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研究生:楊琮鈞
研究生(外文):Tsung-ChunYang
論文名稱:營造廠的公共工程得標與獲利因子
論文名稱(外文):Bid-winning and profit factors for public construction project for contractors
指導教授:張行道張行道引用關係
指導教授(外文):Andrew S. Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:81
中文關鍵詞:營造廠得標獲利關鍵成功因素公共工程
外文關鍵詞:contractorbid winningprofit makingCSFpublic works
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摘要
國內公共工程預算編列逐年降低,營造業工程量縮減,如何提升營造廠得標機率,以及增加利潤空間,為營造業者追求的目標。
本研究探討影響營造廠公共工程之得標以及獲利的因子,分別以四個面向: 標案、公司、業主、市場歸類這些因子,比較與釐清因子之出現頻率,以及在營造廠運作上如何影響。
研究過程先從文獻找出影響營造廠投、得標,及成功經營的關鍵成功因素,作為最初一組因子。經過業主工程標案評選項目、業者及實際工程案例訪談,增減與修正因子,得到最後版本因子,用以訪談四位承包商負責人與十二個工程案例之工地主任。最後比較分析承包商與案例得到因子出現頻率與排序,解釋因子出現情境與邏輯。
由訪談結果得知,對於承包商,頻率最高的影響得標因子為「公司意願」,其次為業主的「作業規定」; 獲利因子為「得標價格」,其次為承商的「管理能力」。對於異質最低標,發生頻率最高的得標因子為「工程種類」,其次為「財務能力」及「同業競爭」;獲利因子為「得標價格」、「管理能力」及業主的「態度要求」並列第一。
於十二個工程案例中,每個案例各挑選三個較重要之得標與獲利因子,統計四個面向(標案:公司:業主:市場),得標因子出現次數分別為16:14:3:3,顯示標案與公司面向的因子對於得標有較大影響力。獲利因子出現次數為14:12:8:2。亦顯示標案與公司出現頻率較高,業主出現頻率中等,市場則無影響力。
根據訪談結論,營造廠若想得標,會選擇擅長的工程種類,壓低成本且具競爭力。接著考量公司對標案需求,及競爭對手特性調整價格;獲利首重管理能力,接著是得標價格,決定了隱藏的利潤空間,最後是與業主的合作態度;營造廠自得標到獲利,並非單一原因,而是由各種因素環環相連。
關鍵字:營造廠、得標、獲利、關鍵成功因素、公共工程。
Abstract
Bid-winning and profit factors for
public construction projects
Tsung-Chun Yang
Prof. Andrew. S. Chang
Department of Civil Engineering

Summary
The budget of public works and number of construction projects in Taiwan are decreasing these years. As a result, increasing the probability of bid-winning and making profits become the goals of the contractors. This research explored factors that affect bid-winning and profits of public works for the contractors, and divided these factors into four categories: project, company, owner and market. The research started with acquiring CSFs that affect bidding and success from literature as the initial version of factors. The version of factors was revised after reviewing projects, consulting with contractors and real project cases. Four contractors and twelve construction cases were investigated.
The results show that, to the contractors, the first two bid-winning factors with highest frequency are “willing of company’’ and “operation rules of the owner’’; the first two profit factors are “awarded price’’ and “management ability”. To the lowest tender projects, the first three bid-winning factors are “project types”, “financial ability” and “market competition”; the first three profit factors are “awarded price”, “management ability” and “the owner’s attitude and request”. The numbers of bid-winning factors are 16, 14, 3, and 3, in four categories, respectively, which shows that project and company have much more influence on bid-winning than the owner and market. The numbers of profit factors in four categories are 14, 12, 8 and 3, which shows that project and company still have more influence.
In conclusion, the contractors try to decrease cost by choosing projects of their type in order to win bids. The bidding price is associated with the number and characteristics of competitors and the needs of company. The most important factors to making profit are management ability, awarded price and the owner’s attitude and request.

Keywords: contractor, bid winning, profit making, CSF, public works.

INTRODUCTION
In the public work construction industry, contractors do business by winning bids and make profits by performing contracts successfully. The contractors in Taiwan have been struggling with government budget decreasing and severe competition. Most public works adopt lowest tender which forces the contractors to lower their bidding price so as to win bids (Ngai, 2002). However, profit has a relationship with the number of bids a contractor wins (Shafari &Haghani, 2014). Increasing bid-winning probability and making profits has been considered as the most important issue to contractors. The main objectives of this research are: (1) Sorting out the factors that affect bid-winning and profit, and (2) Simulating bid-winning and profit-making situation of contractors, to help contractors maintain competitive.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
To evaluate and rank the factors, this research reviewed previous studies to find initial factors, and they were replenished after interviews with four contractor owners and 12 contractor superintendents. Twelve construction projects were investigated with designed questionnaires. Further details are explained as below.
(1) Literature review
Literature of bid/no bid, bid-winning, managing successfully and profit making were reviewed. Factors affect bid-winning and profits were then selected and classified into four categories: project, company, owner and market.
(2) Interviews with contractors and projects
A questionnaire was designed to interview four contractors and twelve projects to revise the factors and evaluate their frequency and importance. Respondents were told to indicate the appearance frequency of the identified factors from 1 (low) to 5 (high). The factors were then ranked by the average point.
(3) Rank the factors, and simulate the process of bidding and making profits.
The factors with higher occuring frequency were recognized as the more important factors for bid-winning and profits. The relationships between factors were analyzed to find their influences to bid-winning and profits.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The identified factors were listed and ranked as below. The results showed that the top three bid-winning factors are Project types, Willing of company and Market competition. The top three profit factors are Management ability, Awarded price, and Owner’s attitude and request.

