跳到主要內容

臺灣博碩士論文加值系統

(44.220.44.148) 您好!臺灣時間:2024/06/21 17:12
字體大小: 字級放大   字級縮小   預設字形  
回查詢結果 :::

詳目顯示

: 
twitterline
研究生:梁雪伶
研究生(外文):Sherine Sin Shay Ling
論文名稱:中老年人性格特質與生命意義對退休後生活品質之預測-以台灣和馬來西亞為例
論文名稱(外文):The predictions of aged persons' retired life qualities by their personality traits and meaning of life: The exploration study in Taiwan and Malaysia
指導教授:程千芳程千芳引用關係柯順耀柯順耀引用關係
指導教授(外文):CHERNG, GRACE CHIAN-FANGKO, SHUN-YAO
口試委員:游一龍程千芳柯順耀紀宗呈
口試委員(外文):YU, LUNGCHERNG, GRACE CHIAN-FANGKO, SHUN-YAOCHI,TZONG-CHERNG
口試日期:2018-06-22
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:長榮大學
系所名稱:醫學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:104
中文關鍵詞:堅韌性格五大因素生命意義性格特質生活品質
外文關鍵詞:hardinessfive factor modelmeaning of lifepersonalitylife qualities
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:0
  • 點閱點閱:386
  • 評分評分:
  • 下載下載:130
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:1
研究背景與目的 醫療進步和科技發達促成世界各國正面臨(超)高齡(化)社會的挑戰。促進長者的生活品質已儼然成了熱門的研究議題。經文獻探討發現,個體的性格和生命意義可能影響或決定個體的生活品質。本研究即採用實徵的分析方法,比較台灣和馬來西亞的中老年人之性格特質和生命意義對於渠等退休後的生活品質之預測。本研究中性格特質包括五大性格特質和堅韌性格,而生命意義則強調個體對於自主、實踐和成就之概念。 研究方法 本研究採自編的問卷調查法,共有三種量表:性格量表、生命意義量表和生活品質量表。三份量表皆先經因素分析和內部一致性α值分析,信度和效度俱佳。採用紙本及電子問卷兩種方式進行施測。共蒐集286份有效問卷,其中馬來西亞的受訪者約占62%。所得資料皆經SPSS 22.0進行統計分析。 結果與討論 堅韌性格與五大因素中的外向性、親和性、開放性和嚴謹性皆達統計上的正相關;而與神經質達統計上的顯著負相關。性格特質與生命意義三因素和生活品質間的兩兩相關亦皆達統計上的顯著水準。經迴歸分析顯示:堅韌性格和生命意義能有效地預測個體的生活品質。這些研究分析的結果將提供未來在促進中老年人的身心健康上的策略之參考與應用。


Aim Elders in the entire world were enjoying the convenience brought by good technology and hospitality but they might lack certain things from spiritual and psychological sectors. This research designed to determine how personalities and meanings of life of retirees works to affect their life qualities, and how those factors could predict life qualities of humankind. Methods The self-designed questionnaire set personality scales, meaning of life scales and life qualities scales to form a 40 question items with high reliability and validity after completing factor analysis and Cronbach Alpha test. There were total 286 questionnaires from Taiwan and Malaysia are collected. Results The results shows that personalities: neuroticism, personality hardiness and meaning of life: liberty and achievement are the factors that predicted humankind life qualities. Other background factors like friendships and sport habits help the old folks to live better too. The results of this research can give a reference for the hospitalities to improve the life qualities of the elders.
英文縮寫 ....................................................... 1

中文摘要 ....................................................... 2

英文摘要 ....................................................... 3

壹、導論 ........................................................4
(一)文獻探討 .................................................. 6

1. 性格特質 - 五大因素論 (Five Factor Model) ..............19

(1)與健康的相關研究........................................24
(2)性格特質(五大因素論)測量工具 .........................25

2. 性格特質 - 堅韌性格(Personality Hardness) ...............28

(1)定義 ...................................................29
(2)與健康的相關研究.........................................33
(3)堅韌性格測量工具.........................................33

