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研究生:陳冠宇
研究生(外文):CHEN,KUAN-YU
論文名稱:以資料包絡法分析公司營運效率-以全球輪胎公司為例
論文名稱(外文):Data Envelopment Analysis of the Company's Operating Efficiency - A Case Study of Global Tire Company
指導教授:王嘉男王嘉男引用關係
指導教授(外文):Wang, Chia-Nan
口試委員:王嘉男羅世雄郭明輝
口試委員(外文):Wang,CHIA-NANLO,SHIH-HSIUNGKUO,MING-HUI
口試日期:2018-06-01
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立高雄應用科技大學
系所名稱:工業工程與管理系
學門:工程學門
學類:工業工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:59
中文關鍵詞:資料包絡分析法經營效率輪胎公司
外文關鍵詞:DEABusiness efficiencyTire company
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輪胎產業發展與汽車產業發展息息相關,目前產業中超過400家輪胎公司每年創造超過10億顆輪胎,行業裡高度集中化,三家頂級輪胎製造商擁有60%的市場占有率,前四大公司收入占總產業中的45%,但隨著近年發展新興國家的崛起,造成國際市場重心的轉移,由原先已歐美和日本市場,轉移至亞洲市場甚至是印度,多數大廠優勢不在,許多新興市場中的中小型企業因有政府扶持和供應鏈資源的技術支援下,近年成長相當迅速,其中又以中國市場表現相當強勁,而在中國企業快速成長下,內需已經逐漸飽和,低價的中國輪胎開始出口至全世界,全球輪胎市場將面臨調整。

本研究使用2013~2016年全球22間輪胎上市公司的財務資訊做為研究資料,分析各公司之經營效率和生產力,使用皮爾森相關係數從相關文獻中找出對於輪胎產業具有較高影響力的正相關因子,將其投入資料包絡法中的麥式生產力指數和CAT群組分析模式,可將縱橫斷資料進行跨期分析,結合兩種DEA模式,用不同面向的分析,給予輪胎公司改善經營績效的建議。

首先使用皮爾森相關係數分析出正相關因子,投入項為總資產、存貨、淨資產廠房和設備,產出方面為銷售收入和淨收入,將上述投入與產出項代入資料包絡分析法中的麥氏指數和CAT群組分析模式,利用麥氏指數分析各公司之技術效率、技術變革、總要素生產力,了解公司每一期經營表現和經營效率變動的狀況,使用CAT群組分析模式,將各公司依據規模大小分成,最具市場優勢、具市場優勢、具市場弱勢,三個群組,進行群組營運效率分析,了解各群組之最佳營運效率與各公司相對營運效率值。

經本研究分析後,在皮爾森相關係數分析後,可知三項投入和兩項產出的正相關聯性較高,可建議各公司針對其做資源上的調整和研究。在資料包絡分析法方面,雖在整體市場總銷售額下降的情況下,還是有少數公司表現相對優異並持續成長,綜合效率排行前四名為Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.、MRF Ltd.、Cooper Tire & Rubber Co.、Giti Tire Pte. Ltd.,而表現不理想的公司,可以參考同群組中最佳營運公司,調整資源使用問題,已提高公司經營效率,可藉由公司別研究結果得出各企業資源配置和佈局,以利各公司對於未來市場變化來及時做出決策。

The development of the tire industry is closely related to the development of the car industry. More than 400 tire companies in the industry have created more than 1 billion tires each year. The industry is highly centralized. Three top tire manufacturers have a market share of 60%, and the top four companies account for revenue 45% of the total industry. But with the rise of emerging countries in recent years, the shift in the international market has shifted from the original European, American, and Japanese markets to the Asian market and India. The advantages of most large companies are not useful in the emerging markets. Many SME enterprises in emerging markets have grown rapidly due to government support and technical support from supply chain resources in recent years. Among them, the performance of the Chinese market is quite dazzling, and domestic companies have gradually saturated domestic demand due to the rapid growth of Chinese companies. The Chinese tires began to be exported to the world, and the global tire market will face adjustments.

This paper uses the financial information of 22 listed tire companies in the world from 2013 to 2016 as research data, analyzes the operating efficiency and productivity of each company, and uses Pearson's correlation coefficient to identify positive correlation factors from the tire industry literature, which are input into Malmquist Productivity Index and CAT group analysis model in the data envelope method, they can be used for cross-period analysis of cross-sectional data. Combining the two DEA models, different aspects of the analysis are used to provide tire companies improved business performance opinion.

The Pearson correlation coefficient is used to analyze the positive correlation factors. The input items are total assets, inventory, net assets, plant and equipment, and the output is sales revenue and net income. The input and output items are into Malmquist Productivity Index and CAT group analysis model in the data envelope method. Malmquist Productivity Index analyze the Catch-up, Frontier and Malmquist of each company to understand the company's operating performance and operating efficiency changes in each period, using the CAT group analysis model. Companies are classified according to their assets, with the most market advantages, market advantages, and market weaknesses. The three groups analyze the operating efficiency of the group and understand the best operating efficiency of each group and the relative operating efficiency of each company.

After the analysis of this study, after the analysis of Pearson's correlation coefficient, we can see that the three inputs and the two outputs are positively correlated with each other, and we can advise companies to do resource adjustment and do in-depth research. In terms of data envelopment analysis, although total sales in the overall market declined, there were still a few companies that performed relatively well and continued to grow. The top four in overall efficiency were Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., MRF Ltd., and Cooper Tire. & Rubber Co., Giti Tire Pte. Ltd., and companies that perform poorly, can refer to the best operating companies in the same group, adjust resource use issues, and improve company operating efficiency. The company can do research results obtained by each enterprise resource allocation and layout to facilitate future changes in the market for companies to make timely decisions.

摘 要 v
ABSTRACT vii
誌謝 x
目錄 xi
表 目錄 xiii
圖 目錄 xiv
緒論 1
1.1 研究背景 1
1.2研究動機 4
1.3研究目的 5
1.4研究流程 6
二 文獻探討 7
2.1 輪胎產業 7
2.1.2 全球輪胎產業鏈 8
2.1.3 全球輪胎業近況 10
2.1.4 輪胎相關文獻 11
2.2. DEA資料包絡分析法之相關文獻 13
2.3 投入產出選取之相關文獻 16
三 研究方法 18
3.1 資料包絡分析法 18
3.1.1 Farrell模型 18
3.1.2 CCR模式 21
3.2 麥氏生產力 23
3.3 CAT模式 25
3.4 皮爾森相關係數 26
3.5 研究架構 27
四 實證結果與分析 29
4.1 決策單位收集 29
4.2 投入變數與產出變數和皮爾森關聯度計算 30
4.3 Malmquist生產力指數分析 37
4.3.1 Malmquist生產力指數分析-技術效率 37
4.3.2 Malmquist生產力指數分析-技術變革 38
4.3.3 Malmquist生產力指數分析-總要素生產力 39
4.4 CAT分析 41
五 結論與建議 46
5.1全球輪胎產業所面臨問題與研究目標 46
5.2 綜合績效評比之結果 47
5.2.1公司各別結論 49
5.3.研究貢獻與建議 53
5.4 未來研究方向 54
參考文獻 55

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