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研究生:張媛筑
論文名稱:競爭法上使用者數據之應有定位與可能造成之衝擊
論文名稱(外文):The Role of User’s Data and Its Possible Impact for Competition Law
指導教授:王立達王立達引用關係
口試委員:陳志民劉定基
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:法律科際整合研究所
學門:法律學門
學類:專業法律學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:133
中文關鍵詞:使用者數據隱私保護市場競爭管制競爭優勢參進障礙市場力量反競爭行為
外文關鍵詞:User dataPrivacy protectionCompetition regulationCompetitive advantageEntry barriersMarket powerAnti-Competitive behavior
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數位時代孕育大數據技術的發展並帶動產業的創新,使用者數據的運用也日益活躍於商業領域,並分別為消費者與事業帶來便利的生活與競爭優勢。然而蒐集、處理、運用等數據價值鏈活動對於市場競爭造成相當的影響,也成為事業為反競爭行為的誘因,而引起競爭法的關注,多國競爭執法機關亦已陸續展開調查或進行相關研究。由於使用者數據涉及個人資訊隱私,更因其係產業創新的動力之一,從而競爭法管制的合適性與必要性一直為爭議性議題,後續延伸出對於現有競爭法架構的相容性疑義。本文透過文獻與案例分析,從使用者數據的特色出發,探討使用者數據於競爭法框架下之爭議,包含與隱私法規的競合問題及衝擊現行制度之因應方式。基於競爭法適度管制的觀點,提出可能評估市場力量的方式與使用者數據可能形成的限制競爭或不公平競爭之風險類型。冀望對於我國公平交易法就此議題之剖析與因應有所助益,迎接數據經濟的浪潮。
Big data analytics technology evolves rapidly and enhances the pace of the innovation of industries in the digital era. Utilizing user data, which is a sort of valuable assets, becomes more popular in business. The new technology brings consumers fitted products and convenience and creates competitive advantages to firms. However, collecting, processing and analyzing large sets of user data not only benefit the entities in the market but also impact market competition. Competition agencies around the world have engaged in related investigations and research on data and competition. The mainly concerns are whether the amount of user data may build a barrier to entry, and whether firms which control user data in a massive amount or essential to competition may have incentives to abuse their market power to foreclose marker. Moreover, because user data is one factor of fostering innovation and has a strong correlation with privacy, the suitability and the necessity of competition law to regulate data issue is still controversial. If competition law intervenes, we should further consider how to adapt it to the present regulation. By reviewing academic literature and practical cases, this thesis begins with the introduction of characteristics of user data, followed by the analysis of the controversy concerning user data under the framework of competition law, including the trade-off between it and privacy laws and possible adjustment to the present framework. This paper also discusses the way to assess market power and specific types of anticompetitive and unfair competition behaviors. Finally, this thesis concludes with a short remark. Hopefully it can provide some references for further discussion on this issue under the Fair Trade Act in Taiwan.
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究範圍與方法 2
1.3 研究架構 3
第二章 使用者數據之意義與特性 5
2.1 意義與類型 5
2.2 數據價值鏈 6
2.3 經濟特徵 7
2.3.1 無敵對性與無排他性 8
2.3.2 不同類型數據間之替代性 8
2.3.3 數據的可及性與價值 8
2.4 與經濟活動的互動關係 10
2.4.1 線上市場與實體市場 10
2.4.2 運用數據之事業端分析 11
2.4.3 消費者端分析 15
第三章 競爭法管制使用者數據之爭議性探討 17
3.1 競爭法與個人資料保護法之競合關係 17
3.1.1 對於使用者隱私保護之交集 19
3.1.2 從交集與互斥觀察使用者數據與反競爭效果 24
3.2 競爭法干預使用者數據運用不利市場創新發展之疑慮 28
3.2.1 競爭管制不利創新的課題 29
3.2.2 再探競爭管制與創新 32
3.3 市場界定面對數據性質之疑問:相關數據市場? 34
3.3.1 數據與供需原則 35
3.3.1.1 他用型態:數據為銷售產品 35
3.3.1.2 自用型態:數據為生產投入 36
3.3.2 當數據為生產投入時之相關市場界定 37
3.3.2.1 下游市場:整體獲利或非價競爭 38
3.3.2.2 數據本身:潛在競爭市場 43
3.4 使用者數據是否構成參進障礙 45
3.4.1 數據特性之論辯:隨處可得抑或具稀少性? 45
3.4.2 數據之可及性 46
3.4.3 數據非關鍵成功要素 48
3.4.4 小結:應視市場特性而定 51
3.5 數據量與競爭優勢之相關性 51
3.5.1 數據之邊際價值 51
3.5.2 評估數據創造的競爭優勢 55
3.5.2.1 使用者數據之規模與範疇 55
3.5.2.2 網絡效果 56
3.5.2.3 使用者數據之替代性 58
3.5.2.4 其他評估事項 59
3.5.2.5 小結 61
第四章 使用者數據與競爭法的互動分析 62
4.1 評估數據所生之市場力量 62
4.1.1 數據成為市場力量衡量標準 63
4.1.2 評估方式 68
4.1.2.1 實務與學說見解 68
4.1.2.2 本文見解 70
4.1.3 小結 75
4.2 使用者數據可能觸發之反競爭型態 76
4.2.1 濫用市場地位 76
4.2.1.1 排他行為 76
4.2.1.1.1 拒絕交易:關鍵生產投入或關鍵設施 76
4.2.1.1.2 不正當差別待遇 80
4.2.1.1.3 阻礙競爭者參與競爭 81
4.2.1.2 差別訂價 82
4.2.1.3 搭售與交叉使用 85
4.2.2 結合行為:數據為特別資產 86
4.2.2.1 數據導向的併購 86
4.2.2.1.1 Facebook/ WhatsApp 87
4.2.2.1.2 Microsoft/ LinkedIn 93
4.2.2.2 評估使用者數據結合的效率 98
4.2.3 聯合行為 102
4.2.3.1 共同決定價格 102
4.2.3.2 聯合研發 105
4.2.4 不公平競爭 107
第五章 結論 112
相關判決與訴訟文件 119
參考文獻 121
(一)中文文獻

