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研究生:黃靖雲
研究生(外文):Jin YunHuang
論文名稱:哈金小說《自由生活》---異化的自由論述: 恐懼,依賴和敵意所造成的自我認同問題及其含混性
論文名稱(外文):Aberrant Freedom and the Ambiguity of Identity: Fear, Dependency, and Hostility in Ha Jin’s A Free Life
指導教授:金傑夫
指導教授(外文):Jeff Johnson
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:英文
論文頁數:138
中文關鍵詞:自由身份政治道德責任創傷情感移民
外文關鍵詞:traumaaffectmoral responsibilityidentityfreedomimmigrant
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此論文針對主人翁武男自身的生活歷程以探討自由的議題當如何界定,藉由他心理發展所產生的影響性最終確認自由當以【自身】或【個人】角度去理解。它概括政治與倫理的屬性:兩者皆對武男有不同的影響度,因為新移民身分的同化過程不僅僅要經過文化層面的洗滌,更需適應外界所帶來的衝擊,在思想及心理方面也需同時進行適當的調整。既使外界或政治團體能賦予個人自由的空間,對於一個在思維上飽受壓抑的人而言,能自由自在的追求的想法是不切實際,更甚者不被當事人所期許的狀態。本文詳細審視了武男的文化背景,探究他對自己所處過往的政治或外在層面心理所具有的依賴感。他的工作所掀起的負面情緒,他對家庭的責任以及他對能成為詩人的期許與追求在在表明如果外界所給予的自由條件或工作所帶來的經濟穩定皆不是源於個人的意願,所謂的自由只會帶給個人創傷和對該經歷的厭惡感。對於主人翁以履行道德義務及財務上的穩定藉以尋求得到短暫性的滿足及短時間的個人慰藉。最終,帶有目的性的樂觀心態在長時間無法自我實踐的狀態下只會帶來更多的痛苦,當初的理由再也無法成為充分動力以維持舊有的責任。對於武男原先寫詩是為了實踐理想,到後來成為疏發個人情緒的管道。
以自由生活的主人翁武男作為我們分析的起點,他的個人層面及政治境遇對本研究提出了自由是一種有條件的的變質理想。因此小說所提到的自由,其實是含混不清自由與外界觀點、自由與外界觀點,加上自我心理審視而產生的制約因素會進而導致自由的有限性。本論文分析武男的自由是通過對自我的認知加以實踐,通過調適自我,藉由寫詩傳達情感,他的生活歷程―追求自由的唯一途徑就是通過“自我”認識―自我學習和內在成長的過程,最終為自己理解真正的自由手段。
In Ha Jin’s novel A Free Life (2007), freedom consists of political and ethical properties, which affect the protagonist Wunan differently, because the acculturation of immigrants involves not only cultural and political adaptations, but also mental and psychological adjustments. An oppressed mind confines a person from embracing freedom; even when political freedom is available; it is insignificant or even undesirable for such a person. This paper scrutinizes Wunan’s cultural background and probes his psychological dependency on the political structure he was raised in. His emotional struggles with his work, his family and his ultimate goal of becoming a poet reveal that political and economic freedom can result in traumatic and undesirable experiences for these who don’t desire it. The fulfillment of moral obligations and obtaining financial security only provide momentary contentment and short-term personal comfort. Psychological resolution for Wunan comes primarily through self-expression in poetry.
The Freedom that people speak of is actually a conditional and changing ideology; the concept becomes ambiguous when attachments from outside environments, or psychological constraints, repress the ability to act freely. The analysis concludes that Wunan’s freedom has to be achieved through self-recognition, an inner freedom that is more compelling than the external circumstances. The only way for him to pursuit freedom is through “self” knowledge –a process of self-learning and internal growth, culminating in the understanding of true freedom means for him.
Introduction...........1
Chapter One Aspects of Freedom or Liberty: Ha Jin’s interpretation of freedom.........14
Part A. Exploration of Freedom from Wunan’s Position..22
Part B. Wunan’s Perception of Self: Confucianism’s Approach of Freedom.........33
Part C. Price of Freedom..........47
Chapter Two. Structure of Freedom Under the Scope of a Capitalist Society in Comparison to a Communist Society............77
Part A. Panorama of Wunan in Internal and External Aspects............83
Chapter Three. Poetry, Language, and Freedom: An Outlet for Voice............101
Conclusion...........118
Reference............122
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