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研究生:蔡玉薰
研究生(外文):TSAI,YU-HSUN
論文名稱:美國能源政策與立法研析—以地熱能源發展為中心
論文名稱(外文):The Study on The Energy Policy and Legislation in the United States – Focusing on Geothermal Energy
指導教授:蔡岳勳蔡岳勳引用關係
口試委員:廖宗聖高仁川
口試日期:2017-06-16
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立雲林科技大學
系所名稱:科技法律研究所
學門:法律學門
學類:專業法律學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:105
語文別:中文
論文頁數:111
中文關鍵詞:再生能源美國能源政策地熱發電
外文關鍵詞:Renewable EnergyEnergy Policy Act of the USGeothermal Energy
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氣候變遷帶來的負面影響,促使世界各國積極尋求降低火力發電使用的方法,加上永續發展概念的蓬勃以及歷史上重大核災的警訊,核能發電在各國能源轉型史上也漸走入歷史,因此發展再生能源成為日前世界潮流,所謂再生能源即來自大自然之能源,其特性為可自行再生、無耗盡之虞,例如:太陽能、風能、地熱能等,我國長期仰賴化石燃料的進口,無論在環境永續以及能源安全議題上皆備受考驗,而我國位處環太平洋火山地震帶且屬於海島型氣候,雖無大量傳統化石燃料的產出,但擁有豐富的天然資源,為發展再生能源之地利,因此發展再生能源也成為我國近年能源政策發展目標。  
  本文係以地熱發電發展大國-美國作為探討對象,先介紹美國地熱能源發展歷史與現況,爬梳美國能源政策與地熱發電之相關法規,並整理美國地熱發電發展過程曾經遭遇之阻礙與其解除該阻礙之方法,而後討論我國能源政策以及地熱發電的發展概況,最後比較兩國在地熱發電發展歷史、技術、政策法規以及市場需求上的差異,以美國發展經驗找出我國發展地熱發電困難之關鍵,並且提出相關政策與法規的建議,期待本論文對我國在地熱發電的建立過程有所助益,並以美國發展經驗解決我國發展地熱發電之阻礙,以及作為未來地熱能源發展之參酌。

Due to the negative effect of climate change, many countries are seeking out the way of declining the use of thermal power. And the idea of sustainable development and the nuclear disasters in the human history force some countries to stop using the nuclear power. Thus, the development of renewable energy, which is nature, clear and renewable, such as solar energy, wind energy and geothermal energy, becomes a trendy of the world. Taiwan, a country without the large amount of fossil fuel, facing the problems as sustainable development and energy security. However, Taiwan has an island climate and it is located in the Ring of fire. Taiwan is a country with plenty of natural resource because of its climate and the location. It will be a waste if we don’t make good use of these natural resources and develop renewable energy in Taiwan.
This research studies on the energy policy and legislation in the United States, which is famous for its great development of geothermal energy. The first part talks about the history and the current situation of the geothermal energy in the US. The second part is the energy policy and the legislation. The third part is the barrier and the solution done by the US government. The forth part is the development of geothermal energy and the energy policies in Taiwan. The last part is the comparison of the geothermal energy’s development, technologies, markets, policies and legislation between the US and Taiwan. This research analyzes the experience of developing geothermal energy in the US to figure out the key challenge of the development of geothermal energy in Taiwan. Finally, the research comes up the suggestions for the energy policy and legislation of geothermal energy in Taiwan. Hoping this research would be an aid of the future framework of the energy policy and legislation.