書籍
1.方世杰、蔡敦浩,策略管理,2012年3月。
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期刊論文
1.胡婉玲,消費者使用創新性、轉換成本與轉換意圖間關係之實證研究,行銷評論,3卷3期,頁399-422,2006年秋季。
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3.陳志民,大數據時代下之市場力濫用行為初探,第24屆競爭政策與公平交易法學術研討會論文集,行政院公平交易委員會,頁1-24,2017年12月。
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6.黃美瑛、黃翰彬,事業結合之單方效果評估:兼論UPP之應用,公平交易季刊,24卷2期,頁1-32,2016年4月。
7.黃銘傑,公平交易法結合管制之問題點與盲點-以結合類型與實體規範要件為中心-,公平交易季刊,25卷2期,頁29-54,2017年4月。
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9.廖義男,夏蟲語冰錄(九十八)-事業市場力量之評估方法,法令月刊,67卷3期,頁97-113,2016年3月。
10.劉孔中,析論獨占事業濫用市場地位之禁止,人文及社會科學集刊,8卷1期,頁227-263,1996年3月。

學位論文
1.郭政雄,關鍵設施原則在競爭法上之應有定位:以基礎設施理論為中心,國立交通大學科技法律研究所碩士論文,2014年2月。

其他參考資料
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3.公平交易委員會對於結合申報案件之處理原則。
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5.業界集「大數據」作保費調整(2017年3月6日),東方日報,取自: http://orientaldaily.on.cc/cnt/finance/20170306/00202_021.html?pubdate=20170306,最後瀏覽日:2018年1月18日。

(二)英文文獻

書籍
1.JONES, ALISON, & BRENDA SUFRIN, EU COMPETITION LAW: TEXT, CASES, AND MATERIALS (5th ed. 2014).
2.KALYVAS, JAMES R., & MICHAEL R. OVERLY, BIG DATA: A BUSINESS AND LEGAL GUIDE 120 (2014).
3.NIELS, GUNNAR, HELEN JENKINS & JAMES KAVANAGH, ECONOMICS FOR COMPETITION LAWYERS (2011).
4.SCHUMPETER, JOSEPH A., CAPITALISM, SOCIALISM AND DEMOCRACY (1942).
5.STUCKE, MAURICE E., & ALLEN P. GRUNES, BIG DATA AND COMPETITION POLICY (2016).