3. 生命意義 (Meaning Of Life) ......................................34

(1)定義 ............................................................35
(2)人口學整理........................................................36
(3)生命意義測量工具...................................................40

4. 生活品質 (Life Qualities) ...........................................41

5. 性格特質與生命意義的關聯 ..........................................42

(二)本研究目的.....................................................43

貳、研究材料與方法..................................................47

(一)研究對象 .....................................................47

(二)研究工具 ....................................................48

(三)研究流程 .....................................................48

(四)資料分析 .....................................................49

參、研究結果 .................................................50

(ㄧ)不同性格特質的中老年人與其生命意義是否會影響生活品質.........50

(二)能預測生活品質的變項 .....................................50

(三)比較不同國籍的老者........................................51

(四)其他背景變項的探索........................................52

(伍)簡單提升中老年人的生活品質.................................58

肆、討論與建議 .............................................59

﹙一﹚結果討論 ............................................59

(二)研究建議與限制 .........................................66

(三)所遭遇問題與困難 ........................................67

伍、結論 ................................................68

(一)性格特質 ...........................................68

(二)生命意義 ...........................................68

(三)其他背景變項 ........................................69

(四)本研究未來應用 .......................................69

陸、參考文獻 ............................................. 71

柒、表 ....................................................82

圖、圖 ................................................... 86
方文輝、黃思維、謝茉莉(2015)。老年人生命意義與憂鬱傾向之相關性。北市醫學雜誌,12(2),159-169。

王秀美、李長燦(2011)。五大人格特質量表中文版之信效度研究。取自:http://ir.meiho.edu.tw/ir/handle/987654321/1296

邱亨嘉、謝穎慧、陳正宗(1998).喪偶對社區老人身體、精神及社會功能之影響.中華公共衛生雜誌,17(5),423–431。[Chiu, H. C., Hsieh, Y. H., & Chen, C. C. (1998). The effect of widowhood on physical, mental, and social functioning of the community elderly. Chinese Journal of Public Health, 17(5), 423–431.] doi:10.6288/CJPH1998-17-05-08

吳和堂(2014)。教師生命意義感量表之發展。教育理論與實踐學刊,29,091-122。

吳奇璋、黃惠滿、高家常、高碧凰(2010)。養護機構內老年人自主性及其相關因素之探討。長期照護雜誌,14(1),27-41。

吳武典、林幸台、王振德、郭靜姿(1997)。基本人格量表。台北:心理。

李月萍、陳清惠(2016)。喪偶對高齡者健康及生活之衝擊及護理。護理雜誌,63(4)19-24。

李彩鳳、吳麗芬、蘇惠珍(2013)。以靈性懷舊探討老年人生命意義的經驗。台灣高齡服務管理學刊,2(1),83-112。

李維靈、施建彬、邱翔蘭(2007)。退休老人休閒活動參與及其幸福感之相關研究。人文暨社會科學期刊,3(2),27-35。

林邦傑、翁淑緣(1990)。大專人格測驗。台北:教育部。

林珠茹(2002)。老人社區參與和生命意義之相關因素探討(未出版之碩士論文)。國立台北護理學院,台北。

徐宗福、黃宣穎、陳聰堅(2015)。社區高齡者自覺健康、生活滿意及生命意義之探討。醫務管理期刊,16(1),246-267。
連雅棻、黃惠滿、蘇貞瑛(2008)。獨居老人堅韌性格、社會支持與生活滿意度。長期照護雜誌,12(1),161-178。

陳映涵、程千芳(2016)。高齡者性格特質與幸福感之關係。2016台灣心理學年會暨學術研討會口頭報告。台南:成功大學。

程千芳、徐健、溫德生(2011)。民航機師的壓力與性格對工作表現的影響。航空醫學暨科學期刊,25(1),3-12。

黃子庭、林柳吟(2004)。社區老人之生命意義及其相關因素-雲林縣為例。臺灣公共衛生雜誌,23(2),159-167。

黃秀蘭(2005)。社區獨居老人自我照顧能力、自覺健康狀況、憂鬱情形與生命意義之探討(未出版之碩士論文)。國立台北護理學院,台北。

董島綠(2012)。懷舊團體工作對老人生命意義、幸福感之研究-以高雄市某社區之長者為對象(未出版之碩士論文)。美和科技大學,屏東。

趙安娜、高美玲、林壽惠(2004)。鄉村社區老年人生命意義、健康狀況與生活品質相關性之探討。長期照護雜誌,8(1),41-55。

潘靖瑛、謝曼盈(2010)。生命態度量表之發展。慈濟大學教育研究學刊,6,185-229。

蔡世澤(2013)。糖尿病與生活品質。擷取自:

http://tw.diabeticlink.org/V4/index.php/main/detail/10000/84

蔡坤良(2004)。小琉球漁村老人生命意義感、死亡態度與幸福感之研究(未出版之碩士論文)。南華大學,嘉義。

鄭政宗、賴昆宏(2007)。台中地區長青學苑老人之社會支持、寂寞感、休閒活動參與及生命意義之研究。朝陽學報,12,217-254。

賴保禎、賴美玲(2003)。賴氏人格測驗。台北:千華。

羅智容(2013)。高齡生命繪本方案對高齡學習者的生命意義感影響之準實驗研究(未出版之碩士論文)。國立中正大學,嘉義。

(二)英文文獻

Allport, G. W., & Odbert, H. S. (1936). Trait-names: A psycho-lexical study. Psychological Monographs, 47(1), i-171.

Allport, G. W. (1937). Personality: A psychological interpretation. New York: Holt.

Ainsworth, M. S., & Bowlby, J. (1991). An ethological approach to personality development. American Psychologist, 46(4), 333-341.

Adler, A. (1927). Understanding human nature. New York: Greenburg.

Barter, P. (2005). "The role of HDL-cholesterol in preventing atherosclerotic disease".European Heart Journal Supplements. 7: F4–F8. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/sui036.

Bartholomew, K., & Horowitz, L. M. (1991). Attachment styles among young adults: A test of a four-category model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(2), 226-244.

Bartone, P. T. (1991). Development and validation of a short hardiness measure. Paper presented at the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Society, Washington, DC

Bartone, P. T. (2006). "Resilience under military operational stress: Can leaders influence hardiness?". Military Psychology. 18: S131–S148. doi:10.1207/s15327876mp1803s_10

Bartone, P. T., & Hystad, S. W. (2010). Increasing mental hardiness for stress resilience in operational settings. In P. T. Bartone, B. H. Johnsen, J. Eid, J. M.Violanti, & J.C. Laberg (Eds.), Enhancing human performance in security operations. (pp.257-272). Springfield, IL; Charles C. Thomas.

Bartone, P. T., Spinosa, T., Robb, J., & Pastel, R. H. (2008). Hardy-resilient style is associated with high-density lipoprotein cholestrol levels. Paper presented at the Association of Military Surgeons of the United States annual meeting, San Antonio, Texas.

Bonanno, G. A. (2004). "Loss, trauma, and human resilience. Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events?". American Psychologist. 59 (1): 20–28. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.59.1.20.

Borawski, E.A., Kinney, J.M. and Kahana, E. (1996). The meaning of older adults’ health appraisals: Congruence with health status and determinant of mortality. Journal of Gerontology: Social Science, 51B, S157-S170.

Breitbart, W. (2001). Spirituality and meaning in supportive care: Spirituality- and meaning-centered group psychotherapy interventions in advanced cancer. Supportive Care in Cancer. New York, NY: Spriner-Verlag. doi:10.1007/s005200100289

Bretherton, I, (1992). The Origins of Attachment Theory: John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth. Developmental Psychology, 28, 759-775.

Byock, I. R. (1996). The nature of suffering and the nature of opportunity at the end of life. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, 12(2), 237.

Chaplin, W. F., John, O. P., & Goldberg, L. R. (1988). Conceptions of states and traits: Dimensional attributes with ideals as prototypes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(4), 541-557.

Colzato, L. S., Slagter, H. A., van den Wildenberg, W. P. M., & Hommel, B. (2009). Closing one's eyes to reality: Evidence for a dopaminergic basis of psychoticism from spontaneous eye blink rates. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(3), 377-380.