第一章 緒論 1
第一節 背景說明 1
第二節 研究動機與目的 4
第三節 研究範圍 6
第四節 研究架構 7
第五節 章節脈絡 8
第二章 全球地熱能源 9
第一節 全球地熱能發展概況 11
第二節 各地區地熱計畫執行概況 12
第三節 全球地熱發電之金融概況 19
第五節 小結 25
第三章 美國地熱能源政策與法規 26
第一節 美國地熱能源歷史發展 27
第二節 美國地熱能源相關之政策與法規 32
第三節 美國地熱發電相關之主管機關 42
第四節 美國地熱能示範區 45
第五節 美國地熱能源發展之阻礙與解決方式 50
第六節 小結 56
第四章 台灣能源政策與地熱發電發展 58
第一節 台灣能源使用概況 58
第二節 台灣再生能源相關政策與法規 66
第三節 台灣地熱能源發展概況 70
第四節 台灣地熱發電之發展困境 75
第五節 台灣地熱發電之展望 82
第六節 小結 85
第五章 結論與建議 86
第一節 結論 86
第二節 建議 90


一、中文文獻
(一)期刊
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(三)其他中文參考文獻
1.NEC, 分佈式光纖偵溫系統DTS(Distributed Temperature Sensor System)http://tw.nec.com/zh_TW/solutions/precaution/dts.html
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導,http://finance.people.com.cn/BIG5/n/2012/1207/c348883-19824999.html
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http://www.chinairn.com/news/20120507/857647.html
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二、外文文獻
(一)專書
1.Russell H. Plante, Photovoltaics, and Domestic Hot Water: A Technical and Economic Guide for Project Planners, Builders, and Property Owners, 116( 2014)
(二)期刊
1.Miguel Mendonca, Stephen Lacey and Frede Hvelplund, Stability, participation and transparency in renewable energy policy: Lessons from Denmark and the United States, 27Energy Policy, 379, 380( 2009)
(三)法規與官方文獻
1.16 U.S. Code § 2611.
2.30 U.S. Code § 1001.
3.30 U.S. Code § 1002.
4.30 U.S. Code § 1003.
5.30 U.S. Code § 1004.
6.30 U.S. Code § 1005.
7.30 U.S. Code § 1006.
8.30 U.S. Code § 1008.
9.30 U.S. Code § 1009.
10.30 U.S. Code § 1010.
11.30 U.S. Code § 1011.
12.30 U.S. Code § 1013.
13.30 U.S. Code § 1021.
14.30 U.S. Code § 1024.
15.30 U.S. Code § 1125.
16.42 U.S.C. § 12005.
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19.Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, available at: https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-110publ140/pdf/PLAW-110publ140.pdf
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22.Energy.Gov, About the Geothermal Technologies Office, available at: http://energy.gov/eere/geothermal/about
23.Energy.Gov, AltaRock Energy Announces Successful Multiple-Zone Stimulation of Well at the Newberry Enhanced Geothermal Systems Demonstration, available at: https://energy.gov/eere/geothermal/articles/altarock-energy-announces-successful-multiple-zone-stimulation-well
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25.Energy.Gov, Demonstration of an Enhanced Geothermal System at the Northwest Geysers Geothermal Field, available at:
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29.Energy.Gov, First Commercial Success for Enhanced Geothermal Systems Spells Exponential Growth for the Future of Geothermal Energy, available at: https://energy.gov/eere/geothermal/articles/first-commercial-success-enhanced-geothermal-systems-egs-spells-exponential
30.Energy.Gov, Geothermal Technologies Office 2013 Peer Review _Newberry EGS Demonstration , available at: http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/02/f7/newberry_demo_peer2013.pdf
31.Energy.Gov, Geothermal Technologies Office 2013 Peer Review_ Concept Testing and Development at the Raft River Geothermal Field, Idaho, available at: http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/02/f7/raft_river_peer2013.pdf
32.Energy.Gov, GEOTHERMAL TECHNOLOGIES OFFICE, available at: https://energy.gov/eere/geothermal/about
33.Energy.Gov, HYDROTHERMAL, available at: http://energy.gov/eere/geothermal/hydrothermal
34.Energy.Gov, LOW-TEMPERATURE AND COPRODUCED, available at: http://energy.gov/eere/geothermal/low-temperature-and-coproduced
35.Energy.Gov, Newberry Volcano EGS Demonstration, available at: https://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/02/f7/egs_petty_newberry_volcano.pdf
36.Energy.Gov, SYSTEMS ANALYSIS, available at: http://energy.gov/eere/geothermal/systems-analysis
37.Energy.Gov., Geothermal Technologies Program- Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan, available at: http://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2014/02/f7/gtp_myrdd_2009-complete.pdf
38.Environmental Protection Agency, available at: https://www.epa.gov/laws-regulations/summary-clean-air-act
39.EPA2005, Sec. 202.
40.EPA2005, Sec. 222.
41.EPA2005, Sec. 223.
42.EPA2005, Sec. 224.
43.EPA2005, Sec. 225.
