emotion-regulation strategies matter? Abusive supervision, subordinates'' emotional exhaustion, and work withdrawal. The Leadership Quarterly, 24(1),pp.125-137.
23. Colquitt, J. A., Conlon, D. E., Wesson, M. J., Porter, C., & Ng, K. Y.(2001). Justice at the millennium: A metaanalytic review of 25 years of organizational justice research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86,pp.425-445.
24. Crampton, S. M., Hodge, J. W., & Mishra, J. M. (1998) The Informal Communication Network: Factors Influencing Grapevine Activity. Public Personnel Management 27(4),pp.569-84.
25. Crocker, J. & Park, L. E.(2004). The costly pursuit of self-esteem. Psychological Bulletin, 130,pp.392-414.
26. Dean, J. W., Brandes, P., & Dharwadkar, R.(1998). Organizational cynicism. The Academy of Management Review, 23,pp.341-352.
27. De Cieri,H. & Kramar ,R.(2003). Human resource management in Australia:strategy ,people,performance,McGraw-Hill,pp.526-555.
28. DiFonzo, N., Bordia, P., & Rosnow, R. L. (1994). Reining in Rumors. Organizational Dynamics, 23(1),pp.147-62.
29. DiFonzo, N. & Bordia, P. (2000). How Top PR Professionals Handle Hearsay: Corporate Rumors, Their Effects, and Strategies to Manage Them. Public Relations Review, 26,pp.173-190.
30. Duffy, M. K., Ganster, D. C., & Pagon, M.(2002). Social undermining in the workplace. Academy of Management Journal, 45,pp.331-351.
31. Eder, D. & Enke, J. L. (1991). The Structure of Gossip: Opportunities and constraints on collective expression among adolescents. American sociological review 56,pp.494-508.
32. Edwards, M. R. (2009). HR, perceived organisational support and organisational identification: an analysis after organisational formation. Human Resource Management Journal, 19(1),pp.91-115.
33. Einarsen, S.(1999). The nature and causes of bullying at work. International Journal of Manpower, 20(1/2),pp.16-27.
34. Einarsen, S. & Skogstad, A. (1996). Prevalence and risk groups of bullying and harassment at work. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 5,pp.185–202.
35. Einarsen, S., Hoel, H., Zapf, D., & Cooper, G.L. (2003). Bullying and emotional abuse in the workplace. International perspectives in research and practice. London: Taylor & Francis.
36. Ellemers, N., Gilder D. D., & Haslam, S. A. (2004). Motivating individuals and groups at work: A social identity perspective on leadership and group performance. Academy of Management Review, 29(3),pp.459-478.
37. Ellwardt, L., Labianca, G. J., & Wittek, R. 2012. Who are the objects of positive and negative gossip at work? A social network perspective on workplace gossip. Social Networks, 34,pp.193-205.
38. Elsbach, K. D. & Bhattacharya, C. B. (2001). Defining who you are by what you''re not:Organizational misidentification and the National Rifle Association. Organization Science, 12(4),pp.393-413.
39. Evans, W. R., Davis, W. D., & Frink, D. 2011. An examination of employee reactions to perceived corporate citizenship. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41,pp.938-964.
40. Farley,S.D.,Timme,D.R., & Hart,J.W.(2010).On coffee talk and break-room chatter:Perceptions of women who gossip in the workplace. The Journal of Social Psychology,150(4),pp.361-368.
41. Folger, R. & Skarlicki, D. P. (1998). When tough times make tough bosses: Managerial distancing as a function of layoff blame. Academy of Management Journal, 41,pp.79-87.
42. Gluckman, M. (1963). Gossip and Scandal. Current Anthropology, 4,pp.307-316.
43. Golden-Biddle, K. & Rao, H. (1997). Breaches in the Boardroom: Organizational Identity and Conflicts of Commitment in a Nonprofit Organization. Organizational Science, 8(6),pp.593-611.
44. Grosser,T.,Kidwell-Lopez, V.,& Labianca, G.(2010).A social network analysis of positive and negative gossip in organizational life. Group & Organizations Management,35(2),pp.177-214
45. Gupta, N. & Jenkins, G. D., Jr. (1991). Rethinking dysfunctional employee behaviors. Human Resource Management Review, 1(1),pp.39-59.
46. Haften, S.(2004). Organizational gossip: A revolving door of regulation and resistance. Southern Communication Journal, 69,pp.223-240.
