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研究生:曾群丰
研究生(外文):ZENG, QUN-FENG
論文名稱:修改像素預測誤差得到高藏量的自適應式訊息隱藏方法
論文名稱(外文):Adaptive Information Hiding with High Embedding Capacity Using Modification of Pixel Prediction Errors
指導教授:張真誠張真誠引用關係
指導教授(外文):CHANG, CHIN-CHEN
口試委員:婁德權胡育誠呂慈純
口試委員(外文):LOU, DER-CHYUANHU, YU-CHENLU, TZU-CHUEN
口試日期:2018-06-22
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中正大學
系所名稱:資訊工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:41
中文關鍵詞:寫隱術可逆式資訊隱藏不可逆式資訊隱藏
外文關鍵詞:Steganographyreversible data hidingirreversible data hiding
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隱寫術被廣分的使用在嵌入大量祕密資訊並同時保持著令人滿意的影像品質,其中最著名的技術便是預測誤差值的應用在隱寫術上。在這篇論文中,分別在可逆以及不可逆的隱藏中提出了兩種不同的方法來達到更高藏量且仍能有好的影像品質。首先,在不可逆式資訊隱藏,最低顯著位元藏入法結合像素誤差值藏入法中融入我們的影子像素預測法。第二則是在可逆式資訊隱藏,周圍像素預測誤差直方圖位移法中改良使用了混合預測誤差法以及二維直方圖成對像素誤差預測藏入法,在經過這兩種的改進後,就能得到更好的藏量與影像品質。
第一個部分的改進,因為像素誤差值藏入法中的誤差越大能藏的數量越多的關係,我們利用影子像素預測法,選擇較大的誤差值,藉此增加了藏量,同時利用了奇偶性位元的關係進一步擴大藏量,因此得到了極高的藏量也擁有好的影像品質,第二部分,因為周圍像素鄰近的關係,我們利用了混合預測誤差法,使我們的預測更加精準,也就能夠獲得更多的峰值用來進行藏入,原本我們直接使用了雙峰值的直方圖誤差預測藏入法,得到了極高的藏量,但經過權衡我們使用了二維直方圖成對誤差預測藏入法,不但提升了藏量也擁有較好的影像品質。

Steganography is widely used to embed large amounts of secret information while maintaining well image quality. The most famous steganography technique is prediction error. In this paper, two different approaches have been proposed for reversible and irreversible data hiding to achieve higher levels of capacity and still have good image quality. First of all, in the irreversible data hiding, the least significant bit method incorporates the pixel value difference method into our shadow pixel prediction method. The second improve is the use of the mixed prediction error method and the surrounding pixel prediction error histogram shifting will be displaced by two-dimensional histogram pixel error prediction hiding method in the reversible information hiding. After these two improvements we can get better capacity and good image quality.
The first part of the improvement, due to the larger the difference in the pixel value the greater the number of hidden capacity, we use the shadow pixel prediction method to select a larger difference value, thereby increasing the amount of peak point, while using the relationship of parity bits to further expand the capacity, we have obtained a high storage and also have good image quality. In the second part, du to the proximity of the value of neighboring pixels, we have used the mix prediction error expansion method to make our predictions more accurate, and we can have more peak point for hiding. We originally used the double peak-point histogram prediction error expansion method to get a very high level capacity, but after thinking, we used two-dimensional pairwise prediction error histogram shifting method has not only improved the capacity but also has good image quality.
Keywords

中文摘要………………………………………………………………………i
英文摘要………………………………………………………………………ii
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………….v
表目錄…………………………………………………………………………vi
第一章、緒論………………………………………………………………….1
1.1研究動機……………………………………………………………………………1
1.2論文架構……………………………………………………………………………2
第二章、文憲探討…………………………………………………………….3
2.1符號定義……………………………………………………………………………3
2.2 Wu和 Tsai的PVD藏入法…………………….……………………………….....4
2.2.1藏入步驟…….…………………………….………………………………...4
2.2.2取出方法……………………………….….………………………………...5
2.3 Khodaei and Faez學者們的可調節式PVD與LSB藏入法……………………...6
2.3.1藏入步驟………………………………………………………………..…...6
2.3.2取出步驟…………………………………………………….………………7
2.4 Hong 等學者們的邊緣預測誤差藏入法…………………………………….……8
2.4.1藏入步驟…………………………………………………...………………..8
2.4.2取出步驟………………………………….……………..…………………..9
第三章、植基於PVD,LSB及Parity Bit的高藏量資訊隱藏法………..11
3.1植基於PVD,LSB及Parity bit的高藏量資訊隱藏法…………………………11
3.1.1 藏入步驟……………………………………………………………..……11
3.1.2 取出與還原步驟…………………………………………………………..12
3.1實驗結果…………………………………………………………………………..13
3.2.1 圖像數據庫………………………………………………………………..13
3.2.2 效能指標…………………………………………………………………..14
3.2.3 效能………………………………………………………………………..14