44.EPA2005, Sec. 226.
45.EPA2005, Sec. 227.
46.EPA2005, Sec. 228.
47.EPA2005, Sec. 229.
48.EPA2005, Sec. 230.
49.EPA2005, Sec. 231.
50.EPA2005, Sec. 232.
51.EPA2005, Sec. 233.
52.EPA2005, Sec. 234.
53.EPA2005, Sec. 235.
54.EPA2005, Sec. 411.
55.EPA2005, Sec. 792.
56.EPA2005, Sec. 793.
57.EPA2005,Sec. 1351.
58.GEOTHERMAL STEAM ACT OF 1970, available at: http://legcounsel.house.gov/Comps/Geothermal%20Steam%20Act%20Of%201970.pdf
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62.Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technology Competitiveness Act of 1989, sec. 2.
63.Solar, Wind, Waste, and Geothermal Power Production Incentives Act of 1990.
64.The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, available at: https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-111hr1enr/pdf/BILLS-111hr1enr.pdf
65.The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007
66.The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, SEC. 2.
67.The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, SEC. 614.
68.The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, SEC. 615.
69.The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, SEC. 616.
70.The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, SEC. 618.
71.The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, SEC. 619.
72.The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, SEC. 621.
73.The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, SEC.613.
74.The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, Subtitle B—Geothermal Energy.
75.U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIORBUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, available at: http://www.blm.gov/wo/st/en.html
(四)其他外文參考文獻
1.Altarock, ALTAROCK STIMULATION SERVICES, available at: http://altarockenergy.com/altarock-stimulation-services/
2.Altarock, THERMALLY-DEGRADABLE ZONAL ISOLATION MATERIALS (TZIMS), available at: http://altarockenergy.com/technology/tzim/
3.American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, SEC. 3. PURPOSES AND PRINCIPLES.
4.Barry Goldstein, Gerardo Hiriart, Ruggero Bertani, Christopher Bromley, Luis Gutiérrez-Negrín, Ernst Huenges, Hirofumi Muraoka, Arni Ragnarsson, Jefferson Tester, Vladimir Zui, David Blackwell, Trevor Demayo, Garvin Heath, Arthur Lee, John W. Lund, Mike Mongillo, David Newell, Subir Sanyal, Kenneth H. Williamson, Doone Wyborne, Meseret Teklemariam Zemedkun and David Wratt, Geothermal Energy, available at: https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/special-reports/srren/Chapter%204%20Geothermal%20Energy.pdf
5.Business Daily, Kenya to sell power to Uganda, available at: http://www.businessdailyafrica.com/Corporate-News/Kenya-to-sell-power-to-Uganda-/-/539550/2937624/-/sb1ho0/-/index.htmlCentral Oregon’s Leader, Geothermal on the rise across the U.S. Tests near Newberry Crater prove successful, available at: http://www.ktvz.com/news/Geothermal-on-the-rise-across-the-U-S/19100954
6.Chadbourne, A New Geothermal Framework For Mexico, available at: http://www.chadbourne.com/A-New-Geothermal-Framework-For-Mexico_projectfinance
7.Chadbourne, Mexico Tees Up Another PPA Auction, available at: http://www.chadbourne.com/mexico-April2016_projectfinance
8.Congress Watch, Critical Mass, Global Trade Watch, Health Research Group, Litigation Group, Joan Claybrook, President, Summary of Loan Guarantee Provisions in House and Senate Energy Bills,
available at: http://www.citizen.org/documents/SummaryLoanGuaranteeProvisions.pdf
9.Cultural Survival, Hawaii's Rainforest Crunch: Land, People, and Geothermal, available at: http://www.culturalsurvival.org/ourpublications/csq/article/hawaiis-rainforest-crunch-land-people-and-geothermal-development
10.ESI Africa, Tanzania looks into geothermal energy, available at: https://www.esi-africa.com/news/tanzania-looks-into-geothermal-energy/ GEA, Why Support Geothermal Energy?, available at: http://geo-energy.org/pdf/FINALforWEB_WhySupportGeothermal.pdf
11.GEODH, About Geothermal District Heating, available at: http://geodh.eu/about-geothermal-district-heating/
