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研究生:陳怡文
研究生(外文):Yi-Wen Chen
論文名稱:苦瓜種子帶菌及種子處理效果評估
論文名稱(外文):Evaluate microbes on bitter gourd seed and the efficacy of seed treatments
指導教授:鍾文鑫宋妤
指導教授(外文):Wen-Hsin ChungYu Sung
口試委員:戴順發簡宣裕莊益源
口試委員(外文):Shuen-Fa TaiHsuan-Yu ChienYi-Yuan Chuang
口試日期:2018-01-10
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中興大學
系所名稱:植物醫學暨安全農業碩士學位學程
學門:農業科學學門
學類:植物保護學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:55
中文關鍵詞:苦瓜種子真菌發黴率微生物製劑甲殼素殺菌劑種子處理
外文關鍵詞:Bitter gourd seedFungiMold rateBioagentChitosanFungicideSeed treatment
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苦瓜 (Momordica charantia L.) 屬葫蘆科 (Cucurbitaceae)、苦瓜屬(Momordica),為台灣重要瓜類蔬菜之一。由於苦瓜採種過程中容易滋生微生物,且苦瓜種子種皮堅硬厚實發芽慢,因此發芽過程中容易因種子攜帶真菌導致發黴現象,影響其後續發芽,造成種子發芽率下降與幼苗生長受損等問題。為釐清苦瓜種子常攜帶真菌種類,本研究蒐集二品種之苦瓜種子調查所帶真菌種類,分析於採種過程是否易污染真菌,並與貯藏後市售種子帶菌種類進行比較;另研究不同種子處理方式對苦瓜種子發芽與發黴之影響。種子帶菌分析結果顯示,市售''月華''苦瓜種子可分離到 Alternaria、Penicillium 及 Cladosporium 屬之絲狀真菌;市售''日貴''苦瓜種子可分離到 Gilbertella、Alternaria、Penicillium、Aspergillus 及 Cladosporium 屬之絲狀真菌。於''日貴''苦瓜採種過程中所分離到的真菌種類,僅在乾燥階段可分離到與市售苦瓜種子相似之菌相,以 Gilbertella、Penicillium 及 Cladosporium 屬之絲狀真菌為主。利用液化澱粉芽孢桿菌、枯草桿菌、蕈狀芽孢桿菌、木黴菌及甲殼素對苦瓜種子所分離之供試菌株進行抑制能力測試,結果顯示液化澱粉芽孢桿菌與枯草桿菌對苦瓜種子所分離之菌株抑制生長效果最佳,抑制率達 50-60 %;而甲殼素則無法有效抑制苦瓜種子所分離之菌株,反之可能具促進部分菌株生長之情形。於種子處理方面,結果顯示液化澱粉芽孢桿菌、枯草桿菌、甲殼素及微生物製劑混合甲殼素無法提高種子發芽效果,然液化澱粉芽孢桿菌、枯草桿菌及微生物製劑混合甲殼素具有明顯降低種子發黴之情形。另選取 5 種不同作用機制之推薦殺菌劑,分別以濃度 100、500 及 1000 ppm 進行培養基測試,結果顯示所有藥劑均有抑制苦瓜種子所分離之菌株,抑制率達 2.4-90.3 %,其中以賽普洛、撲滅寧及賽福座抑制效果最佳。於種子處理上選取四氯異苯腈、賽普洛及賽福座分別以濃度 100、500 及 1000 ppm 進行測試,結果顯示所有藥劑對二品種苦瓜種子發芽皆無影響,對''月華''苦瓜種子具明顯降低發黴率之效果,''日貴''苦瓜種子則以 1000 ppm 賽普洛、500與1000 ppm 賽福座及四氯異苯腈處理具明顯降低發黴率之效果。
Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) belongs to the family Cucurbitaceae and the genus Momordica. It is one of the important cucurbit vegetables in Taiwan. Due to the hard and thick coat, bitter gourd seeds are easily associated with microorganisms during seed germination. Consequently, the mold is common happen on bitter gourd seeds and causes the reduction of germination and growth. For carrying out the fungal flora on bitter gourd seeds, we compared the fungal flora between the commercial bitter gourd seeds (''Yue Hua'' and ''Rih Guei'') and the seeds (''Rih Guei'') collected from harvest process. The results showed that Alternaria sp., Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. were isolated from commercial ''Yue Hua'' seeds, and Gilbertella sp., Alternaria sp., Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp. and Cladosporium sp. were isolated from commercial ''Rih Guei'' seeds. Moreover, Gilbertella sp., Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp. were the major fungi isolated from ''Rih Guei'' fresh seeds after dried and the commercial bitter gourd seeds. For test the efficacy on reduction of filament fungi, bioagents and chitosan were examined the efficacy. The in vitro test showed that Bacillus amyloliquefaciens and B. subtilis had the best efficacy on control of all filament fungi from bitter gourd seeds and the inhibition rate were 50 to 60 %. In this study, chitosan did not show the efficacy on inhibition of all tested fungi; meanwhile, it promoted the mycelial growth on certain isolates. The seed treatment test indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis, chitosan and bioagents mixed chitosan did not promote seed germination, but B. amyloliquefaciens, B. subtilis, bioagents mixed chitosan significantly reduced mold growth. The fungicides test revealed that the azoxystrobin, cyprodinil, procymidone, triflumizole and chlorothalonil with 100, 500, 1000 ppm inhibited fungal isolates and the inhibition rate were 2.4 to 90.3 %. In seed treatment test showed that all fungicides did not affect seed germination but significantly reduced mold growth of ''Yue Hua'' seeds. Furthermore, 1000 ppm cyprodinil and 500, 1000 ppm triflumizole and chlorothalonil significantly reduced mold growth of ''Rih Guei'' seeds.
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
目次 iii
表目次 v
圖目次 vi
前言 1
前人研究 2
一、苦瓜栽培之分佈與經濟重要性 2
二、苦瓜品種特性 2
三、苦瓜形態特徵與風土適應 2
四、苦瓜採種流程 3
五、影響種子品質因素 3
六、苦瓜種子傳播相關病原菌介紹 4
七、化學藥劑防治 6
八、非農藥防治 6
材料與方法 9
一、 供試苦瓜種子 9
二、 供試微生物製劑、化學藥劑及非農藥資材 9
三、微生物製劑的製備 9
四、市售苦瓜種子之帶菌分析與對種子生長影響 9
五、苦瓜採種過程之帶菌分析 11
六、真菌之鑑定 11
七、評估微生物製劑、甲殼素及化學藥劑抑制所分離真菌之能力 12
八、種子處理 13
九、統計分析 14
結果 16
一、市售苦瓜種子之帶菌分析與對種子生長影響 16
二、苦瓜採種過程之帶菌分析 17
三、真菌之菌落形態與特徵 18
四、評估微生物製劑、甲殼素及殺菌劑抑制所分離真菌能力與種子處理結果 18
討論 37
一、市售與採種過程之苦瓜種子帶菌情形 37
二、評估微生物製劑與甲殼素抑制所分離真菌、種子發芽及發黴之效果 40
三、測試殺菌劑抑制所分離真菌、種子發芽及發黴之效果 42
四、種子育苗與生長試驗 43
結論 45
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