Contrada, R. J. (1989). "Type A behavior, personality hardiness, and cardiovascular responses to stress". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 57 (5): 895–903. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.57.5.895.

Coopersmith, S. (1967). The antecedents of self-esteem, San Francisco, freeman. Self-esteem. IOWA State University, University Extension

Costa, Jr., P.T. and McCrae, R.R. (1992). Revised NEO personality inventory (NEOPI-R) and NEO five-factor inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Psychological Assessment Resources, Odessa.

De Fruyt, F., McCrae, R.R., Szirmák, Z. and Nagy, J. (2004). The Five-Factor personality inventory as a measure of the five-factor model: Belgian, American, and Hungarian comparisons with the NEO-PI-R. Assessment, 11, 207-215.

Digman, J.M. (1990). Personality structure: Emergence of the five-factor model. Annual Review of Psychology, 41, 417-440.

Dolbier, C. L., Cocke, R. R., Leiferman, J. A., Steinhardt, M. A., Schapiro, S. J., Nehete, P. N.; et al. (2001). "Differences in functional immune responses of high vs. low hardy healthy individuals". Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 24 (3): 219–229.

Eid, J., & Morgan, C. A. (2006). "Dissociation, hardiness, and performance in military cadets participating in survival training". Military Medicine. 171 (5): 436–442. doi:10.7205/milmed.171.5.436.

Eysenck, H. J. (1944). Types of personality−A factorial study of 700 neurotic soldiers. Journal of Mental Science, 90, 851-861.

Eysenck, H.J. (1967). The biological basis of personality. Thomas: Spring-field, Ill..

Eysenck, H. J. (1970a). The questionnaire measurement of neuroticism and extraversion. In H. J. Eysenck (Ed.), Readings in extroversion-introversion (Vol.1). London: Staples Press, 1970.

Eysenck, H. J. (1970b). Readings in extraversion - introversion (3 vols.). London: Staples Press.

Eysenck, H. J. (1970c). The structure of human personality. New York, NY, US: Methuen.

Eysenck, H. J. (1990). Biological dimensions of personality. In L. A. Pervin (Ed.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (pp. 244-276). New York, NY, US: Guilford Press.

Fraley, R. C., & Shaver, P. R. (2008). Attachment theory and its place in contemporary personality research. In O. John & R. W. Robins (Eds.), Handbook of Personality: Theory and Research (3rd Edition) (pp. 518-541). New York: Guilford Press.

Frankl, V. E. (1963). Man’s search for meaning: An introduction to logotherapy. New York, NY: Washington Square Press.

Frankl, V. E. (1966). What is meant by meaning? Journal of Existentialism, 7, 21–28.

Frankl, V. E. (1969). The will to meaning. New York, NY: New American

Frankl, V. E. (1984). Man’s search for meaning: An introduction to logotherapy. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

Frankl, V. E. (1988). The will to meaning: Foundations and applications of logotherapy (2nd ed.). New York, NY: New American Library.

Freud, S. (1915). The Unconscious. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume XIV(1914-1916): On the History of the Psycho-Analytic Movement, Papers on Metapsychology and Other Works, 159-215

Freud, S. (1920). Beyond the pleasure principle. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume XVIII: early psycho-analytic publications.

Freud, S. (1923). The ego and the id. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, Volume XIX.

Goldberg, L.R. (1992) “The development of markers for the Big-five factor structure. Psychological Assessment, 4, 26-42.

Goldstein, K. (1967). Kurt Goldstein (W. Riese, Ed.). In E. G. Boring & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The Century psychology series. A history of psychology in autobiography, Vol. 5, pp. 145-166). East Norwalk, CT, US: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Goodwin, R. and Engstrom, G. (2002) Personality and the perception of health in the general population. Psychological Medicine, 32, 325-332.

Greenberg, J., Solomon, S., & Arndt, J. ( 2008). A basic but uniquely human motivation: Terror management . In J. Y. Shah & W. L. Gardner (Eds.), Handbook of motivation science (pp. 114-134). New York: Guilford.

Griffin, D. W., & Bartholomew, K. (1994). Models of the self and other: Fundamental dimensions underlying measures of adult attachment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(3), 430-445.