12.Geothermal Energy Association, 2016 Annual U.S. & Global Geothermal Power Production Report, available at: http://geo-energy.org/reports/2016/2016%20Annual%20US%20Global%20Geothermal%20Power%20Production.pdf
13.GRC, available at: http://www.geothermal.org/
14.Jennifer Delony, Multinational Bank Financing of Geothermal Exploration Up 11 Percent from 2012, available at: http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/articles/2015/09/multinational-bank-financing-of-geothermal-exploration-up-11-percent-from-2012.html
15.Jonny Rutqvist, Patrick F. Dobson, Julio Garcia, Craig Hartline, Pierre Jeanne, Curtis M. Oldenburg, Donald W. Vasco, Mark Walters, The Northwest Geysers EGS Demonstration Project, California: Pre-stimulation Modeling and Interpretation of the Stimulation, available at : http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11004-013-9493-y
16.M. Tingay, J. Reinecker, and B. Müller, Borehole breakout and drilling-induced fracture analysis from image logs, available at: http://dc-app3-14.gfz-potsdam.de/pub/guidelines/WSM_analysis_guideline_breakout_image.pdf
17.Ministry of Energy and Mineral of Resources of Republic of Indonesia, Press Release, available at: http://www3.esdm.go.id/press-release/53-pressrelease/7847-chevron-and-ge-keep-investing-in-indonesia.html
18.Ruggero Bertani, Geothermal Power Generation in the World 2010-2014 Update Report, available at: https://pangea.stanford.edu/ERE/db/WGC/papers/WGC/2015/01001.pdf
19.Steven Nadel, Bill Prindle, Susanne Brooks, The Energy Policy Act of 2005: Energy Efficiency Provisions and Implications for Future Policy Efforts, available at: http://aceee.org/files/proceedings/2006/data/papers/SS06_Panel8_Paper17.pdf
20.The Manila Times, EDC suspends drilling for Chile geothermal project, available at: http://www.manilatimes.net/edc-suspends-drilling-for-chile-geothermal-project/223843/
21.The New York Times, Renewable Energy Financing Hits a Snag, available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2015/10/12/business/energy-environment/renewable-energy-financing-hits-a-snag.html?_r=0
22.The Solution Project, Chinese Taipei, available at: http://thesolutionsproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/100_ChineseTaipei.pdf
23.The World Bank, New Funding to Boost International Support for Geothermal Energy, available at: http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2013/12/18/new-funding-to-boost-international-support-for-geothermal-energy
24.Think GeoEnergy, 34 months drilling campaign planned for Cerro Pabellon, Chile, available at: http://www.thinkgeoenergy.com/34-months-drilling-campaign-planned-for-cerro-pabellon-chile/
25.Think GeoEnergy, Costa Rica pushes three geothermal projects that will add 165 MW in capacity, available at: http://www.thinkgeoenergy.com/costa-rica-pushes-three-geothermal-projects-that-will-add-165-mw-in-capacity/
26.Think GeoEnergy, Geothermal plants supply 402 GWh or more than 50% of electricity in Kenya, available at: http://www.thinkgeoenergy.com/geothermal-plants-supply-402-gwh-or-more-than-50-of-electricity-in-kenya/
27.Think GeoEnergy, Government of Dominica to go ahead alone on geothermal project , available at: http://www.thinkgeoenergy.com/government-of-dominica-to-go-ahead-alone-on-geothermal-project/
28.Think GeoEnergy, Nicaragua extends incentives for renewable energy projects, available at: http://www.thinkgeoenergy.com/nicaragua-extends-incentives-for-renewable-energy-projects/
29.Think GeoEnergy, Rwanda to buy 30 MW power from Olkaria geothermal plants in Kenya, available at: http://www.thinkgeoenergy.com/rwanda-to-buy-30-mw-power-from-olkaria-geothermal-plants-in-kenya/
30.Valerio Micale & Padraig Oliver, Lessons on the Role of Public Finance in Deploying Geothermal Energy in Developing Countries, available at: https://climatepolicyinitiative.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Lessons-on-the-Role-of-Public-Finance-in-Deploying-Geothermal-Energy-in-Developing-Countries-Full-Report.pdf
31.West Hawaiii Today, More than 200 geothermal power protesters gather outside HELCO, available at: http://westhawaiitoday.com/sections/news/local-news/more-200-geothermal-power-protesters-gather-outside-helco.html

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