47. Hanisch, K. A., & Hulin, C. L. (1990). Job attitudes and organizational withdrawal : An examination of retirement and other voluntary withdrawal behaviors. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 37(1) ,pp.60-78.
48. Hanisch, K. A., Hulin, C. L., & Roznowski, M.(1998).The importance of individuals’repertoires of behaviors:The scientific appropriateness of studying multiple behaviors and general attitudes. Journal of Organizational Behavior,19,pp.463-480.
49. Hershcovis, M. S.(2011). “Incivility, social undermining, bullying . .oh my!”: A call to reconcile constructs within workplace aggression research. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32,pp.499-519.
50. Herzberg, F., Mausner, B., Peterson, R., & Capwell, D.(1957). Job attitudes: Review of research and opinion. Pittsburgh: Psychological Services.
51. Hogg, M. A., Terry, D. J.,& White, K. M.(1995). “A Tale of Two Theory : A Critical Comparison of Identity Theory with Social Identity Theory, ”Social Psychology Quarterly, 54(4) ,pp.255-269.
52. Holtz, B. C., & Harold, C. M. (2013). Interpersonal justice and deviance: The moderating effects of interpersonal justice values and justice orientation. Journal of Management, 39,pp.339-365.
53. Homans, G. C. (1961). Social behavior:Its elementary forms. New York:Harcourt, Brace,& World.
54. Hsiung, H. H., Lin, C. W., & Lin, C. S. (2012). Nourishing or suppressing? The contradictory influences of perception of organizational politics on organizational citizenship behaviour. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 85,pp.258-276.
55. Hulin,C.(1991).Adaptation,persistent,and commitment in organization.In M.D.Dunnette, & L.M.Hough(Eds), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology(pp.445-505).Palo Alto,CA:Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.
56. Hutchinson, M., Wilkes, L., Vickers, M. H., & Jackson, D. (2008). The development and validation of a bullying inventory for the nursing workplace. Nursing Research, 15(2), 19-28.
57. Jamal, M.(1984). Job stress and job performance controversy: An empirical assessment. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 33,pp.1-21.
58. Jinkook, T. 2011. Relationships between various person–environment fit types and employee withdrawal behavior: A longitudinal study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 78.pp.315–320.
59. Judith Lynn Fisher-Blando (2008),“Workplace Bullying: Aggressive Behavior and Its Effect on Job Satisfaction and Productivity”,University of Phoenix unpublished Ph.D dissertation.
60. Karl, P., Alan, C., & Nigel, G.(2010). Formal development opportunities and withdrawal behaviors by employees in small and medium-sized enterprises. Journal of Small Business Management, 48,pp.281–301
61. Kathy, A. H. & Charles, L. H.(1990). Job attitudes and organizational withdrawal: An examination of retirement and other voluntary withdrawal behaviors. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 37,pp.60-78.
62. Katz,D.,& Kahn, R. L.(1978). The Social Psychology of Organization, New York: Wiley.
63. Keashly, L. & Jagatic, K. (2003). By any other name: American perspectives on workplace bullying. In S. Einarsen, H. Hoel, D. Zapf, & C. L. Cooper (Eds). Bullying and emotional abuse in the workplace: International perspective in research and practice, pp.31-61. London: Taylor & Francis.
64. Korman, A. K.(1970). Toward a hypothesis of work behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 54,pp.31-41.
65. Koslowsky, M., Sagie, A., Krausz, M., & Singer, A.(1997). Correlates of employee lateness: Some theoretical considerations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82,pp.79–88.
66. Kulik, C., Bainbridge, H. T., & Cregan, C. 2008. Known by the company we keep: Stigma by association effects in the workplace. Academy of Management Review, 33,pp.231-251.
67. Kurland, N. B. & Pelled, L. S.(2000). Passing the word: Toward a model of gossip and power in the workplace. Academy of Management Review, 25,pp.428-438.
68. Lallukka T, Rahkonen O, Lahelma E.(2011).“Workplace bullying and subsequent sleep problems –the Helsinki Health Study. Scand J Work Environ Health, 37(3),pp.204-212.
69. Landy, F. J.(1985). Psychology of work behavior. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.
70. LaVan, H. & Martin, W. M. (2008). Bullying in the U.S. workplace: Normative and processs-oriented ethical approaches. Journal of Business Ethics, 83,(2),pp.147-165.
71. Lehman, W. E., & Simpson, D. D. (1992). Employee substance use and on-the-job behaviors. Journal of applied Psychology, 77(3),pp.309-321.
