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研究生:李秋霖
研究生(外文):LEE, CHIU-LIN
論文名稱:蕈類之健康促進應用探討市售蕈類之抗氧化活性及植物化學素分析
論文名稱(外文):Studies on the Health Promotion of Mushrooms Phytochemical and antioxidant analysis of mushroom from Taiwan market
指導教授:楊玲玲楊玲玲引用關係
指導教授(外文):YANG, LING-LING
口試委員:吳進益蔡博崴楊玲玲
口試委員(外文):WU, JIN-YITSAI, PO-WEIYANG, LING-LING
口試日期:2018-01-29
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:佛光大學
系所名稱:未來與樂活產業學系
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:社會學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:125
中文關鍵詞:市售蕈菇自由基清除抗氧化植化素總多酚多醣
外文關鍵詞:commercial mushroomradical scavenginganti-oxidationphytochemicalstotal polyphenolspolysaccharides
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第二型糖尿病是全世界常見代謝和內分泌紊亂的慢性病,導致嚴重的健康和經濟問題,由文獻探討糖尿病防治之天然物包含有自由基清除劑、抗氧化物及多醣體等。因此本論文分析16種市售蕈菇之水和酒精萃取物,除分析類三萜、固醇類、生物鹼、及還原糖基,並選擇具抗氧化成分之gallic acid和trolox作為正對照組,進行DPPH自由基清除能力、ABTS‧+自由基清除能力、總多酚含量、總多醣含量測定32種酒及水萃取物(EE及WE),結果顯示,DPPH自由基清除能力依序為洋菇(EE)、黑木耳(EE)、靈芝成熟子實體(FB)(WE)、雲耳(EE)、茶樹菇(EE),其半抑制濃度(IC50)分別為279.5、281.5、308.5、332.8及437.8 μg/ml; gallic acid與trolox分別為5.7及8.2 μg/ml。清除ABTS‧+自由基能力依序為靈芝FB(EE)、茶樹菇(EE)、靈芝幼蕾子實體(BD) (WE)、黑木耳(WE)、靈芝FB (WE),其半抑制濃度(IC50)分別為213.3、240.9、254.5、261.7、及282.5 μg/ml;gallic acid、trolox分別為4.6及8.5 μg/ml。另外,32種萃取物的總多酚量為相當gallic acid 相當量(GAE) :0.677~ 0.157 μg/mg extracts。總多醣定量以glucose之相當量(GE) μg,依序為茶樹菇(EE)、杏鮑菇(WE)、猴頭菇(EE)、香菇-ES(EE)、香菇-LF(EE),當量分別為594.64、554.25、522.1、504.21及459.38 μg GE/mg extracts。綜合以上之結果,茶樹菇(EE)萃取物不但含豐富多醣,同時具有顯著抗氧化能力;另,茶樹菇多醣已被研究證實具有抑制NO和COX-2可被應用於如炎症和癌症之治療。此外,茶樹菇多醣也被發現有顯著抑制STZ誘導的糖尿病小鼠iNOS的表達和血糖水平以及在免疫組織化學分析上顯示有增強了胰臟β細胞對STZ破壞的抗性。因此,茶樹菇無論是在糖尿病營養補充品或新藥之研究上均具有開發之潛力。

Type 2 diabetes is a world wild and metabolic, endocrine disorder related chronic disease, causing a series severe complications and economics issue. According to past studies, the nutrition supplements of natural anti-diabetes compounds including free radical scavenger, antioxidants and polysaccharides. Therefore, the phytochemicals analyzed triterpenes, steroids, alkaloids and reducing sugar function group of 16 commercially mushroom from Taiwan. In this study, gallic acid and trolox were positive control agents. The efficacies of DPPH free redical scavenging activity, ABTS‧+ anti-oxidation capacity, total phenolics and total polysaccharide contents of each ethanol extract (EE) and water extract (WE) were measured. Results showed(1) the best five potential DPPH- radical scavenging extracts are Agaricus bisporus (AB-EE)、Auricularia auricular (AA-EE)、Gonoderma lucidum (FB) (GFB-WE)、A. auricula-judae (EE)、and Agrocybe chaxingu (AC-EE), and IC50 were 279.5、281.5、308.5、332.8、437.8 μg/ml, respectively; gallic acid and trolox were 5.7 and 8.2 μg/ml.
(2) The anti-oxidation (ABTS‧+) potential extracts are Gonoderma lucidum (FB) (GFB-EE)、AC-EE、GBD-WE、Agrocybe chaxingu (WE)、GFB-WE, IC50 are 213.3、240.9、254.5、261.7 and 282.5 μg/ml, respectirely.(3) The total phenolics of extracts were 0.677 ~ 0.157 GAE µg/g. (gallic acid equivalent scavenging activity,GAE) (4) The high total polysaccharide contenting extracts are AC-EE、Pleurotus eryngiig (WE)、Hericium erinaceus(EE)、Lentinula edodes-ES(EE)、L. edodes-LF(EE)594.64, 554.25, 522.1, 504.21 and 459.38 GE ug/g (glucose equivalent, GE), respectively.
In view the above results, the highest polysaccharide containing extract is AC-EE, it also has antioxidant efficacy. Many studies had been improved the polysaccharides of Agrocybe chaxingu have biological activities of NO, COX-2 inhibitions. Otherwise, it also significantly inhibited iNOS expression and blood glucose levels in streptozocin(STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that it enhanced pancreatic beta-cells resistance to destruction by STZ. The conclusion exhibited the Agrocybe chaxingu will be a potential to develop the nutrition supplement or new drug for the related disease including inflammation, cancer and anti-diabetes.