Francis, L.J., & Hills, P.R. (2008). The development of the meaning in life index (MILI) and its relationship with personality and religious behaviours and beliefs among UK undergraduate students. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 11, 211–220.

Ha, J-H. (2010). The effects of positive and negative support from children on widowed older adults’ psychological adjustment: A longitudinal analysis. The Gerontologist, 50(4), 471–481. doi:10.1093/geront/gnp163

Hahn, E. A., Cichy, K. E., Small, B. J., & Almeida, D. M. (2014). Daily emotional and physical reactivity to stressors among widowed and married older adults. The Journals of Gerontology, Series b: Psychological Sciences & Social Sciences, 69B(1), 19–28. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbt035

Halama, P. (2005). Relationship between meaning in life and the big five personality traits in young adults and the elderly. Studia Psychologica, 47, 167–178.

Hazan, C. & Shaver, P. (1987) Romantic Love conceptualized as an attachment process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(3), 511-524.

Henningsgaard, J.M., & Arnau, R.C. (2008). Relationships between religiosity, spirituality, and personality: A multivariate analysis. Personality & Individual Differences, 45, 703–708.

Horney, K. (1950). Neurosis and human growth: The struggle toward self-realization. New York: Norton.

Horney, K. (1966). Our inner conflicts: A constructive theory of neurosis. New York: W.W. Norton.

Horney, Karen (1967). Feminine Psychology. W.W. Norton Company, New York.

Horney, K. (1968). Self-analysis. New York: Norton.

Idler, E.L. and Benyamini, Y. (1997) Self-rated health and mortality: A review of twenty-seven community studies. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 38, 21-37.

Jonsén, E., FagerstrÖ m, L., Lundman, B., Nygren, B., Vähäkangas, M., & Strandberg, G. (2010). Psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Purpose in Life scale. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 24(1), 41-48. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6712.2008.00682.x

Jung, (1953). "The Structure of the Unconscious" (1916), Jung Collected Works vol. 7, 437–507 (pp. 263–292).

Kobasa, S. C. (1979). "Stressful life events, personality, and health – Inquiry into hardiness". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 37 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.37.1.1.

Kobasa, S. C. (1982). "Commitment and coping in stress resistance among lawyers". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 42 (4): 707–717. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.42.4.707.

Kobasa, S. C., & Puccetti, M. C. (1983). "Personality and social resources in stress resistance". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 45 (4): 839–850. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.45.4.839. PMID 6631665.

Kobasa, S. C., Maddi, S. R., Puccetti, M. C., & Zola, M. A. (1985). "Effectiveness of hardiness, exercise and social support as resources against illness". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 29 (5): 525–533. doi:10.1016/0022-3999(85)90086-8. PMID 4067890.

Kor, C.T., Hsieh, L. L., Huang, C.C., Chang, Y.Y., Liang, C.C., Chen, Y.P., Wu, H.M. (2016). Comparison of Quality of Life in Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study in Central Taiwan. The Changhua Journal of Medicine 2016 (14), 151-158.

Krause, N., & Hayward, D. (2012). Religion, meaning in life, and change in physical functioning during late adulthood. Journal of Adult Development, 19(3), 158-169.

Lambert, V.A., Lambert, C.E., & Yamasese, H.(2003). Psychological hardiness, workplace stress and related stress reduction strategies. Nursing and Health Sciences, 5,181-184.

Lavine, T. Z. (1984). From Socrates to Sartre: The philosophic quest. New York: Bantam Books.

Lavigne, K. M., Hofman, S, et al. (2013). The personality of meaning in life: Associations between dimensions of life meaning and the Big Five. The Journal of Positive Psychology. 8(1), 34–43.

Lecky, P. (1945) Self-consistency: a theory of personality. (1st ed.) New York: Island Press.

Maddi, S. R. (1997) Personal views survey II: A measure of dispositional hardiness. In C. P. Zalaquett & R. J. Wood (Eds.), Evaluating stress: A book of resources (293–309). Lanham, Md.: Scarecrow Press, Inc

Maddi, S. R. (1999). "The personality construct of hardiness: I. Effects on experiencing, coping, and strain". Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research. 51 (2): 83–94. doi:10.1037/1061-4087.51.2.83.

