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研究生:章肖祺
研究生(外文):Xiao-QiZhang
論文名稱:都市棲地型島嶼之鳥類驚飛距離
論文名稱(外文):Avian Flight Initiation Distances in Urban Habitat Islands
指導教授:李亞夫
指導教授(外文):Ya-Fu Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:生命科學系
學門:生命科學學門
學類:生物學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:英文
論文頁數:52
中文關鍵詞:鳥類驚飛距離人為干擾寵物都市公園都市化
外文關鍵詞:birdsflight initiation distancehuman disturbancepeturban parkurbanization
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隨著工業化進程的發展,都會化的程度在全球也越來越高,都會中的生物多樣性與生態系統健康也顯得異常重要。都會公園不僅僅是人類休閒活動的地點,也是都會中野生動物的重要棲地,因此人類娛樂活動與動物活動之間的重疊可能會引發人與動物的衝突,進而對都會動物造成不利影響。鳥類對環境的變化非常敏感,同時也是最常與市民接觸的城市野生動物之一,因此鳥類可以作為都市環境的標誌物進行觀察與研究。
針對掠食者或其他外部壓力的即時逃跑與驚飛是鳥類的典型行為反應,它可能會對鳥類的覓食、繁殖與身體狀況產生影響。鳥類的驚飛距離(FID)指的是當潛在掠食者接近到一定程度時,鳥類開始逃跑時與掠食者之間的距離。驚飛距離能夠表示動物在避免危險與增加適存度的行為之間的權衡。驚飛距離可以用來作為測量鳥類對於人為干擾的容忍度與長期環境壓力的適應的指標。研究與理解造成鳥類驚飛距離變化的環境與人為因子不僅將有助於我們理解動物行為背後的機理,也對都會生態中的鳥類保育有重要意義。
麻雀作為台灣原生鳥種之一,在都市中非常常見,且其生活史與人類活動關係密切,然而麻雀等原生鳥類的全球族群數量目前正在減少。家八哥作為1970年代才被引入台灣的入侵種鳥類,同樣在都會中普遍,並且鳥類調查顯示台灣西部地區家八哥族群數量近年來顯著增長,很有可能與原生鳥種競爭並造成威脅,故本研究選擇麻雀與家八哥作為研究對象,以驚飛距離分析麻雀與八哥受環境與人為因素的影響程度。
本研究測試了鳥類的驚飛距離受鳥類自身特徵與環境因素影響的假說。於2016年11月至2017年3月期間於臺南市針對48個隨機選取且面積不同的公園,測量並記錄公園中麻雀與家八哥的驚飛距離。並試圖探討不同的因子,比如鳥類的體型大小,覓食群大小,公園的面積,都會化程度,植被覆蓋狀況與公園中的遊客密度,狗隻密度對於鳥類驚飛距離的影響。本研究以曼恩-惠尼U檢定來檢定麻雀與八哥的平均驚飛距離,平均鳥群大小與微棲地偏好性的差異。以一般線性回歸分析與多元逐步線性回歸分析了解鳥類自身與環境因素對於麻雀與八哥的驚飛距離的影響。
研究總共收集到了446筆驚飛距離,其中239筆為麻雀的,207筆為八哥的。麻雀相比家八哥有著顯著較短的驚飛距離,但其變異較小,八哥有著更為靈活的驚飛距離;麻雀的鳥群大小也顯著大於八哥的鳥群大小。遊客密度與公園所在地的都會化程度都與麻雀和八哥驚飛距離呈現顯著負相關關係,分別是最強的與次強的與鳥類驚飛距離相關的因子。結果還顯示家八哥相比麻雀,偏好喬木與灌木覆蓋較少,草地覆蓋較多且遊客密度較低的微棲地環境。最近庇護所距離與鳥類附近的草地覆蓋面積都與麻雀和八哥驚飛距離呈現顯著正相關關係。未被牽繩狗對於麻雀和八哥有著顯著的負面影響,有趣的是,被牽繩狗的密度與麻雀或八哥的驚飛距離都不顯著相關。公園中的機車對於麻雀有著顯著的負面影響,而對於八哥來說,是否被陽光直射與牠們的驚飛距離顯著相關。
本研究顯示相比麻雀,八哥對遊客干擾的耐受度較低。另外,八哥的驚飛距離相比麻雀變異更大,更為靈活,可能意味著八哥對於不同環境的學習能力更為出色,同時較為出色的學習與適應能力也許是家八哥成功入侵台灣的部分原因。研究還顯示,公園中有更多的樹木或灌木等鳥類潛在避難所可能可以幫助減少人為干擾,另外控制公園中的未牽繩寵物數量也可以幫助減少對鳥類或其他野生動物的干擾。因為本研究發現台南的公園中灌木覆蓋率較低,且未被牽繩的狗在公園中非常常見,我建議議台南市政府可以適當增加公園中的灌木種植,且本研究倡導市民在遛狗時務必牽緊狗繩,不要棄養寵物,從而盡可能減少人類活動對都市野生動物的干擾。
With the effect of industrialization, the entire world is becoming progressively urbanized, thus, concerns for biodiversity and ecosystem health in urban areas are receiving significant attentions. Urban parks serve not only for human recreation, but also can be critical habitats for urban wildlife. Yet, conflicts with human recreational needs and disturbances may lead to negative impact on individual wildlife and biodiversity. Birds are one of the commonest vertebrates in urban areas, and are highly sensitive to environmental changes. Thus, birds are often good indicators of ecological conditions in urban areas.
