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研究生:吳竹茵
研究生(外文):Chu YinWu
論文名稱:台灣兒童以及成人之話語速度
論文名稱(外文):Speech Timing in Mandarin Speaking Children and Adults in Taiwan
指導教授:陳麗美陳麗美引用關係
指導教授(外文):Li-Mei Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:英文
論文頁數:81
中文關鍵詞:話語速度中文說話速度構音速度停頓比例典型發展兒童
外文關鍵詞:speech timingMandarin Chinesespeaking ratearticulation ratepause ratiotypically developing children
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本研究旨在探索台灣兒童以及成人的語速和語句停頓的變化。先前的研究顯示語速和語句停頓在語言的流暢度以及清晰度都具有相當的影響。然而,僅有為數不多的研究關注中文母語使用者之兒童或成人的語速變化情形,為了回答在以中文為母語的兒童以及成人身上,他們的語速是否有年齡上、語境上以及性別上的差别,本研究進行了兩個實驗。第一個實驗募集了四個年齡組別,分別是男女各半的二十位幼兒園兒童,二十位低年級小學兒童,二十位高年級小學兒童,以及二十位大學生來進行錄音,研究者利用了三種不同的語境來進行實驗:標準化語言測驗之句子複頌 (TCSIM),朗讀文章以及自然對話,蒐集的錄音檔由電腦軟體Praat做切割以及分析,並利用三個分開的ANOVA來做為統計分析;而第二個實驗旨在探索兒童的語速是如何與時遞進,因此我們蒐集了四個兒童於3、5、7、9、11、13歲之長期自然對話錄音檔來作為分析,藉此來看看語速在哪幾個年齡斷層中有關鍵性的變化,並利用重複量數的two-way ANOVA來進行統計分析。所有的自然對話音檔都採用前二十個完整的發言,並且分析其中的整體說話速度,構音速度,以及停頓比例來作探討。
本研究結果發現,在實驗一當中,在四個年齡組之間,整體說話速度以及構音速度上都發現了顯著的成長,停頓比例在第二組和第三組之間發現了顯著成長,但在其他組間都是顯著下降。而在語境的比較上,本研究發現所有的參與者在自然對話中,都呈現較高的說話速度和構音速度,緊接著是朗讀文章,最慢的TCSIM測驗,然而第二組卻是在朗讀文章當中表現最慢的說話速度和構音速度,以及較高的停頓比例。在性別差異方面,本研究發現了整體而言,男性參與者的構音速度顯著地比女性參與者快,而停頓比例也顯著地比女性參與者低。在實驗二當中,本研究結果發現說話速度以及構音速度會隨著小朋友年齡的增加而成長,而停頓比例也會隨著降低,然而停頓比例在七歲到九歲之間卻成長了,此一發現與實驗一的結果相符。另外本研究也發現,小朋友在十一歲和在十三歲時的說話速度和構音速度並沒有太大差異,由此可推論,小朋友在接近十一到十三歲時達到了說話速度的頂峰,並且與大人的說話速度和構音速度很接近;在實驗二當中,針對四個參與者之個別差異也進行了比較和探討。先前的研究指出,話語的速度和語言流暢度與清晰度有關係(Hodge & Gotzke, 2014; Smith et al., 2011; Yang & Liu, 2007), 指出話語速度的異常也是語言障礙的特點之一 (Tjaden & Wilding, 2010)。因此,本研究的結果能夠作為臨床實驗的正常模組參考,也可以做為語言治療的目標,更可以做為華語教學或學習的參考指標。
The present study conducted two experiments to further answer whether there are developmental, contextual or gender differences in speech timing in children and adults in Taiwan. The first experiment recruited 20 preschool children, 40 elementary school children and 20 undergraduate students as our participants whose age ranged from three to 23 (half male and half female). Cross-sectional data with three different speech contexts: standardized repeating task, read speech and spontaneous conversations were examined using Praat. Next, longitudinal data from four children at age levels of 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13 years of age were collected. The first 20 speaking turns in the spontaneous data from children and adult participants were examined, then analyzed their speaking rate, articulation rate and pause ratio.
