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研究生:蘇寶同
研究生(外文):To Bao Dong
論文名稱(外文):Enhancing Light Extraction Efficiency in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes
指導教授:許佳振
指導教授(外文):HSU, CHIA-CHEN
口試委員:林俊元甘宏志鄭榮偉何正榮郭宗枋陳信助
口試委員(外文):LIN, JIUNN-YUANKAN, HUNG-CHIHCHENG, JUNGWEI JOHNHO, JENG-RONGGUO, TZUNG-FANGCHEN, HSIN-CHU
口試日期:2018-05-21
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:物理系研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:物理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:英文
論文頁數:119
外文關鍵詞:Organic light-emitting diodesLight Extraction Efficiency
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Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on the principle of electroluminescence have been considered as a promising candidate for the future flat panel displays and solid-state lighting. The OLEDs have various advantages, including energy saving, ultra thin, large viewing angles, low operating voltage, rapid response time, and flexibility. However, there are still some drawbacks for the device performances such as lifetime especially on blue organic films, cost of manufacturing process, moisture, and low light extraction efficiency due to light losses from the substrate mode, the waveguide mode and the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs).
This thesis has focused on enhancing the light extraction from OLEDs by using some new, simple, cost-effective methods, which can be classified into two major approaches:
(1) External extraction techniques (EETs), in which micro/nanostructures are incorporated in the airside surface of the glass substrate. In our study, we fabricated the convex microlens arrays (MLAs) or microporous polymer thin films (MPFs) then attached these films to the rear of the glass substrate of an OLED. MLAs structure was obtained by molding from breath figures of PS (polystyrene) molds. MPFs were fabricated by blending polymers with starch particles, spin-coating the blended polymer onto a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate, and then removing starch particles through an acid hydrolysis process. The fabrication methods of MLAs and MPFs demonstrate the facile, low-cost, and large area applicability. These structures scattered emitted photons inside the OLED device at the glass air interface and reduced light trapped in the substrate mode. As a result, the light extraction efficiency of OLED can be enhanced about 1.5 fold. The color quality of white-light OLED can
ii
be also improved by attaching the MPFs.
(2) The internal extraction techniques (IETs) are applied inside of the device stack, which can overcome the light loss incurred in organic/ITO waveguide modes and surface plasmon polaritons. The corrugated OLEDs were fabricated by patterned substrates or patterned hole injection layers. The islands or network structures were fabricated by a self-assembly technique based on the deliquescence of cesium chloride (CsCl) salt. These structures were pattern-transferred to tungsten trioxide (WO3) hole injection layer by the lift-off method or to glass substrate by reactive ion etching (RIE). The corrugated structures allowed Bragg scattering to extract the light trapped in waveguide mode. Moreover, the quasi-periodical corrugation at the metal cathode provided an additional in-plane wave vector to fulfill matching condition, thus the light loss from SPP is recovered by transforming SPP into free-space radiation. Therefore, the light performance of the corrugated OLEDs was significantly improved; typically, the maximum enhancement factor of light extraction efficiencies of the OLED were 1.83 and 2.25 folds by patterning WO3 hole injection layer and patterned glass substrate, respectively. The light trapped in waveguide modes also can be reduced via replacing the high refractive index refractive ITO anode by high conductive, low index transparent polymer anodes. The OLED fabricated on polymer anode displayed superior performance and lifetime than conventional OLEDs with ITO anode.
ABSTRACT ······················································································ i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ··································································iii
List of Tables ··················································································· vii
List of Figures ················································································· viii
Chapter 1 Background and Introduction ··················································1
1.1 Overview of OLEDs ······································································1
1.2 OLED Structures and operation ·························································3
1.3 Fabrication techniques ··································································7
1.3.1 Vacuum deposition techniques ·····················································7
1.3.2 Solution-processing techniques ····················································9
1.4 Device characteristics ·····································································9
1.4.1 Current density-voltage-luminance (J-V-L) characteristics ····················9
1.4.2 Current efficiency and power efficiency ········································ 11
1.4.3 Internal and external quantum efficiency ······································· 12
1.4.4 Color quality ········································································ 14
1.4.4.1 The Commission International d‟Eclairage (CIE) coordinates ········· 14
1.4.4.2 Correlated color temperature ················································ 15
1.4.4.3 Color rendering index ························································ 16
1.5 White-Light OLEDs ··································································· 17
1.6 Energy loss mechanisms in OLED ·················································· 19
1.6.1 Waveguide mode ··································································· 19
1.6.2 Surface plasmon polaritons ······················································· 21
1.6.2.1 Dispersion relation of surface plasmon polaritons ······················· 21
1.6.2.2 Light extraction from surface plasmon polaritons ······················· 24
1.6.3 Energy loss mechanism in OLEDs ·············································· 25
1.7 Improvement of light extraction in the OLEDs ·································· 26
1.7.1 External extraction techniques ··················································· 26
1.7.2 Internal extraction techniques ···················································· 28
1.7.2.1 Corrugated OLEDs ··························································· 29
1.7.2.2 Low refractive index layers ················································· 31
1.7.2.3 High refractive index substrates ············································ 33
v
1.7.2.4 Internal scattering layer ······················································ 35
1.7.2.4 Microcavity devices ·························································· 36
1.7.2.5 Reduction of surface plasmon polaritons losses ························· 37
1.8 Motivation ················································································ 38
Chapter 2 Breath-Figure Fabricated Microlens Array Thin Films for Enhancing Light Extraction of WLOLEDs ···························································· 40
2.1 Introduction ·············································································· 40
2.2 Experiment ··············································································· 41
2.3 Results and discussion ·································································· 42
2.3 Conclusions ·············································································· 46
Chapter 3 Microporous Polymer Films for Enhancing Light Extraction of WLOLEDs ······················································································ 47
3.1 Introduction ·············································································· 47
3.2 Experiment ··············································································· 48
3.3 Results and discussion ·································································· 51
3.4 Conclusions ·············································································· 61
Chapter 4 Enhanced Light Extraction Efficiency of OLED by Patterned Hole Injection Layer ················································································· 62
4.1 Introduction ·············································································· 62
4.2 Experiment ··············································································· 64
4.3 Results and discussion ·································································· 66
4.4 Conclusions ·············································································· 77
Chapter 5 Light Extraction Efficiency Enhancement of OLED Fabricated on Silica Network Substrate····································································· 79
5.1 Introduction ·············································································· 79
5.2 Experiment ··············································································· 80
5.3 Results and discussion ·································································· 82
5.4 Conclusion ··············································································· 84
vi
Chapter 6 Improvement in the Lifetime, and Light Extraction Efficiency of OLEDs by Using High Conductive, Low Index Transparent Polymer Anodes ·· 85
6.1 Introduction ·············································································· 85
6.2 Experiment ··············································································· 86
6.3 Results and discussion ·································································· 88
6.4 Conclusion ··············································································· 92
Chapter 7 Fabrication of Flexible OLEDs on Polyimide Substrate ··············· 93
7.1 Introduction ·············································································· 93
7.2 Experiment ··············································································· 93
7.3 Results and discussion ·································································· 95
7.4 Conclusion ·············································································· 97
Chapter 8 Summary and Prospects ······················································· 98
A. Appendix ················································································ 101
A.1 Calculation of out coupling areas ·················································· 101
References ····················································································· 102
Curriculum Vitae ············································································· 115
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