Bid-winning Profit
Factors Rank Factors Rank
Project types 1 Management ability 1
Willing of company 2 Awarded price 2
Market competition 3 Owner’s attitude and request 3
Operation rules of the owner 4 Construction techniques 4
Subcontractors 5 Material price 5
Financial ability 6 Payment terms 6
Project location 7 Document work ability 7
Bid award method 8 Design change 7
Familiarity with owner 8 Project duration 9
Government’s policy 10 Labor supply 9
Major project members 11 Material supply 11
Recent work load 11
Project size 13
Market circumstance 14
Past performance and records 15
Bid proposal 15
Merit records 17
Company credit 18
Briefing ability 19

According to the contractors and case projects interviewed, bid-winning and profit-making situations were assumed. For bid-winning, the contractors prefer to choose their familiar types of projects, such as bridge or highway, in order to control the risk and cost. After considering the cost and owners’ requests, final bidding prices would be adjusted against the numbers and characteristics of competitors. For profit-making, potential profit is largely determined by the bidding price. The contractor’s management ability could increase or decrease profits. Good communication and interaction with owners is very important to perform the work. Material price is an uncontrollable factor that has large influence to profit.

CONCLUSIONS
Construction industry plays an important role in economic growth. In Taiwan, The public construction presents the prosperity of a country. The public construction is decreasing due to slow economy and the contractors are struggling with the situation. It is necessary for the contractors to increase the competitiveness and profitability to survive and manage the business well. This study interviewed contractors and construction cases, sorted out their responses and identified factors that affect bid-winning and profits about public projects. The identified factors are provided to the contractors as insight reference for bidding and making profits.
目錄
摘要 i
Abstract ii
誌謝 vi
目錄 vii
表目錄 ix
圖目錄 x
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 研究方法與流程 1
1.3 研究範圍與限制 4
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 國內營造業及其現況 5
2.1.1政府預算與工程市場 5
2.1.2營造業家數及獲利 7
2.2 政府採購決標及營造業經營成功因子 8
2.2.1 政府採購決標方式 8
2.2.2 營造業投、得標及成功經營因素 11
第三章 因子導出與訪談設計 15
3.1 得標與獲利因子導出 15
3.1.1 最初文獻因子 15
3.1.2 業主標案評選因子 16
3.1.3 業者訪談因子 18
3.1.4 實際案例因子 19
3.2 訪談題目與因子 20
3.2.1 訪談題目說明 20
3.2.2 影響因子說明 22
第四章 得標與獲利原因分析 26
4.1 承包商訪談結果分析 26
4.1.1 承包商訪談結果 26
4.1.2 訪談意見整理 27
4.2 案例訪談結果分析 29
4.2.1 最低標案例 29
4.2.2 異質最低標案例 33
第五章 訪談與案例比較及情境推導 37
5.1 承包商訪談與案例比較 37
5.1.1 得標因子排序差異 37
5.1.2 獲利因子排序差異 39
5.2 公司得標優勢及獲利情境推導 40
5.2.1 得標及獲利趨勢 40
5.2.2 投標、獲利管理與情境 46
第六章 結論與建議 50
6.1 結論 50
6.2 建議 52
參考文獻 53
附錄A 承包商訪談紀錄 57
附錄B 案例訪談紀錄 62













表目錄
表2.1 近五年公共建設預算(億元) 5
表2.2 各類營造廠近年家數變化 7
表2.3 營利事業營建類利潤(105年) 8
表2.4 決標方式利弊分析 10
表2.5 文獻因子 12
表3.1 最初文獻因子 16
表3.2 某標案評分項目 17
表3.3 增加業主評選項目後因子 18
表3.4 業者訪談後因子 18
表3.5 增加案例後因子 19
表3.6 訪談因子及題目 21
表4.1 影響因子評分平均及標準差(承包商) 27
表4.2 最低標得標及獲利率 29
表4.3 影響因子平均給分及標準差(最低標案例) 30
表4.4 異質最低標得標及獲利率 33
表4.5 影響因子平均給分及標準差(異質最低標案例) 34
表5.1 得標因子平均分數排序 38
表5.2 獲利因子平均分數排序 39
表5.3 案例因子出現頻率 40
表5.4 得標率 41
表5.5 案例影響獲利 44








圖目錄
圖1.1 研究流程 3
圖2.1 政府採購決標方式 9
圖5.1 工程種類與投、得標次數 42
圖5.2 承攬工程預算與得標 42
圖5.3 承攬工程投標與得標地點 43
圖5.4 營造廠投標流程 47
圖5.5 得標因子魚骨圖 47
圖5.6 獲利因子魚骨圖 48
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