In Experiment 1, significant group contrasts in speaking rate, articulation rate and pause ratio were found. In general, speech rates increased and pause ratio decreased with age. However, an increase was found in pause ratio from Group 2 to Group 3. In addition, contextual differences were found significant in all three rate measures between spontaneous speech and the other two contexts (i.e. TCSIM and read speech). Most of the participant exhibited higher speech rates in spontaneous speech than in read speech and TCSIM. However, children in Group 2 showed the lowest speech rates and the highest pause ratio in read speech. Significant contrasts were found in articulation rate and pause ratio between males and females. The male participants produced higher articulation rate and lower pause ratio than the female ones did. In Experiment 2, speaking rate and articulation rate increased and pause ratio decreased with age. However, children at age 9 exhibited higher pause ratio than at age 7. This finding corresponded to the findings in Experiment 1. Additionally, individual differences in speech tempo in the four child participants in Experiment 2 were also compared and discussed. The findings in the present study could be applied to clinical practices where clinicians could use the normative speech rate data as reference for assessment, intervention or treatment goal. Additionally, the results from the present study could also serve as reference for a control group in the future studies that focus on comparing speech rates in children with speech disorders and typically developing children. Finally, the Mandarin speech rate data could also be applied to Mandarin teaching and learning.
中文摘要 I
ABSTRACT II
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT III
LIST OF TABLES VI
LIST OF FIGURES VII
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION 1
1.2 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 4
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 6
CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 8
2.1 MEASUREMENTS OF SPEECH TIMING 8
2.1.1 Speaking Rate. 8
2.1.2 Articulation Rate. 10
2.1.3 Pausing in Speech Timing. 13
2.2 MEASURING UNITS 15
2.3 CONTEXTUAL DIFFERENCES IN SPEECH TIMING 16
2.4 GENDER DIFFERENCES IN SPEECH TIMING 18
2.5 LONGITUDINAL DATA IN SPEECH TIMING 19
2.6 SPEECH RATE IN OTHER LANGUAGES 20
CHAPTER 3. METHOD 24
3.1 PARTICIPANTS 24
3.1.1 Experiment 1: Cross-sectional. 24
3.1.2 Experiment 2: Longitudinal data. 28
3.2 DATA COLLECTION 29
3.2.1 Experiment 1. 29
3.2.1.1 TCSIM sentence task. 29
3.2.1.2 Read speech. 30
3.2.1.3 Spontaneous speech. 31
3.2.2 Experiment 2. 32
3.2.2.1 Longitudinal spontaneous data. 32
3.3 DATA ANALYSIS 32
3.4 STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 34
3.5 RELIABILITY 35
CHAPTER 4. RESULTS 36
4.1 EXPERIMENT 1 36
Research Question 1: Are there any differences in speaking rate, articulation rate and pause ratio among preschool-aged children, elementary school children and young adults in Taiwan? 36
Research Question 2: Are there any differences in speaking rate, articulation rate and pause ratio among the standardized TCSIM sentence repetition task, reading task and spontaneous conversations? 42
Research Question 3: Are there any gender differences in speaking rate, articulation rate and pause ratio in Taiwanese Mandarin-speaking children and adults? 44
4.2 EXPERIMENT 2 45
Research Question 4: Is there any longitudinal evidence in the growth of speech rate and decrease of pause ratio in children aged 3 to 13 in Taiwan? 45
SUMMARY 54
CHAPTER 5. DISCUSSION 55
5.1 EXPERIMENT 1 55
Research Question 1: Are there any differences in speaking rate, articulation rate and pause ratio among preschool-aged children, elementary school children and young adults in Taiwan? 55
Research Question 2: Are there any differences in speaking rate, articulation rate and pause ratio among the standardized TCSIM sentence repetition task, reading task and spontaneous conversations? 59
Research Question 3: Are there any gender differences in speaking rate, articulation rate and pause ratio in Taiwanese Mandarin-speaking children and adults? 61
Research Question 4: Is there any longitudinal evidence in the growth of speech rate and decrease of pause ratio in children aged 3 to 13 in Taiwan? 63
5. 3 CROSS-LANGUAGE COMPARISON OF SPEECH RATES 66
5.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE STUDIES 70
CHAPTER 6. CONCLUSION 73
REFERENCES 76
APPENDICE 80
APPENDIX A. 80
APPENDIX B. 81
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