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研究生:李偉雄
研究生(外文):Wee-HeongLee
論文名稱:大學生參與服務學習與轉化學習經驗之研究
論文名稱(外文):Research on Transformative Learning Experiences of Undergraduates during Service-Learning Program
指導教授:董旭英董旭英引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yuk-Ying Tung
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立成功大學
系所名稱:教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:217
中文關鍵詞:大學生服務學習轉化學習
外文關鍵詞:undergraduatesservice-learningtransformative learning
相關次數:
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本研究旨在探討大學生參與服務學習與轉化學習經驗,藉以了解大學生在服務過程中所產生的轉化學習過程。以曾參加國立成功大學雲南服務學習計畫,並業已畢業的計畫參與者為研究對象,共十位學生進行深度訪談;並採質性研究之敘事方法進行研究,探討大學生參與服務學習的經驗及在服務中轉化學習的過程,進而了解經歷服務學習轉化學習後對其日後產生的影響與實踐。

根據研究結果,所獲致之研究發現服務學習為學習者大學生活及人生成長的重要經歷,並在過程中獲得轉化學習經驗。轉化學習經驗影響了研究參與者的未來生涯和專業選擇,乃至畢業多年以後仍有指引作用,並在自己人生和生涯抉擇中持續實踐服務學習所帶來的思想轉化。此研究結果補充了現有文獻中缺乏服務學習經驗經過長時間沉澱後是否持續實踐的不足。研究也發現服務學習帶來轉化學習經驗受到其他重要情境因素影響,如團體反思、走出舒適圈、安全信任的環境等。更為重要的是研究發現引導員在服務學習轉化學習經驗中帶來的典範作用,對於學習者在服務學習中是否能夠獲得轉化學習經驗扮演舉足輕重的角色。
最後,根據研究結論,研究者提出了在實務的執行上,建立系統的服務學習引導員師資培育的重要性,同時也必須建立同儕引導員培育體制,才能更好的支持服務學習在學校領域內永續的發展和推動。服務學習教師也需培養引導設計與技巧,不斷精進自身的能力,才能達致團體反思的轉化學習效果並成為學習者的學習典範。

對於未來研究,建議可對更多的服務學習參與者及不同的服務學習形式,進行長時期的縱貫研究,以驗證不同類型服務學習所帶來的轉化學習效果的時間效應。未來研究也須關注團隊反思對於服務學習中的影響,因此必須需構建團隊反思的評量方法。本研究亦發現引導員在服務學習中扮演重要角色,但這方面的研究並不多,未來可針對引導員的職責、養成、評量等方面進行探索。
SUMMARY
The purpose of the narrative research is to conduct an in-depth exploration of the experience of ten undergraduate students who have participated in Service-Learing program and have since graduated from university, in order to understand the process of transformative learning and its long-term impact.
This qualitative study is conducted with purposeful and criteria-based sampling selection. Participants selected have previously participated in the National Cheng Kung University Yunnan Service-Learning program during their undergraduate tenure. Narrative research method is used as a framework to examine the experience and meaning making of participants of Service-Learning over time.
Results show that participants reported on the transformative learning experienced and are greatly impacted by their Service-Learning experience, and for some, it is a life changing experience. Transformative learning experienced during their Service-Learning tenure also had a profound impact on participants’ career choices and future actions. Participants described contextual factors that had paramount implications in the transformative learning experiences during Service-Learning and highlighted the importance of the role of a Service-Learning facilitator, and its implications on Service-Learning outcomes.
These research findings highlight the need for a systemic Service-Learning facilitator training and assessment program; support and training for a pool of Service-Learning peer facilitator; further research and training on facilitation design and techniques, and assessment of group facilitation.

