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研究生:張逸寧
研究生(外文):Yi-Ning Zhang
論文名稱:幾丁質酶在農業上的應用
論文名稱(外文):Application of Chitinase in Agriculture
指導教授:許垤棋
指導教授(外文):Dey-Chyi Sheu
口試委員:許垤棋
口試委員(外文):Dey-Chyi Sheu
口試日期:2017-07-19
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:大同大學
系所名稱:生物工程學系(所)
學門:工程學門
學類:生醫工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:46
中文關鍵詞:幾丁質酶幾丁質生物殺蟲劑
外文關鍵詞:ChitinBiopesticideChitinase
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化學殺蟲劑的使用,讓人類能更有效地掌控病蟲傷害,大大地降低農作物的損失,但也造成長期依賴和大量使用,使得現今環境的嚴重破壞、失去生態平衡,進而威脅人類健康。近幾年來,生物自然農藥的開發,是藉由微生物(包括細菌、真菌、病毒和原生動物)和微生物的代謝產物加工處理而成,具有殺蟲效果、殺菌、調節植物生長等農藥活性功能的物質。本研究利用蟹殼經過酸鹼處理去鈣質及蛋白質,再經濃鹽酸溶解,然後用冰水稀釋,得到幾丁質的懸浮固體。加入培養基後培養黴菌,發現能在含幾丁質的瓊脂上形成透明圈,進而證明這些微生物內含有幾丁質酶存在。能分解幾丁質的微生物之培養液可調製成生物農藥,可以殺死害蟲以及有害的黴菌。
By using chemical pesticides, the harmful of pests on crops was well controlled and the loss of agricultural economy was decreased. However massive use of chemical pesticides caused environmental damage, unbalance of ecosystem and threatened human health. Recently, biological control agents were developed, which consisted of bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoa and microbial metabolites, having ability to kill pests and germs or to regulate plant growth. In the present work crab shells were treated with acid and alkali to remove calcium salts and proteins. After being dissolved in concentrated hydrochloric acid and then diluted into ice water, suspended chitin solids were formed. When the fungus was cultured on chitin containing agar medium, the formation of clear zone revealed that chitinase had been produced. The submerged fungal culture can be served as biological control agent, killing pests and plant pathogenic fungi.
中文摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
目錄 III
第一章 緒論 1
1.1前言 1
1.2 研究動機 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2.1 幾丁質 3
2.2幾丁質 -化學結構 4
2.2.1分子量 4
2.2.2脫乙醯基純度 4
2.3殼聚糖(chitosan) 5
2.4殼聚醣主要功能 7
2.4.1免疫活性 7
2.4.2抑菌活性 8
2.4.3增強抗腫瘤藥物. 抗腫瘤活性作用 9
2.5幾丁質用途 10
2.5.1工業上 10
2.5.2醫藥上 10
2.5.3在醫藥之之研究成果 11
2.5.4 美容上 12
2.6幾丁質的抗癌特性 13
2.7在農業領域的應用 14
2.7.1肥料作用-發展無公害的綠色農業 14
2.7.2改土作用 14
2.7.3植保作用 14
2.8幾丁質 -鑒別 15
2.9 微生物產幾丁質酶的研究概況 16
2.10 產幾丁質酶的微生物種類 17
2.10.1細菌 17
2.10.2放線菌 17
2.10.3真菌 17
2.11產幾丁質酶微生物的生態分布 18
2.12酶學性質 19
2.13作用機制 20
2.13.1殺蟲原理 20
2.13.2殺菌原理 20
2.13.3殺菌展著劑 20
2.13.4土壤微生物改良劑 20
第三章 實驗材料與步驟 21
3.1實驗材料 21
3.2實驗步驟 22
第四章 實驗結果 38
第五章 結論 39
參考文獻 40
參考網頁 46
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7.段洪濤(肥料湘軍)整理編寫。段洪濤,長沙孟葆隆、湖南華墾創始人,湖南農大植保學院客座教授,精通水溶肥料生產技術,並專注礦質腐植酸、海藻肥料的研究與應用,並頗有建樹,同時也是農資網際網路社區營銷理論與實踐的先鋒人物。
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