Immediate escape flights in response to predators or other external stressors are the typical behavioral responses of birds, which can have carry-over effects on foraging and feeding success, home range size, reproductive decisions, and body condition. Flight initiation distance (FID) refers to the distance that animals being away from an approaching predator while starting to flee. It represents a trade-off between the avoidance of life-threatening hazards and behaviors that may increase fitness. FIDs can serve as a quantitative measure of a bird’s tolerance to threats or human disturbance and may suggest how well a bird has been adapted to chronic environmental stress. Studies on birds’ FIDs in urban areas not only aid to our understanding of mechanisms behind this behavior, but also help contribute to avian conservation in human-modified settings under the current trend of global environmental changes.
Eurasian tree sparrows are native species in Taiwan, extremely common in urban areas, and are constantly associated with human settlements and activities. However, the populations of tree sparrows are decreasing around the world. In addition, common myna, an invasive species introduced to Taiwan in the 1970s, is also commonly seen in urban areas. Bird surveys had suggested that the mynas’ population soared in western Taiwan, which will probably pose a threat to native bird species like sparrows. Thus, sparrows and mynas will be suitable species for the study of urbanization effect on wild birds.
This study tested hypotheses that avian FIDs are affected by avian characteristics and environmental factors like park’s size, urbanization degree, vegetation structure, and human disturbances. From November 2016 to March 2017, I surveyed FIDs of sparrows and mynas in 48 parks of three categories of areas that were selected randomly from Tainan City. Moreover, I measured the area, degree of urbanization, vegetation structures, pedestrian density and dog density of each park, and birds’ flock sizes as well. Finally, using Mann-Whitney U test, differences in sparrows and mynas’ FIDs, flock sizes, and habitat preference were studied. Using linear regression and stepwise multiple regression to study effects between FIDs and avian characteristics or environmental factors.
A total of 446 FIDs were record, including 239 sparrows’ FIDs and 207 mynas’ FIDs. Sparrows displayed significantly shorter FIDs than mynas, but with smaller variation, meanwhile mynas had FIDs that were more flexible. Sparrows’ mean flock size was significantly larger than mynas. Pedestrian density and urbanization degree were negatively related to both mynas’ and sparrows’ FIDs, and they are the most and second important factors that related to FIDs. The result also indicated that the common mynas compared to the tree sparrows, preferred the environment with less tree and shrub coverage, more grass coverage and lower pedestrian density. The distances to the nearest cover (DNC) and grass coverage near birds were positively related to both mynas and sparrows’ FIDs. Unleashed dogs adversely affect both species; while leashed dog density, interestingly, had little effect on either species’ FIDs. For sparrows, parks’ average motorcycle density was positively correlated with their FIDs. For mynas, light condition was significantly correlated with their FIDs.
My study indicates that mynas were less tolerant to pedestrians than sparrows. The larger variation in mynas’ FIDs may indicate that mynas have a better learning ability for different environments than sparrows, which may partly explain the reasons for mynas invasion. More potential refuges for birds like trees and shrubs, and less unleashed dogs may help reduce the impacts of disturbances on wild birds. As for the mean shrub coverage of Tainan parks was low, and unleashed dogs were very common. Accordingly, the appropriately increase of Tainan parks’ shrub coverage is recommended by the author, and I advocate citizens to leash the dogs while walking dogs in parks; as well as do not abandon their pets to reduce the disturbance to urban wild fauna.
摘要 i
Abstract iii
Acknowledgments vi
Table of Contents vii
List of Figures ix
List of Tables ix
Introduction 1
Statement of the problem 1
Background 3
Avian characteristics and attributes 3
Spatial structures 5
Habitat structures 6
Human disturbances 8
Objectives 11
Materials and methods 13
Study area and species 13
Park sampling 14
Flight initiation distance 16
Habitat characteristics 17
Area and urbanization degree 17
Vegetation structures 17
Disturbances 17
Data analyses 18
Results 19
Park’s environment and disturbances 19
Flight initiation distances of sparrows and mynas 19
Stepwise linear regression of sparrows and mynas’ FIDs 32
Discussion 35
FIDs of sparrows and mynas 35
Human disturbances and birds’ FIDs 36
Vegetation structures and birds’ FIDs 37
Ambient light conditions and birds’ FIDs 39
Park sizes and birds’ FIDs 39
Implications for conservation 40
Literatures cited 41
Vita 52
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