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研究生:粘宏堃
研究生(外文):Hung-Kun Nien
論文名稱:科學化品評與感官儀器評估台灣市售調配與釀造葡萄酒之感官品質及台灣消費者對其風味喜好原因之探討
論文名稱(外文):Sensory quality of Taiwan’s commercial red grape wines manufactured by unfermented blend and fermented using sensory evaluation and instrument and understanding the liking drivers of wine flavor for Taiwan’s consumers
指導教授:顏國欽顏國欽引用關係
口試委員:江伯源劉伯康
口試日期:2017-01-30
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:食品暨應用生物科技學系所
學門:農業科學學門
學類:食品科學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:161
中文關鍵詞:感官品評電子舌紅葡萄酒黑后消費者喜好
外文關鍵詞:red grape winesensoryevaluatione-tongueconsumer’s liking
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葡萄酒產業常藉由品酒師系統對葡萄酒產品進行分類,但仍然存在許多的不確定性與限制,可視為一種商業手段。如何正確迅速判斷酒的品質及製造法,甚至此酒是調配或釀造出來的一直是食品科學嚴峻挑戰。目前檢驗是以專家品評、科學化品評及儀器檢驗結果組合後才能判斷,而這種方法都需要大量人力、物力及金錢。台灣特有的黑后葡萄酒一直沒有導入科學化的感官品評方式,來進行國產葡萄酒完整的風味感官品質及風味地圖資料庫的建立,而無法與世界接軌。本研究的目的是以消費者科學化品評及電子舌感官儀器分析對台灣市售調配與釀造葡萄酒的感官品質進行評估,判斷酒的品質及了解台灣消費者對那些感官品質喜歡,以提供國內葡萄酒產業參考。
本研究將26種葡萄酒(17個台灣及9個外國產品)分為5個部分,招募56-62位年滿20歲的大學生於專業食品感官品評室進行品評。品評時提供品評員一杯15CC盛裝在ISO杯並儲存在14-17OC的紅葡萄酒,要求品評員評估其喜歡程度,並從31個感官特性及13個感受勾選所喝到的項目,利用拉丁方塊實驗設計決定樣品提供順序,並使用電腦化品評軟體Compusense five 進行資料收集; ASTREE電子舌(Alpha M.O.S.)被用來評估感官品質並使用色差儀檢測葡萄酒的顏色。
9分法結果顯示僅1個台灣葡萄酒的接受性最高,介於「稍微喜歡」和「有點喜歡」之間;此樣品具有較強新鮮紅莓果及甜味的感受。3個葡萄酒(2個法國產及1個台灣產)的喜歡程度較低,介於「稍微不喜歡」及「有點不喜歡」之間,他們具有強的苦味、澀味、燒灼感及紹興酒等味道。多數樣品的喜歡程度介於「稍微不喜歡」及「稍微喜歡」之間。台灣消費者喜歡葡萄酒的味道,包含甜味特性,如:甜味、果糖汽水、感冒糖漿、健素糖味;與水果味有關特性,如:莓果味、草莓果醬、葡萄香精、人造水果味等;消費者不喜歡樣品特性有苦味、澀味、酸味、檜木桶味等。
在感受上,消費者的喜歡程度和酒體輕微、清香的、優質的、當地生產及舒服的等感受呈正相關,而與外國進口、經濟的、酒體中等或厚重呈負相關。樣品的酒精濃度和酒體中等或厚重與不舒服呈現正相關,酒體輕微和喜歡程度呈現負相關。
色差分析結合群集分析可將本研究之市售葡萄酒外觀顏色分為深石柳紅、玫瑰紅及紫紅三種不同的紅色;很多乾性葡萄酒的顏色都屬於深石柳紅,有較低的明亮度和淺黃色的特性而很多甜性葡萄酒的顏色都具有較高明亮度和黃色特性的玫瑰紅。
電子舌的結果可知7根探針都有區分能力,但以JE、JB、BB、GA等4根探針區分能力在此研究較好。電子舌可以將乾性或甜性葡萄酒明顯的區分開;也可以區分出釀造酒與調味酒或分裝酒。RV係數的結果顯示感官品評和色差儀的結果分類上呈現低正相關而電子舌與感官品評的結果無關。
本研究利用消費者來進行葡萄酒的品評,可以了解台灣消費者對於葡萄酒特性之感受與喜好,對於葡萄酒的行銷有較科學及系統的依據。此外,台灣黑后葡萄酒與國外葡萄酒產品的風味,有明顯的不同。電子舌可明顯區分不同葡萄品種、產地所造成的差異,但本研究發現電子舌區分的能力與方式和傳統感官品評的區分方式有明顯的不同。
The classification of red grape wine is often evaluated by sommelier systems in wine industries. However, there are still many uncertainties and limitations for the classification so it can be seen as a business tool. It has been a severe challenge how to quickly and correctly evaluate the quality of the wine, how to manufacture and how to judge the wine is fermented or unfermented in the food science. At present, the inspection is built on the combination of the expert evaluation, the scientific sensory evaluation and instruments and all procedures always a lot of manpower, material resources and money. Taiwan''s unique grape wine, black queen Musca, has not been imported the scientific sensory evaluation methods to establish the complete flavor profile, sensory quality and flavor map database so that the industry cannot come into contact with the world. The purpose of this study was to analyze the sensory quality of Taiwan’s commercial red grape wine with fermented or unfermented blend using scientific consumer sensory technique and electronic tongue to judge the quality of wines and to understand how Taiwanese consumers like those sensory qualities in order to provide the domestic wine industry as reference.