72. Litman, J. A., Chiung-Hui Huang & Huo-Tsan Chang(2009). Development and Validation of a Chinese Version of the Attitudes Towards Gossip Scale. Journal of Psychology in Chinese Societies, 10(2),pp.131-150.
73. Mael, F. & Ashforth, B. E. (1992). A partial test of the reformulated model of organizational identification. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13(2),pp.103-123.
74. Mayhew, C., McCarthy, P., Chappell, D., Quinlan, M., Barker, M., & Sheehan, M. (2004), Measuring the extent of impact from occupational violence and bullying on traumatized workers, Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal,16(3), pp.117-134.
75. Meni, K.(2009). A multi-level model of withdrawal: Integrating and synthesizing theory and findings. Human Resource Management Review, 19,pp.283-303.
76. Michelson,g. & Mouly,v.s.(2004).Do loose lips sink ships?The meaning,ante-cedents of rumour and gossip in organizations. Corporte communications,9,pp.189-201.
77. Miller, V. D., Allen, M., Casey, M. K., & Johnson, J. R. (2000). Reconsidering the organizational identification questionnaire. Management Communication Quarterly,13(4),pp.626-658.
78. Mills, C.(2010). Experiencing gossip: The foundations for a theory of embedded organizational gossip. Group & Organization Management, 35,pp.213-240.
79. Mishra, S. K., Bhatnagar, D., D’Cruz, P., & Noronha, E., (2012). Linkage between perceived external prestige and emotional labor: Mediation effect of organizational identification among pharmaceutical representatives in India. Journal of World Business, 47(2),pp.204-212.
80. Mitchell, M. S. & Ambrose, M. L. (2007). Abusive supervision and workplace deviance and the moderating effects of negative reciprocity beliefs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(4),pp.1159-1168.
81. Mobley,W.H.,Griffeth,R.W.,Hand,H.H., & Meglino,B.M.(1979).Reviev and conceptual analysis of the employee turnover process. Psychological Bulletin,86,pp.493-522.
82. Noon, M.& Delbridge, R.(1993).News form behind my hand:Gossip in organization. Organization Studies,14,pp.23-26.
83. O’Donnell, A. T., Ryan, M. K., & Jetten, J. 2013. The hidden costs of surveillance for performance and helping behavior. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 16,pp.246-256.
84. Patchen (1970). Participation, achievement and involvement on job. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
85. Pettigrew, T. F.(2002).Summing up: Relative deprivation as a key social psychological concept. In I. Walker & H. J. Smith (Eds.), Relative deprivation: Specification, development, and integration:pp.351-374. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
86. Porter, L. W., Steers, R.M., Mowday, R. T., & Boulian, P. V. (1974). Organization commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric mtechnicians. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59,pp.603-609.
87. Pratt, M. G.(1998). “To Be or Not to Be: Central Questions in Organizational Identification,” In D. A. Whetten and P. C. Godfrey(Eds.), Identity in Organizations, pp.171-207. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
88. Quine, L.(2001).Workplace bullying in nurses. Journal of Health Psychology ,6(1) ,pp.73-84。
89. Reade, C. (2001). Dual identification in multinational corporations: Local managers and their psychological attachment to the subsidiary versus the global organization. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 12(3),pp.405-424.
90. Riggar, T. F., Geraldine Hansen, & William Crimando.(1987). "Rehabilitation employee organizational withdrawal behavior." Rehabilitation Psychology 32(2),pp. 121.
91. Robinson, S. L., Kraatz, M. S., & Rousseau, D. M. (1994). Changing obligations and the psychological contract: A longitudinal study. Academy of Management Journal, 37, pp.137-152.
92. Rosnow, R. L. & Fine, G. A. (1976). Rumor and gossip: The Social Psychology of Hearsay. New York, Elsevier.
93. Rosse, J. G. & Hulin, C. L. (1984). An adaptation cycle interpretation of absence and withdrawal. In P. S. Goodman, & R. S. Atkin (Eds.), Absenteeism: New approaches to understanding, measuring, and managing employee absence: 194–228. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
94. Rosse,J.G. & Hulin,C.L.(1985).Adaptation to work:An analysis of employee health,withdrawal,and change. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes,36,pp.324-347.
95. Rusbult,C.E.,Farrell,d.,Rogers,g., & Mainous,A.G.(1988).Impact of exchange variables on exit,voice,loyalty,and neglect:An integrative model of responses to declining job satisfaction.Academy of Mangement Journal,31,pp.599-627.