Maddi, S. R. (2004). "Hardiness: An operationalization of existential courage". Journal of Humanistic Psychology. 44 (3): 279–298. doi:10.1177/0022167804266101.

Maddi, S. R. (2006). "Hardiness: The courage to grow from stresses". Journal of Positive Psychology. 1 (3): 160–168. doi:10.1080/17439760600619609.

Magnani, L. E. (1990). Hardiness,self-perceived health, and activity among independently functioning older adults. Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice, 4(3), 171-184.

Maier, H. and Smith, J. (1999) Psychological predictors of mortality in old age. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 54B, 44-54.

Marino, G. D. (2004). Basic writings of existentialism.

Maslow, A.H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50 (4) 370–96.

Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York, NY: Harper.

McCrae, R.R. and Costa, Jr., P.T. (1987) Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 81-90.

McCrae, R.R. and John, O.P. (1992) An introduction to the five-factor model and its applications. Journal of Personality, 60, 175-215.

Meyer, D.E.; Schvaneveldt, R.W. (1971). Facilitation in recognizing pairs of words: Evidence of a dependence between retrieval operations. Journal of Experimental Psychology. 90: 227–234. doi:10.1037/h0031564

Merenda, PF. (2010). Similarities between Prescott Lecky's Theory of Self-Consistency and Carl Rogers' Self-Theory. Psychological Reports, 107(2) : 647-58.

Mittelman, W. (1991). Maslow's study of self-actualization: A reinterpretation. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 31 (1): 114–135. doi:10.1177/0022167891311010.

Murphy G. (1975). Human Potentialities. Penguin Books. Baltimore.

Naef, R., Ward, R., Mahrer-Imhof, R., & Grande, G. (2013). Characteristics of the bereavement experience of older persons after spousal loss: An integrative review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 50(8), 1108–1121. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2012.11.026

Nicholas, P. K. (1992). Hardiness, self-care practices and perceived health status in older adults. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 18, 1085-1094.

Norman, W. T. (1963). Toward an adequate taxonomy of personality attributes: Replicated factor structure in peer nomination personality ratings. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66(6), 574-583.

Nowack, K. M. (1989). "Coping style, cognitive hardiness, and health status". Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 12 (2): 145–158

O’Connor, B. (2002) A quantitative review of the comprehensiveness of the five-factor model in relation to popular personality inventories. Assessment, 9, 188-203.

O’Connor, K., & Chamberlain, K. (1996). Dimensions of life meaning: A qualitative investigation at mid-life. British Journal of Psychology, 87(3), 461-477.

Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2003). Character strengths before and after September 11. Psychological Science, 14, 381-384.

P. Olivares-Tirado, G. Leyton, E. Salazar. (2013), ”Personality factors and self-perceived health in Chilean elderly population”. Health, 5, 12A, 86-96.

Pollock, S. E. (1986). Human responses to chronic illness: Physiologic and psychological adaptation. Nursing Research, 35(2), 90-95.

Pyszczynski, T., Greenberg, J., Solomon, S., Arndt, J., & Schimel, J. (2004). Why Do People Need Self-Esteem? A Theoretical and Empirical Review. Psychological Bulletin, 130(3), 435-468.

Rogers, Carl. (1959). "A theory of therapy, personality relationships as developed in the client-centered framework.". In (Ed.) S. Koch. Psychology: A study of a science. Vol. 3: Formulations of the person and the social context. New York: McGraw Hill.

Rogers, Carl (1961). On becoming a person: A therapist's view of psychotherapy. London: Constable. ISBN 1-84529-057-7.

Roth, D. L., Wiebe, D. J., Fillingim, R. B., & Shay, K. A. (1989). Life events, fitness, hardiness, and health: a simultaneous analysis of proposed stress-resistance effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(1), 136-42.

Rothbard, J. C., & Shaver, P. R. (1994). Continuity of attachment across the life span. In M. B. Sperling & W. H. Berman (Eds), Attachment in adults: Clinical and developmental perspectives (pp. 31-71). New York: Guilford Press

Sartre, Jean-Paul. (1957). The transcendence of the ego: an existentialist theory of consciousness. New York,Octagon Books.