目錄
摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
誌謝 III
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VII
表目錄 VIII
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機 4
第二節 研究目的 5
第一節 研究流程 6
第二章 文獻回顧與探討 7
第一節 蕈菇簡介 7
一、生物分類 7
二、傳統應用 7
三、健康營養價值 8
四、栽培 9
五、藥理作用 11
六、生物活性成分 19
七、香菇常用之段木樹材 22
第二節 天然多醣對糖尿病的改善能力 25
一、醣類 25
二、多醣對糖尿病的改善能力 26
三、多醣的免疫調節能力 28
第三節 糖尿病簡介 29
一、糖尿病定義與分類 29
二、糖尿病對生理健康的影響 30
三、胰島素抗性 31
四、糖尿病和抗氧化 31
五、天然胰島素分泌促進之天然資源 33
第三章 實驗材料與方法 38
第一節 文獻探詢方法 38
第二節 實驗材料 39
一、蕈菇材料 39
二、化學試藥 41
三、實驗儀器與設備 42
第三節 實驗方法 43
一、實驗材料萃取製備 43
二、檢測品製備 43
三、植物化學素定性分析 44
四、生物活性定量與總多醣含量測定方法 47
1. 清除1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazlhydrate(DPPH)自由基能力試驗 48
2. 清除ABTS‧+ [2,2-Azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate acid)]陽離子試驗 50
3. 總多酚化合物含量測定 51
4. 總多醣化合物含量測定 52
第四章 實驗結果 54
第一節 16種蕈菇萃取物之產率 54
第二節 植物化學素定性分析結果 55
第三節 抗氧化、自由基清除能力測定結果 57
第四節 總多酚定量測定結果 70
第五節 總多醣定量測定結果 73
第五章 討論 76
第一節 蕈菇中之植化素 76
第二節 16種蕈菇萃取物之抗氧化力生物活性結果與糖尿病之應用 80
第三節 香菇栽培之不同寄主對生物活性影響 81
第四節 不同採收時段靈芝對生物活性影響 82
第五節 黑木耳、杏鮑菇、茶樹菇之生物活性 83
第六章 結論與建議 84
文獻參考 86
中文文獻 86
英文文獻 91
附錄 105
圖目錄
圖1 研究方法流程圖 6
圖2 蕈菇栽培流程圖 10
圖3 Triterpenoid之化學結構式 20
圖4 不同段木栽培之香菇 40
圖5 不同採收階段之靈芝 40
圖6 植化素合成途徑 44
圖7 DPPH自由基清除反應式 48
圖8 ABTS‧+自由基清除反應式 50
圖9 萃取產率 55
圖10 Gallic acid標準品DPPH自由基清除率檢量線 58
圖11 Trolox標準品DPPH自由基清除率檢量線 58
圖12 Gallic acid標準品ABTS‧+自由基清除率檢量線 58
圖13 Trolox標準品ABTS‧+自由基清除率檢量線 58
圖14 16種蕈菇水萃取物DPPH自由基清除率 61
圖15 16種蕈菇水萃取物ABTS‧+自由基清除率 61
圖16 16種蕈菇酒精萃取物DPPH自由基清除率 63
圖17 16種蕈菇酒精萃取物ABTS‧+自由基清除率 63
圖18 16種蕈菇萃取物之DPPH自由基清除能力IC50柱狀圖 64
圖19 16種蕈菇萃取物之ABTS‧+自由基清除能力IC50柱狀圖 67
圖20 Gallic acid標準品總多酚檢量線 70
圖21 16種蕈菇水萃取物的總多酚含量 72
圖22 16種蕈菇酒精萃取萃物的總酚含量 72
圖23 Glucose標準品總多醣檢量線 73
圖24 16種蕈菇水萃取物總多醣含量 75
圖25 16種蕈菇酒精萃取物總多醣含量 75
表目錄
表1 蕈菇栽培方法 9
表2 蕈菇天然多醣對糖尿病的作用 27
表3 實驗蕈菇材料表 39
表4 16種蕈菇萃取物與乾燥材料換算表 54
表5 16種蕈菇水萃取物植物化學素定性分析 56
表6 16種蕈菇酒精萃取物植物化學素定性分析 57
表7 16種蕈菇水萃取物自由基清除率 60
表8 16種蕈菇酒精萃取物自由基清除率 62
表9 16種蕈菇萃取物的總多酚含量 71
表10 16種蕈菇萃取物的總多醣含量 74
表11 16種蕈菇水萃及酒精萃取物含生物鹼之測試 79
表12 不同生長階段靈芝生物活性 82
表13 黑木耳、杏鮑菇、茶樹菇之生物活性 83



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