第四章、運用預測誤差的直方圖位移法擁有之自適應性可逆式資訊隱藏方法……………….……………………………………..………………………19
4.1本篇的方法………………………………………..………………………………19
4.2最適加權像素預測誤差藏入法…………………………………………………..20
4.2.1藏入步驟…………………………………………………..………………20
4.3像素預測誤差值的直方圖位移修正法…………………………………………..22
4.3.1例子說明…………………………………………………………………...22
4.4混合預測藏入法…………………………………………………………………..24
4.4.1藏入步驟…………………………………………………………………...25
4.5雙峰值直方圖位移像素預測藏入法……………………………………………..26
4.5.1藏入法步驟………………………………………………………………...27
4.6 二維直方圖成對像素誤差預測模組…………………………………………….28
4.6.1藏入法步驟………………………………………………………………….29
4.7 實驗結果……………………………………………………………………….....30
4.7.1自我實驗各種模型預測比較……………………………………………...31
4.7.2最適加權像素預測法……………………………………………………...32
4.7.3綜合比較……………………………………………...……………………33
第五章、結論與未來展望……………………………………………………38
5.1結論………………………………………………………………………………..38
5.2未來展望…………………………………………………………………………..39
參考文獻……………………………………………………………………...40

[1] Niels Provos and Peter Honeyman (2003), “Hide and seek: An introduction to steganography,” IEEE Security & Privacy, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 32-44.
[2]C. C. Chang and H. W. Tseng (2004), "A steganographic method for digital images using side match," Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 25, pp. 1431-1437.
[3] A.D. Ker, “Steganalysis of LSB matching in grayscale images,” IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 12, no. 6, pp.441-444, 2005.
[4] Chin-Chen Chang, Ju-Yuan Hsiao and Chi-Shiang Chan, “Finding optimal least-significant-bit substitution in image hiding by dynamic programming strategy,” Pattern Recognition, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 1583-1595, 2003.
[5]C. K. Chan and L. M. Cheng (2004), "Hiding data in images by simple LSB substitution," Pattern Recognition, vol. 37, pp. 469-474.
[6]R. Z. Wang, C. F. Lin, and J. C. Lin (2001), "Image hiding by optimal LSB substitution and genetic algorithm," Pattern Recognition, vol. 34, pp. 671-683.
[7]X. P. Zhang and S. Z. Wang (2006), "Efficient steganographic embedding by exploiting modification direction," IEEE Communications Letters, vol. 10, pp. 781-783.
[8]Z. Ni, Y. Q. Shi, A. Nirwan, and W. Su (2006), "Reversible data hiding," IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 16, pp. 354-362.
[9]P. Tsai, Y.C. Hu, and H. L. Yeh (2009), "Reversible image hiding scheme using predictive coding and histogram shifting," Signal Processing, vol. 89, pp. 1129-1143.
[10] W. Hong, T. S. Chen, Y. P. Chang, and C. W. Shiu (2010), "A high capacity reversible data hiding scheme using orthogonal projection and prediction error modification," Signal Processing, vol. 90, pp. 2911-2922.
[11] Da-Chun Wu and Wen-Hsiang Tsai (2003), "A high capacity reversible data hiding scheme using orthogonal projection and prediction error modification," Signal Processing, vol. 90, pp. 2911-2922.
[12] M. Khodaei and K. Faez (2003), "steganographic method for images by pixel-value differencing, " Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 24, pp. 1613-1626.
[13] Cheng-Hsing Yang, Chi-Yao Weng, Shiuh-Jeng Wang and Hung-Min Sun (2010), "Varied PVD + LSB evading detection programs to spatial domain in data embedding systems, "Journal of Systems and Software, vol. 83, no. 10, pp. 1635-1643.
[14] Mehai Hussain, Ainuddin Wahid Abdul Wahab, Anthony T.S. Ho, Noman Javed and Ki-Hyun Jung (2017), "A data hiding scheme using parity-bit pixel value differencing and improved rightmost digit replacement, " Signal Processing: Image Communication, vol. 50, pp. 44-57.
[15] H.C. Wu, N.I. Wu, C.S. Tsai, and M.S. Hwang (2005), "Image steganographic scheme based on pixel-value differencing and LSB replacement methods, "IEE Proceedings – Vision, Image and Signal Processing, vol. 152, no. 5, pp. 611-615.
[16] The USC-SIPI image database. Signal and Image Processing Institute of the University of Southern California, Available: http://sipi.usc.edu/database/.
[17] Image Processing Place, (http://www.imageprocessingplace.com/)
[18] X. Zhang, J. Wang, Z. Wang, H. Cheng (2015) "Lossless and Reversible Data Hiding in Encrypted Images with Public Key Cryptography, "IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 26, pp. 1622-1631.

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