In this study, 26 wine (17 Taiwanese and 9 foreign products) consisted of five sections. 56-62 college students aged 20 and above were enrolled to conduct the sensory evaluation in the professional food and sensory evaluation room. About15CC and 14-17OC stored in the red grape wine was provided to assessors and they were asked to rate their liking degree and sensory perception of 31 sensory attributes and 13 feeling items after drinking the sample. The experimental design of Latin Square was used to identify the order of the samples and the data was collected by the computerized evaluation using Compusense five software. The Alpha MOS, ASTREE electronic tongue was used to evaluate samples and the color of the wine was measured using a colorimeter.
The result of the 9-point test showed that the consumer acceptance of only one Taiwanese wine ranges from "slightly like" to "moderately like"; this sample has strong characteristics in fresh red berries and sweetness; 3 wines (2 French and 1 Taiwanese) had a lower degree of preference, ranging from "slightly disliked" and " moderately dislike" and they have a strong taste of bitterness, astringency, burning, and Shaoxing sake. Taiwan consumers like wines have sweetness, such as: sweet, fructose soda, cold syrup, health sugar taste, and fruit-related features such as: berry fruity, strawberry jam, grape flavor, artificial fruit flavor and etc. ; consumers do not like samples have bitterness, astringency, sourness, cypress barrel flavor and plums and so on.
In terms of feelings, the degree of consumer preference is negatively correlated with the feeling of mild body, fragrance, good quality, local production and comfort, etc. It is negatively correlated with foreign imports, economy, and medium or heavy body mass. The alcohol concentration of samples showed a positive correlation with discomfort and Medium or heavy boots and a negative correlation with mild bouts of liking.
The results of colors in the 31 samples showed that these samples could be divided into three categories by color classification, the color of the 14 samples belonged to the red color of “deep red stone” which has with lower values of L and b; the color of the 12 samples was rose red with a higher L and b, most wines of the black queen Musca were in this category and two of the samples belonged to mauve, with higher values of a and lower values of L and b, both of which were flavored wines of Cabernet Sauvignon.