96. Sanford, N.(1955). Dynamic of Identification. Psychological Review, 62,pp.106-118.
97. Simon, H. A. (1976). Administrative behavior: A study of decision-making processes in administrative organization(3rd ed.). New York: The Free Press.
98. Smidts, A., Pruyn, A. T. H., & Van Riel, C. B. (2001). The impact of employee communication and perceived external prestige on organizational identification. Academy of Management journal, 44(5),pp.1051-1062.
99. Stephen, A. S. & Karen, H. (1984). Individual exploration to organizational commitment or withdrawal. The Academy of Management Journal, 27,pp.308-329.
100. Stuart, A. Y.(1984). Work, nonwork, and withdrawal. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69,pp.106-117.
101. Swann, W. B., Jr., Stein-Seroussi, A., & Giesler, R. B.(1992). Why people self-verify. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 62,pp.392-401.
102. Tajfel, H.(1978) Differentiation between Social Group. Studies in the Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations. London: Academic Press.
103. Tajfel, H. (1982). Social psychology of intergroup relations. Annual Review of Psychology, 33,pp.1-39.
104. Tajfel,H.and Turner ,J.C.(1985),The Social Identity Theory of Intergroup behavior.InWorchel,S.and Austin, W.G.(Eds.),Psychology of Intergroup Relations,
(pp.724). Chicago, Nelson-Hall.
105. Toon, W. T., Paul, J. G. S., & Ingrid J. V. (2001). Job stress, job strain, and psychological withdrawal among Dutch university staff: Towards a dual-process model for the effects of occupational stress. Work & Stress, 15,pp.283-296.
106. Turner, J. C. (1985). Social categorization and the self-concept: A social cognitive theory of group behavior. In E. J. Lawler (Ed.). Advances in group processes: Theory and research in organizational behavior, 77-122. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
107. Turner, J. C., Hogg, M. A., Oakes, P. J., Reicher, S. D., & Wetherell, M. S. (1987). Rediscovering the social group: A self-categorization theory. Oxford, England: Blackwell.
108. Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., & Boter, I. C.(2003) Conceptualizing employee silence and employee voice as multidimensional constructs. Journal of Management Studies, 40,pp.1359-1392.
109. Vartia MA-L.(2001),“ Consequences of workplace bullying with respect to the well-being of its targets and the observers of bullying. Scand J Work Environ Health ,27(1),pp.63-69.
110. Waddington ,K.& Michelson, G.,(2007). Analysing gossip to reveal and understand power relationships, political action and reaction to change inside organizations. Paper presented at the Talk, Power and Organisational Change at CMS conference, Manchester.
111. Wan-Huggins, V. N. (1998),“The Development and Longitudinal Test of A Model of Organizational Identification,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28,pp.724-749.
112. Waters, L. K. & Darrell R. (1971). Relationship between job attitudes and two forms of withdrawal from the work situation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 55,pp.92-94.
113. Wendy, R. B. & Julie, B. O.( 2004). Experiencing mistreatment at work: The role of grievance filing, nature of mistreatment, and employee withdrawal. Academy of Management Journal, 47,pp.129-139.
114. Wert, S. R. & Salovey, P.(2004).A social comparison account of gossip. Review of General Psychology,8(2),pp.122-137.
115. Williams, L. J. & Anderson, S. E.(1991). Job satisfaction and organizational commitment as predictors of organizational citizenship and in-role behaviors. Journal of Management, 17,pp.601-617.
116. Wu,L.Z., Birtch,T.A., Chiang,F.F.T.,& Zhang,H. (2016). Perceptions of Negative Workplace Gossip: A Self-Consistency Theory Framework. Journal of Management, pp.1-26.
117. Zapf, D., Knorz, C.,& Kulla, M.(1996).“ On the relationship between mobbing factors, and job content, social work environment, and health outcomes”. Eur J Work Organ Psychol, 2, pp.215-237.

網路報導
1.教育部國語推行委員會(2006)教育部重編國語辭典修訂本,網路資源,http://tw.news.yahoo.com/050424/43/lqjet.html,11月24日。
2.勞動部「勞工舒壓健康網」-職場霸凌面面觀
tp2-pp005.24drs.com
3.魯皓平(2014),遠見雜誌網路報導2014/11/24,
http://www.gvm.com.tw/webonly_content_3817.html#
4.MSF Union(Manufacturing, Science and Finance union)
http://www.bullyonline.org/action/history.htm
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
系統版面圖檔 系統版面圖檔