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研究生:廖芳君
研究生(外文):Liao, Fang-Chun
論文名稱:漢語副詞「自己」的語意探討
論文名稱(外文):The Semantics of Adverbial Ziji in Mandarin
指導教授:廖秀真廖秀真引用關係
指導教授(外文):Liao, Hsiu-Chen
口試委員:劉辰生
口試委員(外文):Liu, Chen-Sheng
口試日期:2017-09-14
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立交通大學
系所名稱:外國語文學系外國文學與語言學碩士班
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:106
語文別:英文
論文頁數:82
中文關鍵詞:中文「自己」副詞「自己」事件語意含括語意情境強調成分
外文關鍵詞:Mandarin zijiAdverbial zijiEvent semanticsAdditive Contextintensifiers
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漢語副詞「自己」的語意探討
研究生: 廖芳君 指導教授: 廖秀真 博士
國立交通大學外國語文學系暨外國文學與語言學碩士班
摘要
本論文探討漢語副詞「自己」的語意,認為其一詞有不同的語意解讀與用法上的限制,於是欲理解其細節,決定研究此議題,並對其語意解讀提出了新的洞見。
在此篇論文裡參考了前人文獻對於英語反身代名詞(one-self)的分析將「自己」一詞分為「排外語意」(exclusive reading)和「含括語意」(inclusive reading)。關於「排外語意」(exclusive reading),此篇論文同意文獻裡的一個「自己」帶出三種不同語意解讀的分析(Liao manuscript),分別為「獨自語意」(“alone” reading)、「親自語意」(“non-delegation” reading),以及「未促使語意」(“anti-causative” reading)。此外,為了使其三種不同語意解讀更為清晰,此篇論文採用了「事件相關之中心人物」(Constantinou 2014)的分析,並新增兩個不同面向,分別為「社會地位因素」和「高度參與程度因素」。關於「含括語意」(inclusive reading),此篇論文提出了新的語意解讀「對比語意」(contrastive reading),其語意可解釋「自己」一詞在用法上的限制。此外,此篇論文也討論關於「自己」一詞在含括語意的情境裡的不同語意解讀,並點出不同語意解讀源自於「也」一詞的句法位置高低。
綜言之,本文認為漢語副詞有兩個「自己」,分別為「排外」(exclusive)的「自己」和「含括」(inclusive)的「自己」。從機制角度談,原因為「排外語意」(exclusive reading)的語意獲得是取決於情境的不同,進而帶出一個與語境相關的人的集合,而「含括語意」(inclusive reading)則是當「自己」一詞一使用時,則帶出「對比語意」(contrastive reading),也就是和原句相反與相同的各一個語意解讀。

關鍵詞: 中文「自己」,副詞「自己」,事件語意,含括語意情境,強調成分
The Semantics of Adverbial Ziji in Mandarin Chinese
Student: Fang Chun Liao Advisor: Hsiu Chen Liao
Graduate Institute of Foreign Literature and Linguistics
National Chiao Tung University
Abstract
The thesis investigates the semantics of adverbial ziji ‘self’ in Mandarin Chinese and accounts for the derivation of its readings and its restrictive uses. In this thesis, ziji has the exclusive reading and the inclusive reading. For exclusive ziji, the thesis agrees with Liao (manuscript) that there is only one ziji, and its three readings, i.e., the “alone” reading, the non-delegation reading and the anti-causative reading, are carried out by using a mechanism in the syntax-semantic interface. Besides, in order to make these three main readings clearer, the thesis adapts the idea of event-related centrality from Constantinou (2014), and it additionally adds two more factors, the social status factor and the involvement factor, to make “centrality” account for these three main readings. As for inclusive ziji, the thesis proposes that it has “the contrastive reading”, which can explain the puzzle of the restrictive uses of inclusive ziji. Furthermore, the thesis discusses the readings of ziji in the additive context, and in particular it points out how the readings of ziji are determined by its syntactic position relative to the word ye “also”.
Overall speaking, the thesis proposes that there are two zijis, i.e., the exclusive ziji and the inclusive ziji. And the mechanical difference between the two zijis is, an alternative set for exclusive ziji is a set of other contextually relevant people, determining by C(De), while inclusive ziji requires that the alternative set includes its sentence and the negative counterpart of this sentence. Therefore, there are two zijis in
Mandarin Chinese, one exclusive ziji with three main readings and one inclusive ziji.
