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研究生:王睿
研究生(外文):Wang, Jui
論文名稱:虛擬化身影響自我?探討虛擬實境遊戲中,置入廣告與虛擬化身一致性之廣告效果
論文名稱(外文):Virtual avatar influence me? Virtual reality in-game advertising effect: The congruity between in-games avatar and advertising
指導教授:林日璇林日璇引用關係
指導教授(外文):Lin, Jih-Hsuan
口試委員:林穎青蔡欣怡
口試委員(外文):Lin, Ying-ChingTsai, Hsin-Yi
口試日期:2018-07-04
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立政治大學
系所名稱:傳播學院傳播碩士學位學程
學門:傳播學門
學類:一般大眾傳播學類
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:122
中文關鍵詞:廣告與虛擬化身一致性虛擬實境虛擬實境廣告廣告一致性廣告位置自我概念虛擬化身遊戲置入廣告廣告置入
外文關鍵詞:AD-avatar congruityVirtual realityVR advertisingCongruityProximitySelf-conceptAvatarIn-game advertisingProduct placement
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虛擬實境技術在近年來越趨成熟,且相關應用和遊戲體驗也逐漸豐富多元,讓虛擬實境成為了遊戲置入廣告(in-game advertising)的新興媒介。
本研究依據過去廣告遊戲(advergame)、遊戲置入廣告(in-game advertising)中的廣告與遊戲一致性(ad/game congruity)概念為理論基礎,開創性的將此概念延伸,探討虛擬實境媒介脈絡中,虛擬化身(avatar)與廣告的一致性,定義為廣告與虛擬化身一致性(ad/avatar congruity),探討廣告與虛擬化身一致性高低,是否會對於參與者的廣告效果有所影響。另外,本研究也探討在虛擬環境中,廣告置入的位置,如位於中央視覺位置,與邊陲視覺位置,是否也會如過去遊戲置入廣告般,對於閱聽人之廣告效果有顯著影響。本研究以2(廣告與虛擬化身一致性:一致性高;一致性低)× 2(廣告位置:中央視覺;邊陲視覺)的二因子之受試者間實驗設計,探討操弄變項對於應變項廣告效果(廣告注意力、廣告記憶力、廣告態度、購買意願)之影響。
研究結果顯示,在廣告與虛擬化身一致性方面,一致性高低對於參與者之廣告效果沒有顯著性影響。然而,在廣告位置方面,位於中央視覺位置之置入廣告,參與者之廣告注意力、廣告記憶力與購買意願顯著高於位於邊陲位置之置入廣告的組別。此外,本研究也發現,廣告位置會調節廣告與虛擬化身一致性對於購買意願的廣告效果。當廣告與虛擬化身一致性低時,廣告位置對於購買意願有顯著差異影響,即是中央視覺位置組別之購買意願,顯著高於邊陲視覺位置。然而,當廣告與虛擬化身一致性高時,則沒有太大的影響差異。另外,本研究探討參與者對於虛擬化身的自我概念是否能夠中介廣告與虛擬化身一致性和廣告效果。然而,研究結果顯示自我概念沒有其中介效果作用。本研究針對研究結果討論廣告與虛擬化身一致性之廣告效果無顯著差異之原因,並提供未來研究虛擬實境廣告效果之研究理論上與實務上研究建議。
Virtual reality (VR) is an emerging technology with a variety of potential benefits for many aspects of gaming and advertising effect. Nowadays, many technology companies like HTC VIVE and Facebook Oculus announce their brand new all in one VR devices. It makes more people can buy a VR device with an affordable price. That is to say, VR will be a unique media for the in-game advertising.
This article based on the past researches of advergame and in-game advertising, using the concept of "ad-game congruity" to establish the new concept of the avatar in VR. "Ad-avatar congruity" is defined in this article as the congruity between the advertising in the VR game and the avatar. This article wants to comprehend whether the congruity of avatar and advertising will influence the attention, recall, attitude toward the advertising and the purchase intention of the product. Besides, the proximity of the product placement will also be an independent variable, and the self-concept of the avatar will be a mediator variable.
A 2 (congruity) × 2 (proximity) between-subjects design experiment was used. And the result shows that there is no significant difference in advertising effect between high and low ad-avatar congruity. However, when the advertising at the focal placement (high proximity) will have the better attention, recall and purchase intention then the peripheral placement (low proximity). In addition, the proximity of the ad placement is the moderator between congruity and purchase intention. But, self-concept doesn't be the mediator between congruity and any ad effect.
This study is aimed at discussing the reasons why there is no significant difference between the ad-avatar congruity and the advertising effect and provides theoretical and practical suggestions for the future research of virtual reality advertising effects.
摘要 2
ABSTRACT 3
表目錄 6
圖目錄 7
壹、 緒論 8
第一節、 前言 8
第二節、 研究目的 9
貳、 文獻探討 12
第一節、 虛擬實境 12
第二節、 遊戲置入廣告 14
第三節、 虛擬實境廣告 16
第四節、 廣告與媒介一致性 20
第五節、 廣告與遊戲一致性 23
第六節、 廣告與虛擬化身一致性 27
一. 虛擬化身定義及對玩家的影響 28
二. 身體所有權錯覺 32
三. 廣告與虛擬化身之一致性和身體所有權錯覺 35
四. 自我代言 37
第七節、 自我概念 40
第八節、 廣告位置 47
一. 廣告位置之廣告效果 50
二. 廣告位置以及廣告與虛擬化身之一致性 53
參、 研究方法 55
第一節、 研究架構 55
第二節、 研究假設 55
第三節、 實驗設計 56
一. 研究對象 56
二. 實驗刺激物 56
三. 實驗流程 64
第四節、 測量變項 66
一. 操弄變項 66
二. 依變項 67
三. 中介變項 70
四. 其他變項 72
肆、 研究結果 75
第一節、 前測 75
第二節、 操弄檢定 78
第三節、 描述性統計 79
第四節、 研究結果 82
一. 廣告與虛擬化身之一致性 82
二. 自我概念 84
三. 廣告位置 85
伍、 研究結論與建議 91
第一節、 討論與研究發現 91
第二節、 研究限制與後續建議 99
陸、 參考文獻 101
柒、 附錄 109
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