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論文名稱(外文):Cybersecurity and United States-China Relations: A Theoretical Perspective
指導教授(外文):Lu, Yeh-Chung
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The rapid development of technology in the 21st century has dramatically changed the way actors in the international system interact, the internet and the threats challenges brought by it have created lack of understanding regarding the implications it has for security. Given this context, this thesis analyzes the impact of cybersecurity in United States-China relations using two of the main theoretical frameworks in international relations: neorealism and liberalism. Neorealism’s offense-defense balance concept contributes to an understanding of the logic behind cyberattacks, while liberalism observes that there is a possibility to overcome conflicts by peaceful means, even in the cyberspace.
The importance of cybersecurity as a new threat in international relations has created unusual challenges for states around the world. In the case of the US and China, cybersecurity has generated, in a short period of time, more friction and engagement between the two countries than any other historical issue. Cybersecurity attacks in recent years have increased uncertainty in US-China relations, contributing to a deficit in economic and political trust between these two nations, nevertheless, why do these states still have reached an agreement? I suggest that the main reason behind this decision is the desire to avoid economic sanctions, nevertheless, neorealism and liberalism offer different reasons.
By answering four research questions the author gives insightful information about each country’s view on cybersecurity. Furthermore, with the theoretical framework, I explain why they have reached such an agreement and what are the opportunities and challenges for the United States-China relations regarding cybersecurity. Finally I explain why all these actions have led to a “digitalization” of the practices of Foreign Policy of states such as the United States and China
Abstract IV
摘要 V
List of Figures VI
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Research motivation and Background 1
1.2 Research questions and design of the research 8
1.3 Research limitations 10
1.4 Structure of the Thesis 10
Chapter 2 Literature Review 13
2.1 The current environment in IR and the transformation of the security concepts 13
2.2 Understanding the Cyber Space and Cyber Security 15
2.2.1 Definitions of Key Concepts 17
2.2.2 Neorealism 18
2.2.3 Liberalism 21
2.3 Development of the United States-China relations in the 21st century 23
2.4 Summary 25
Chapter 3 The US and China on Cybersecurity: One issue, two different approaches 26
3.1 The United States and China: Domestic experiences on cybersecurity 27
3.1.1 The United States 27
3.1.2 China 33
3.2 The evolution of the concept of Cybersecurity 38
3.2.1 The United States approach to Cybersecurity 38
3.2.2 China’s approach to Cybersecurity 40
3.3 Summary 44
Chapter 4 Thinking bilaterally: How does the US and China address each other? 45
4.1 The International response: Do they listen to what some International Organizations say? 45
4.2 United States and China Cybersecurity Dialogue 47
4.3 Challenges and Opportunities for the US and China regarding Cybersecurity 57
4.4 Summary 60
Chapter 5 Walking towards the same goal: finding ways to avoid further conflict 62
5.1 The United States and China: how to arm the cyber puzzle 62
5.2 The role of leaders in reaching agreement in trying to set up some rules for the cyberspace. 66
5.3 The Process of Negotiation: Why did they decide to agree in such a conflictive matter? 68
5.4 The 2015 agreement in perspective 72
5.5 Summary 74
Chapter 6 Conclusions 76
6.1 Future of the cyber world and IR: the case of the United States and China 81
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