論文集
1.Curry, Edward, The Big Data Value Chain: Definitions, Concepts, and Theoretical Approaches, in NEW HORIZONS FOR A DATA-DRIVEN ECONOMY 29 (José María Cavanillas, Edward Curry & Wolfgang Wahlster eds., 2016).
2.Eisenach, Jeffrey A., & Ilene Knable Gotts, In Search of a Competition Doctrine for Information Technology Markets: Recent Antitrust Developments in the Online Sector, in COMMUNICATIONS AND COMPETITION LAW: KEY ISSUES IN THE TELECOMS, MEDIA AND TECHNOLOGY SECTORS 69 (Fabrizio Cugia di Sant’Orsola, Rehman Noormohamed & Denis Alves Guimarães eds., 2015).
3.Goldfarb, Avi, & Catherine Tucker, Privacy and Innovation, in INNOVATION POLICY AND THE ECONOMY 65 (Josh Lerner, & Scott Stern eds., 2012).
4.Trainar, Nadia, New Regulatory Approaches in an Evolving Market Structure, in EVOLUTION OF TELECOMMUNICATION SERVICES: THE CONVERGENCE OF TELECOM AND INTERNET: TECHNOLOGIES AND ECOSYSTEMS 155 (Emmanuel Bertin, Noel Crespi, Thomas Magedanz eds., 2013).
5.Vezzoso, Simonetta, Competition Policy in a World of Big Data, in RESEARCH HANDBOOK ON DIGITAL TRANSFORMATIONS 400 (F. Xavier Olleros, & Majlinda Zhegu eds., 2016).
 
期刊論文
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2.Balto, David A., & Matthew C. Lane, Monopolizing Water in a Tsunami: Finding Sensible Antitrust Rules for Big Data (2016), available at https://ssrn.com/abstract=2753249.
3.Batura, Olga, Challenges of Personal Data for the Competition Law Analysis, 18(3) N.I. QUARTERLY 3 (2016).
4.Cooper, James C., Privacy and Antitrust: Underpants Gnomes, The First Amendment, and Subjectivity, 20(4) GEO. MASON L. REV. 1129 (2013).
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6.Ezrachi, Ariel, & Maurice E. Stucke, The Rise of Behavioural Discrimination, 37(12) E.C.L.R. 485 (2016).
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8.Filistrucchi, Lapo, Damien Geradin, Eric van Damme & Pauline Affeldt, Market Definition in Two-Sided Markets: Theory and Practice, 10(2) JOURNAL OF COMPETITION, LAW & ECONOMICS 293 (2014).
9.Geradin, Damien, & Monika Kuschewsky, Competition Law and Personal Data: Preliminary Thoughts on a Complex Issue (2013), available at https://ssrn.com/abstract=2216088.
10.Graef, Inge, Market Definition and Market Power in Data: The Case of Online Platforms, 38(4) WORLD COMPETITION LAW AND ECONOMICS REVIEW 473 (2015).
11.Graef, Inge, Sih Yuliana Wahyuningtyas & Peggy Valcke, Assessing Data Access Issues in Online Platforms, 39(5) TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICY 375 (2015).
12.Grunes, Allen P., & Maurice E. Stucke, No Mistake about It: The Important Role of Antitrust in the Era of Big Data, 14(4) ANTITRUST SOURCE (Apr. 2015), available at https://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/publishing/antitrust_source/apr15_grunes_4_22f.authcheckdam.pdf.
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學位論文
1.Ahmet Kökçam, How to Assess Market Power in the Digital Economy? (Feb. 23, 2017) (unpublished master thesis, Radboud University Nijmegen) (https://ssrn.com/abstract=2922494).

官方及商業報告
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7.FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION, BIG DATA: A TOOL FOR INCLUSION OR EXCLUSION? (2016).
8.FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION, DATA BROKERS: A CALL FOR TRANSPARENCY AND ACCOUNTABILITY (2014).
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13.THE FRENCH AUTORITÉ DE LA CONCURRENCE & THE GERMAN BUNDESKARTELLAMT, COMPETITION LAW AND DATA (2016).
14.UK COMPETITION AND MARKETS AUTHORITY, THE COMMERCIAL USE OF CONSUMER DATA: REPORT ON THE CMA’S CALL FOR INFORMATION (2015).
15.U.S. FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION’S BUREAU OF CONSUMER PROTECTION AND OFFICE OF POLICY PLANNING, IN THE MATTER OF THE BENEFITS, CHALLENGES, AND POTENTIAL ROLES FOR THE GOVERNMENT IN FOSTERING THE ADVANCEMENT OF THE INTERNET OF THINGS, DOCKET NO. 160331306-6306-01(2016).