Keywords: Mandarin ziji, Adverbial ziji, Event semantics, Additive Context, intensifiers
Table of Contents
摘要 i
Abstract iii
誌謝 v
Table of Contents vi
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1. Background 1
1.2. Issues 4
1.2.1 Issue 1: The Various Readings of MC ziji 4
1.2.2 Issue 2: The Limitation of the Use of MC ziji 7
1.3. Goal 8
1.4. Organization of the Thesis 9
Chapter 2 The semantics of exclusive ziji 10
2.1. Literature Review of Chinese Exclusive ziji 10
2.1.1. Tsai (2008) 10
2.1.2. Hole (manuscript, 2008) 15
2.1.3. Recent Work: Liao (manuscript) 22
2.1.4. Summary 29
2.2. The Limitation of The Use of Exclusive ziji: Centrality 29
2.3. Summary 35
Chapter 3 The semantics of inclusive ziji 36
3.1. Introduction of Inclusive Intensifiers 36
3.2. Literature Review of Inclusive Intensifiers 41
3.2.1. Event Uniqueness and the Readings of Intensifiers 41
3.2.2. The Centrality Requirement 47
3.2.3. The Function of Topic 49
3.2.4. Problems in Centrality and Topic 53
3.3. The Analysis Toward Inclusive ziji 58
3.3.1. The Issue of Event Tokens 58
3.3.2. The Reading of Inclusive ziji: The Contrastive Reading 61
3.3.3. The Readings of ziji in the Additive Context 66
3.4.Summary 78
Chapter 4 Conclusion 79
Reference 80
References
Abrus´an, M. 2013. On the focus-sensitive presupposition triggers too, again, also,
even. Proceedings of Sinn und Bedeutung 18.
Chierchia, Gennaro. 1989. A semantics for unaccusatives and its Syntactic
consequences. Ms. Cornell University.
Constantinou, Harris. 2014. Intensifiers: Meaning and distribution. Doctoral thesis, UCL (University College London).
Davidson, D. 1967. The logical form of action sentences. In Rescher, N., editor, The logic of decision and action, pages 81–95. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh.
Eckardt, R. 2001. Reanalyzing selbst. Natural Language Semantics, 9(4), 371-412.
Gast, Volker. 2006. The grammar of identity: Intensifiers and reflexives in Germanic languages. London: Routledge.
Hole, Daniel. 2006. Agentive selbst and other instantiations of the identity function in German. Ms., University of München.
Hole, Daniel. 2008. Focus on identity – The dark side of zìjĭ. The Linguistic Review 25, 267-295.
Huang, C.-T. James. 1984. On the typology of zero anaphora. Language Research 20:85-105.
Huang, C.-T. James. 1991. On the local nature of the long distance reflexive in Chinese. In Long Distance Anaphora, J. Koster and E. Reuland, 263-282. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. [Co-authored with Jane Tang]
Kratzer, Angelika.1996. Severing the external argument from its verb. In Phrase Structure and the Lexicon, Johan Rooryck and Lauri Zaring (eds.), 109–137. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
König, E., & Siemund, P. 1999. Intensifiers and reflexives: A typological perspective.
In Z. Frajzyngier, & T. Curl (Eds.), Reflexives. Forms and Functions (pp. 41-74). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
Liao, Hsiu-Chen Daphne. Domains and presuppositions of Chinese ziji ‘self’ in its adverbial exclusive uses. Ms., National Chiao-Tung University.
Lü, Shu-xiang. (1980). Xiandai hanyu babai ci. Bejing: Shangwu Publishers.
Moravcsik, E. 1972. Some crosslinguistic generalizations about intensifier
constructions. In Proceedings of CLS 8 (pp. 272-277).
Siemund, Peter. 2000. Intensifiers in English and German: A comparison. London: Routledge.
Rooth, Mats. 1992. A Theory of focus interpretation. Natural Language Semantics 1:75-116.
Tang, C.-C. Jane. 1989. Chinese reflexives. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 7: 93-121.
Tang, C.-C. J. 1990. A note on the DP analysis of the Chinese noun phrase. Linguistics 28: 337-354.
Tsai, Wei-Tien Dylan. 2008. Causality, comitativity, contrastivity, and selfhood: A view from left periphery and middle Earth. Paper Presented, National Tsing Hua University. Online.
http://semanticsarchive.net/Archive/TcxZGNhN/Selfhood_Tsai08.pdf
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