INTRODUCTION
This study examined the transformative learning experience and meaning making of participants of service-learning program over time. Reviewing current literature, little is known about the transformative learning experience and its lasting impact of service‐learning on undergraduate participants, especially in a global education setting. Ten alumni of a Taiwanese university’s service-learning program in Yunnan China, were interviewed in this narrative research. Participants reported profound learning experienced during service-learning, and its long-term impact on their career choices and changes in vocation. Contexture factors that influenced the transformative learning experience were also identified.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study is conducted utilizing qualitative research, which is appropriate for developing an in-depth understanding of participants’ narratives of their service-learning experiences. Ten participants who had previously participated in the National Cheng Kung University Yunnan Service-Learning program during their undergraduate tenure were selected for this study. The in-depth understanding in qualitative research occurs through listening, interpreting, and retelling participants’ accounts in a manner that is meaningful, along with using and triangulating multiple data sources, and performing various types of verification. Conducting qualitative research offers the flexibility needed to retell the stories of the participants in meaningful form by utilizing narratives rather than numbers, thus allowing the freedom to employ a systematic approach to gather empirical evidence.
This study is grounded in narrative inquiry and will be represented in a narrative format. The use of narrative research methods offers the opportunity to focus the participants’ perceptions of service-learning from the participants’ experiences to shed light on how service-learning played a role in their lives.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Research findings show that service learning is an important experience for learners in their college life and personal growth, and they have experienced transformative learning experience in the process. The transformational learning experience has influenced particpants’ future professional career choices and change of vocation. After years of graduation from college, the impact of the service-learning transformative experience continues to guide them in their own life and career choices, participants also reported the continued practice of learnings brought about by service learning.
Two other important finding of this study is that, firstly, participants highlighted the contextual factors that had paramount implications in the transformative learning experiences during Service-Learning, such as group reflection, stepping out of comfort zone, and a safe and trusting environment. Amongst these factors, group reflection is reported unanimously as the most important factor with great implications on Service-Learning outcomes. Secondly, the study found that service-learning facilitator played an exemplary role in the service learning transformation learning experience and their involvement are pivotal to whether learners are able to experience transformative learning in service learning.

CONCLUSION
An inherent limitation to this research is the reliance on the memory of participants. Some of the questions used in interviews may require participants to recall events or feelings from the past. Participant recollection may have changed with the passing of time. Another limitation to this study is the time spent by participants in other learning environment after the service-learning experience, thus participants may falsely attribute personal growth and learning to the profound experience (service-learning) rather than learned behaviors and skills gained while in an educational setting. Nonetheless, research findings reveal that transformative learning are experienced during service-learning program, and has a profound impact on participants’ life, and the learnings from the service experience continues to guide them over time, especially in their career choices and changes in vocation.
The significance of this study is that the study findings add insight to prior studies that had identified the transformative outcomes but did not adequately explain the role of group reflection, and service-learning facilitators, among specific contextual factors in shaping the learning process that led to perspective transformation, and its impact over time. Through these research findings, service-learning practitioners will have a better understanding of the transformative learning process within service-learning program, which will result in more purposeful and rewarding execution of future programs.
摘要 i
Extended Abstract ii
謝誌 v
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究動機 1
第二節 研究目的與問題 4
第三節 名詞釋義 4
第四節 研究價值與重要性 6
第五節 研究限制 9
第二章 文獻探討 11
第一節 服務學習之內涵與定義 11
第二節 轉化學習的內涵與定義 25
第三節 服務學習與轉化學習之關聯性 42
第三章 研究方法 51
第一節 敘事研究方法及其特點 51
第二節 研究概念架構 57
第三節 研究參與者選擇 58
第四節 本研究服務學習課程介紹 62
第五節 研究工具 74
第六節 資料蒐集 77
第七節 資料分析 81
第四章 研究結果與討論 106
第一節 研究參與者參與服務學習經驗之分析 106
第二節 服務學習轉化學習經驗結果之分析 116
第三節 生涯轉化與實踐之分析 127
第四節 服務學習中帶來轉化學習經驗的情境因素之分析 144
第五章 結論與建議 158
第一節 研究結論 158
第二節 研究建議 165
第六章 研究後的反思 168
第一節 研究者的反思 168
第二節 受訪者參與研究後的反思 170
參考文獻 172
附 錄 182
附錄一 個別訪談知情同意書 182
附錄二 訪談大綱 184
附錄三 研究參與者逐字稿檢核函 185
附錄四 研究參與者敘說文本檢核表 186
附錄五 訪談逐字稿紀錄舉隅 187
附錄六 敘事單元敘事結構分析範例(一) 206
附錄七 敘事單元敘事結構分析範例(二) 208
附錄八 敘事單元敘事結構分析範例(三) 212
附錄九 環保衛生廁所建造流程圖 217
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