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研究生:布羅托
論文名稱:印尼軍事改革 (1998-2014)
論文名稱(外文):Navigating The Indonesia’s Military Reform, 1998-2014
指導教授:孫采薇孫采薇引用關係
指導教授(外文):Sun, Tsai-Wei
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:亞太研究英語博士學位學程(IDAS)
學門:社會及行為科學學門
學類:區域研究學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:106
語文別:英文
論文頁數:155
中文關鍵詞:軍事政變民主化印尼軍工事務地緣政治
外文關鍵詞:Military reformMilitary’s withdrawal from politicsDemocratizationIndonesiaDemocratic control over the armed forcesMilitary business activitiesTerritorial command structure
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This dissertation studies military’s withdrawal from politics. It examines military reform in Indonesia which aiming at withdrawing the Indonesian armed forces, currently known as Tentara Nasional Indonesia or TNI, from politics following the fall of Suharto in 1998. It seeks to explain the driving force of the progress of military reform in Indonesia and asks the question of: why has the reform been progressing differently from one agenda to another? It focuses on three agendas of reform, which are: the establishment of normative democratic control over TNI, the disbandment of TNI’s business activities, and the reorganization of TNI’s territorial command structure. It argues that variation in the progress of reform in those three agendas is closely related to military interests. The relatively successful establishment of normative democratic control over the armed forces has been mostly driven by the primacy of national interests within the brass, while the struggling disbandment of military’s business activities is rooted at factional/personal interests within TNI, and the complete failure in the abandonment of territorial command structure is related to strong organizational interests of TNI.
This dissertation adopts a within-case comparison to answer the puzzle and focusing on Indonesia which represents the transplacement model of democratization in the third wave of democratization. Since transplacement involves coalition between reformers within the old and the new elites, it allows a process of negotiation in the transition. Hence, it creates a variation of the progress of the reform. Since this dissertation focuses on a single case studies, with three sub-cases, this dissertation is lacking of the power to generalization. However, it allows an in-depth analysis of the case using a process-tracing method. To conduct a proper process-tracing, this dissertation engages in various types of sources such as official documents, meetings’ notes, transcripts of in-depth interviews, personal communications, reports from non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and secondary sources from newspapers’ reports.
This dissertation concludes that the progress of the reform, in the case of Indonesia, varies according to the interests of the armed forces, and interaction between those interests and other variables such as the interests of civilian groups. It suggests that the organizational interests of the armed forces are the most influential variable to define the progress. Strong organizational interests would lead to a stall in the reform. The case of territorial command structure as well as, to a lesser degree, the second phase of the normative democratic control over the armed forces suggests this claim. In the absence of organizational interests, the existence of strong factional/personal interests would lead to problems in the advancement of the reform. The case of disbandment of military informal business activities supports this claim. Finally, the progress of the reform would be relatively smooth in the absence of those two interests and in the guidance of national interests.
Acknowledgement i
Abstract ii
Table of content iii-iv
Table and figure v
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1. Historical account on Indonesia’s military reform 1
1.1.1. Generation of reform 2
1.1.2. The progress of military reform in Indonesia 5
1.2. Research puzzle and argument 13
1.2.1. Research question 14
1.2.2. Argument 18
1.3. Methodology, data source, and case selection 20
1.3.1. Methodology 20
1.3.2. Data source 23
1.3.3. Case selection 23
1.4. Contribution and limitation 27
1.5. Outline of chapters 28
Chapter 2. Explaining military’s withdrawal from politics 29
2.1. Review literatures on military’s involvement in and withdrawal from politics 29
2.1.1. Relationship between military’s involvement in and withdrawal from politics with military’s professionalism 29
2.1.2. Indicators of military’s withdrawal from politics 32
2.1.3. Identifying TNI’s involvement in and withdrawal from politics 38
2.2. Factors influencing military’s involvement in and withdrawal from politics 47
2.2.1. Four dominant explanations on factors influencing military’s involvement in and withdrawal from politics 47
2.2.2. Review of literatures on military’s withdrawal from politics in the case of Indonesia 51
2.3. A typology of corporate interests of the armed forces 53
2.3.1. Organizational interests of TNI 53
2.3.2. National interests of TNI 54
2.3.3. Factional/personal interests within TNI 55
2.3.3.1. Inter-services rivalry within TNI 56
2.3.3.2. Inter-generational rivalry within TNI 57
2.3.3.3. Inter-sectional groups rivalry within TNI 58
2.4. Conclusion 61

Chapter 3. The establishment of democratic control over TNI 63
3.1. The progress in the establishment of democratic control over TNI 63
3.1.1. The levelling of political regulations in Indonesia 64
3.1.2. Applying the proposed framework to measure the degree of success in the establishment of democratic control 70
3.1.2.1. Progress in the indicators of elite recruitment area 71
3.1.2.2. Progress in the indicators of public policy area 74
3.1.2.3. Progress in the indicators of internal security area 78
3.1.2.4. Progress in the indicators of external defense and military organization areas 82
3.2. The national interests’ dominance within TNI 83
3.3. Conclusion 91
Chapter 4. The abandonment of TNI’s business activities 92
4.1. TNI and their business activities 93
4.1.1. The evolution of TNI’s business activities 93
4.1.2. TNI’s business prior to Suharto era 98
4.1.3. TNI’s business during Suharto era 100
4.1.4. The call for abandonment of TNI’s business activities after Suharto era 103
4.2. The struggle over the taking over of TNI’s business 108
4.3. Conclusion 113
Chapter 5. The disbandment of territorial command structure 115
5.1. The importance of komando teritorial 115
5.1.1. The evolution of TNI’s doctrine 116
5.1.2. The evolution of TNI’s territorial command structure 121
5.2. TNI’s corporate interests at stake 127
5.3. Conclusion 133
Chapter 6. Conclusion 134
6.1. Within-case comparison analysis 134
6.2. Lesson learned and recommendation 138
Bibliography 143
Appendix 1. List of interviews 151
Appendix 2. A short history of TNI (Timeline) 153
Appendix 3. Territorial command structure of TNI 154-5
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Yunanto, S., et.al. (2005). Evaluasi kolektif reformasi sektor keamanan di Indonesia: TNI dan Polri [Collective evaluation of Indonesia’s security sector reform: TNI and Polri]. Jakarta: The RIDEP Institute.


Documents
Kementerian Pertahanan (2003, 2008, 2015). Buku Putih Pertahanan (White Defense Paper). Jakarta.
Kementerian Pertahanan (2016). Doktrin Pertahanan Negara (National Defense Doctrine). Jakarta.
Kementerian Pertahanan (2006). Kebijakan Umum Pertahanan Negara 2005-2017 (National Policy in Defense Affairs, 2005-2017). Jakarta.
Mabes ABRI (1998). Paradigma Baru ABRI (The New Paradigm of ABRI). Bandung. Paper resulted from meetings at Sesko ABRI.
Mabes TNI (2001).TNI Abad XXI (TNI in the Twenty-first Century). Jakarta.
Propatria Working Groups minutes of meetings and consultations from 2000-2004.
Government regulations (UU, Perppu, Perpres, Keppres, Kepmenhan, SP Panglima, and others).
Tim Nasional Pengalihan Bisnis TNI (2008). Laporan Tim Pelaksana Pengalihan Bisnis TNI (Final Report of National Team for the Takingover of TNI Business). Jakarta.

Newspapers
Antara (online)
Kompas
Koran Sindo
Koran Tempo
Republika
The Jakarta Post
Vivanews (online)
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