The results of the electronic tongue demonstrated that seven probes have the ability to distinguish these samples and JE, JB, BB, GA, the four probes have a superior ability for discriminating power. The results found there are obvious differences in the classification between foreign wine and Taiwan wine, either fermented or unfermented wine. In addition, the electronic tongue can distinguish between fermented and unfermented wine.
The RV coefficient showed that there is a low positive correlation between the sensory evaluation and the classification of the color using the color meter and the classification of the electronic tongue has nothing to do with the result of the sensory evaluation.
In this study, consumers are used to conduct wine reviews to understand Taiwanese consumers'' feelings and preferences about wine characteristics and to provide a scientific and systematic basis for the marketing of wine. In addition, there are totally a distinct flavor between the wine of black queen Musca and the Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon Blanc wine. Electronic tongue can clearly distinguish the samples between different varieties of grapes and origin caused by the differences but human sensory evaluation cannot handle them.
摘要 ………………………………………….....……………..… i
Abstruct …………………………………………………………….. iii
目次 ……………………………………...……………………… vi
圖目次 …………….……….……………………...……………… viii
表目次 ……….…………………………………………………… xii
壹、前言………………….. …………………….. ………………… 1
一、研究動機與研究目的…………………………………... …. 1
(一)、研究動機……………………………..…………..………. 1
(二)、研究目的…………………………………………………. 3
二、研究架構……………….. ………………….. ……………… 3
貳、文獻整理………………….. ……………..…….. …………… 4
一、葡萄酒品質問題……………….. ………………….. ………. 4
二、感官品評…………….. …………………….. ………………. 9
(一)、葡萄酒-專家品評…………………….……..……………. 9
(二)、葡萄酒-科學化感官品評……………..……..……………. 11
(三)、選擇適合項目法…………………….……………………. 12
参、材料與方法………………….……….. ……………………… 15
一、樣品-葡萄酒取得方式、種類分組………………………… 15
(一)、風味對照組-乾性(CD) ………………….…..……………. 15
(二)、風味對照組-甜性(CS) ……………………..……………. 16
(三)、釀造酒(F) …………………………….……..……………. 16
(四)、分裝酒/果汁釀造酒-乾性(PFD) …………………………. 16
(五)、分裝酒/果汁釀造酒-甜性(PFS) ………….………………. 16
(六)、結合紅麴(SE) ………………………………..……………. 16
二、感官品評測試……………….. ………………….. ………… 18
(一)、樣品分組…………………………………………………. 18
(二)、樣品製備…………………………………….……………. 19
(三)、品評員招募………………………………….……………. 20
(四)、正式試驗與評估方式……….……………………………. 20
三、電子舌………………..….. …………………….…………… 21
四、色差分析……………..….. …………………………..………. 22
五、統計方法……………….. ………………….. ……………… 23
(一) 、消費者之接受性試驗………………….………………… 23
(二)、消費者之描述分析……………………………………..…. 24
(三)、電子舌分析……………………………………..………… 25
肆、結果與討論……….. ………………….. …………………….. 26
一、感官品評測試…………………………………... …….…… 26
(一)、第1組-國產相同廠商產品……………..………………. 26
(二)、第2組-著名國產廠商產品……………………………… 45
(三)、第3組-釀造酒類產品……………………………………. 63
(四)、第4組-外國生產風味屬甜性產品………………………. 82
(五)、第5組-外國生產風味屬乾性產品………………………. 101
(六)、26種台灣市售紅葡萄酒整合分析……..………………. 119
二、仿生電子舌測試………………..…………………...……… 130
(一)、仿生電子舌對台灣市售紅葡萄酒之區分能力………… 130
三、色差分析測試……………..………………………..………. 134
(一)、台灣市售紅葡萄酒色差分析……………………………. 134
四、RV相關性分析………………..........……………...……….. 140
(一)、RV係數…………………….……………..……..………. 140
伍、結論…………………..…………………......……….……….. 142
陸、參考文獻…………………………….………………………. 144
柒、附件…………………………………………….………..…… 151
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