其他參考資料
1.Bird & Bird, Competition Authority Orders GDF Suez to Give Competitors Access to Customer Data (Sep. 22, 2014), available at https://www.twobirds.com/en/news/articles/2014/france/french-competition-authority-orders-gdf-suez-to-give-competitors-access-to-customer-data.
2.Bundeskartellamt, Background information on the Facebook proceeding (Dec. 19, 2017), available at http://www.bundeskartellamt.de/SharedDocs/Publikation/EN/Diskussions_Hintergrundpapiere/2017/Hintergrundpapier_Facebook.html?nn=3600108.
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4.Bundeskartellamt, Preliminary assessment in Facebook proceeding: Facebook's collection and use of data from third-party sources is abusive (Dec. 19, 2017), available at http://www.bundeskartellamt.de/SharedDocs/Meldung/EN/Pressemitteilungen/2017/19_12_2017_Facebook.html.
5.Communication from the Commission - Guidelines on the applicability of Article 101 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union to horizontal co-operation agreements, 2011 O.J. (C11).
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7.Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and the free movement of such data, Data Protection Directive, 1995 O.J. (L 281) 31.
8.Dissenting Statement of Commissioner Pamela Jones Harbour, Google/DoubleClick, F.T.C. File No. 071-0170 (Dec. 20, 2007), available at https://www.ftc.gov/sites/default/files/documents/public_statements/statement-matter-google/doubleclick/071220harbour_0.pdf.
9.DuckDuckGo, We don't collect or share personal information, available at https://duckduckgo.com/privacy (last visited Jan. 18, 2018).
10.European Commission, Mergers: Commission alleges Facebook provided misleading information about WhatsApp takeover (Dec. 20, 2016), available at http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-16-4473_en.htm.
11.European Commission, Mergers: Commission fines Facebook €110 million for providing misleading information about WhatsApp takeover (May 18, 2017), available at http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-17-1369_en.htm.
12.European Commissioner for Competition Margrethe Vestager, Big Data and Competition, Address at EDPS-BEUC Conference on Big Data (Sep. 29, 2016), available at https://ec.europa.eu/commission/commissioners/2014-2019/vestager/announcements/big-data-and-competition_en.
13.Glaser, April, Marc Benioff says companies buy each other for the data, and the government isn’t doing anything about it: The FTC has never challenged a merger based on the anticompetitive acquisition of data, Recode (Nov. 15, 2016), available at https://www.recode.net/2016/11/15/13631938/benioff-salesforce-data-government-federal-trade-commission-ftc-linkedin-microsoft.
14.Guynn, Jessica, Mark Zuckerberg: WhatsApp Worth Even More Than $19 Billion, L.A. TIMES (Feb. 24, 2014), available at http://articles.latimes.com/2014/feb/24/business/la-fi-tn-mark-zuckerberg-whatsapp-worth-even-more-than-19-billion-20140224.
15.Letter from Jessica Rich, Dir., Bureau of Consumer Protection, Fed. Trade Comm'n, to Erin Egan, Chief Privacy Officer, Facebook, Inc., and Anne Hoge, Gen. Counsel, WhatsApp Inc. (Apr. 20, 2014), available at http:// www.ftc.gov/system/files/documents/public_statements/297701/140410facebookwhatappltr.pdf.
16.PaRR, Japan antitrust regulator says need to address tech innovation-fostered "digital cartel" (7 Jun. 2017).
17.PeopleBrowsr, PeopleBrowsr wins temporary restraining order compelling twitter to provide firehose access (Nov. 28, 2012), available at http://blog.peoplebrowsr.com/2012/11/peoplebrowsr-wins-temporary-restraining-order-compelling-twitter-to-provide-firehose-access.
18.Regulation (EU) 2016/67 9 of 27 April 2016, General Data Protection Regulation, 2016 O.J. (L 119).
19.Roberts, Jeff John, Facebook’s Plan for WhatsApp to Get Close Look from FTC, FORTUNE (Sep. 8, 2016), available at http://fortune.com/2016/09/08/whatsapp-facebook-ftc.
20.The Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) & The Center for Digital Democracy (CDD), Complaint, Request for Investigation, Injunction, and Other Relief (Aug. 29, 2016), available at https://www.democraticmedia.org/sites/default/files/field/public/2016/epic-cdd-ftc-whatsapp-complaint-2016.pdf.
21.U.S. DEP’T OF JUSTICE & F.T.C., HORIZONTAL MERGER GUIDELINES (Aug. 19, 2010), available at https://www.ftc.gov/sites/default/files/attachments/merger-review/100819hmg.pdf.
22.Vestager, Margrethe, Competition in a Big Data World, speech at DLD 16 (Jan. 17, 2016) (transcript available at https://ec.europa.eu/commission/commissioners/2014-2019/vestager/announcements/competition-big-data-world_en).
23.Wingfield, Nick, Microsoft Buys LinkedIn for $26.2 Billion, Reasserting Its Muscle, N.Y. TIMES (Jun. 13, 2016), available at https://www.nytimes.com/2016/06/14/business/dealbook/microsoft-to-buy-linkedin-for-26-2-billion.html.
24.Wyatt, Edward, Raising the F.T.C.’s Voice, Softly, N.Y. TIMES, Dec. 22, 2014, at B1.
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