Saucier, G. (1994). Mini-markers: A brief version of Goldberg’s unipolar Big-Five markers. Journal of Personality Assessment, 63(3), 506-616.

Schaan, B. (2013). Widowhood and depression among older Europeans—The role of gender, caregiving, marital quality, and regional context. Journals of Gerontology, Series b: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 68(3), 431–442. doi:10.1093/geronb/gbt015

Schulenberg, S. E. (2004). A psychometricinvestigation of logotherapy measures and the outcome questionnaire. North American Journal of Psychology, 6(3), 477-492.

Schulenberg, S. E., & Melton, A. M. A. (2008). A confirmatory factor-analytic evaluation of the Purpose in Life Test: Preliminary psychometric support for a replicable two-factor model. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11(1),95-111. doi: 10.1007/s10902-008-9124-3

Schnell, T. & Becker, P. (2006). Personality and meaning in life. Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 117–129. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2005.11.030

Schvaneveldt, R.W. & Meyer, D.E. (1973). "Retrieval and comparison processes in semantic memory", in Kornblum, S., Attention and performance IV, New York: Academic Press, pp. 395–409

Seligman, M. E. P., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive Psychology Progress: Empirical Validation of Interventions. American Psychologist, 60(5), 410-421.

Skaggs, B. G., & Barron, C. R. (2006). Searching for meaning innegative events: Concept analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 53(5), 559-570.

Smith, D. R., & Snell, W. E., Jr. (1996). Goldberg's bipolar measure of the Big-Five personality dimensions: Reliability and validity. European Journal of Personality, 10(4), 283-299.

Snygg, Donald and Combs, Arthur W. (1949), Individual Behavior: A New Frame of Reference for Psychology. New York, Harper & Brothers.

Starck, P. L. (2008a). Theory of meaning. In M. J. Smith & P. R. Liehr(Eds.), Middle range theory for nursing(2nd ed., pp. 85-103). New York, NY: Springer.

Starck, P. L. (2008b). The human spirit: The search for meaning and purpose through suffering. Human Medicine Health Care, 8(2).

St. Clair, M. (1986). Object Relations and Self psychology: an introduction. CA, United States: Cengage Learning, Inc.

Sullivan, H. S. (1953). The interpersonal theory of psychiatry. New York, NY, US: W W Norton & Co.

Takkinen S, and Ruoppila (2001). I. Meaning in life in three samples of elderly persons with high cognitive functioning. Int J Aging Hum Dev 2001, 53(1), 51-73.

Terracciano, A., Lockenhoff, C.E., Zonderman, A.B., Ferrucci, L. and Costa, Jr., P.T. (2008). Personality predictors of longevity: Activity, emotional stability, and conscientiousness. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70, 621-627.

Translated picture of The Five Factor model, retrieved at 2017-09-14 from: https://goo.gl/WqPVoe

Wiebe, D. J. (1991). "Hardiness and stress moderation: A test of proposed mechanisms". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 60 (1): 89–99. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.60.1.89.

Wiebe, D. J., & McCallum, D. M. (1986). "Health practices and hardiness as mediators in the stress-illness relationship". Health Psychology. 5 (5): 425–438. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.5.5.425. PMID 3757991.

Young-Eisendrath & Dawson, Cambridge Companion to Jung (2008). "Chronology" (pp. xxiii–xxxvii). According to the 1953 Collected Works editors, the 1916 essay was translated by M. Marsen from German into French and published as "La Structure de l'inconscient" in Archives de Psychologie XVI (1916); they state that the original German manuscript no longer exists.

Zorrilla, E. P., Derubeis, R. J., & Redei, E. (1995). "High self-esteem, hardiness and affective stability are associated with higher basal pituitary-adrenal hormone levels". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 20 (6): 591–601. doi:10.1016/0306-4530(95)00005
QRCODE
 
 
 
 
 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               
第一頁 上一頁 下一頁 最後一頁 top
無相關期刊