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研究生:張雅惠
研究生(外文):Ya-Hui Chang
論文名稱:最終處置場低鹼性封塞混凝土膠結材優化及其與處置環境互動研究
論文名稱(外文):Optimization of low-pH sealing concrete at final disposal repository and its interaction with in-situ material
指導教授:黃偉慶黃偉慶引用關係
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:土木工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:土木工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:241
中文關鍵詞:低鹼性混凝土自充填混凝土水密性
外文關鍵詞:Low pH concreteself-compacting concretewater permeability
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最終處置場為長期貯存具高放射性用過核子燃料之設施,有效及安全的將用過核子燃料進行儲放為各國高度重視的長期安全性議題。處置場地下設施所使用之混凝土,為避免影響緩衝材料的預期成效,各國傾向採用低鹼性混凝土。目前低鹼性混凝土(Low pH concrete)係由瑞典、芬蘭及日本等各國進行國際合作研究所獲得成果為基礎,主要以使用矽灰、飛灰、爐石粉等礦物摻料,進行重量比例取代卜特蘭水泥製成。
為了瞭解處置場用混凝土與其他障壁材料及場外周邊環境之交互作用,
以及礦物摻料(矽灰、飛灰)對降低處置場混凝土孔隙溶液pH 值及其他工程特性之影響,本研究分別進行處置場低鹼性封塞用自充填混凝土(SCC)於使用不同礦物摻料下之工程特性,以及透過文獻蒐集彙整之方式瞭解混凝土與處置場周邊環境之互動關係,並於工程特性探討部分,使用礦物摻料矽灰及飛灰部分取代水泥,對混凝土之新拌性質、硬固性質及耐久性質等試驗進行分析與探討。
於處置場環境互動關係部分,國際文獻對混凝土孔隙溶液長期模擬結果顯示,其對處置場膨潤土影響範圍僅落在交界面10 cm 之範圍內,並在30,000 年時不再有更進一步影響範圍。膨潤土及混凝土鄰近之交界面處孔隙率變化反應水力傳輸之趨勢。
處置場封塞用SCC 工程特性部分,總取代量達50 %,且在固定矽灰取代水泥比例35 %之情況下,混凝土之強度、體積穩定性、耐久性及水密性等表現皆較普通混凝土佳,並且能在28 天齡期即符合處置場低鹼性混凝土pH 值≤ 11 之要求;在提高膠結材料總量上亦有相同之性質表現。
Final disposal depository is where nuclear canister been replaced. To let the radioactive waste safety and efficiently disposed on the long term is an important issue for world wide. Due to the depth of repository, concrete might have influence on near field, buffer and backfill material. Low pH concrete has been obtained by Sweden, Finland, Japan, and other countries during an international cooperation research. It is mainly made of fly ash, slag, and silica fume with different weight replace on cement.
In this study, the engineering characteristics of self-compacting concrete (SCC) with different mineral materials mixed for low pH concrete plug, and the interaction between concrete-bentonite, and concrete-near field materials are being studied by having mechanical tests ,and collecting research separately.
After a long-term evaluation on the pore solution of concrete-bentonite interface, the impact range on bentonite only fell within 10 cm of the interface, and no longer had any further influence at 30,000 years. The change of porosity at the interface between bentonite and concrete implies the water transport trend between materials.
While the total replacement reach 50% with silica fume replace at 35% to cement, strength, volume stability, durability, and water permeability are more advance than Portland concrete. Also, the requirement of pH ≤ 11can be fulfill at age of 28 at this mix design. The same characteristics were found on a higher binder percentage of concrete.
摘要 ........................................................................................................................ i
Abstract ................................................................................................................ iii
致謝 ....................................................................................................................... v
目錄 ..................................................................................................................... vii
圖目錄 .................................................................................................................. xi
表目錄 ............................................................................................................... xvii
第一章 緒論 ................................................................................................... 1
1-1 研究背景 ................................................................................................ 1
1-2 研究目的 ................................................................................................ 2
1-3 研究內容 ................................................................................................ 2
1-4 名詞說明 ................................................................................................ 3
第二章 文獻回顧 ........................................................................................... 4
2-1 最終處置場 ............................................................................................ 4
2-1-1 最終處置場型態 ........................................................................ 4
2-1-2 處置場EBS 配置 ....................................................................... 7
2-1-3 處置場各設施功能 .................................................................... 7
2-2 低鹼性混凝土........................................................................................ 8
2-2-1 對膨潤土之影響 ........................................................................ 8
2-2-2 礦物摻料 .................................................................................... 9
2-3 封塞用混凝土...................................................................................... 10
2-3-1 處置場封閉階段之封塞要求 .................................................. 11
2-3-2 混凝土配比設計 ...................................................................... 12
2-3-3 抗壓強度 .................................................................................. 17
2-3-4 體積穩定性及耐久性 .............................................................. 18
2-3-5 水密特性 .................................................................................. 20
第三章 混凝土與相鄰材料的交互作用 ..................................................... 22
3-1 傳輸作用 .............................................................................................. 22
3-2 混凝土與周邊環境之交互作用 ......................................................... 23
3-3 混凝土與膨潤土之交互作用 ............................................................. 24
3-3-1 傳輸室試驗 .............................................................................. 25
3-3-2 溫度效應 .................................................................................. 26
3-4 數值模擬方法...................................................................................... 27
3-4-1 礦物反應 .................................................................................. 29
3-4-2 邊界條件 .................................................................................. 32
3-4-3 孔隙率 ...................................................................................... 32
3-4-4 溫度 .......................................................................................... 33
3-4-5 擴散係數 .................................................................................. 33
3-4-6 陽離子交換能力 ...................................................................... 33
3-5 長期演化模擬結果 ............................................................................. 34
3-5-1 各材料界面pH 值變化 ........................................................... 34
3-5-2 孔隙率演化 .............................................................................. 36
3-5-3 溫度效應影響 .......................................................................... 40
3-6 混凝土-膨潤土界面互動 .................................................................... 41
第四章 實驗規劃 ......................................................................................... 43
4-1 試驗計畫 .............................................................................................. 43
4-2 試驗材料 .............................................................................................. 48
4-2-1 水泥 .......................................................................................... 48
4-2-2 礦物摻料 .................................................................................. 49
4-2-3 石灰石粉 .................................................................................. 50
4-2-4 粗粒料 ...................................................................................... 51
4-2-5 細粒料 ...................................................................................... 52
4-2-6 拌合水 ...................................................................................... 54
4-2-7 強塑劑 ...................................................................................... 54
4-3 試驗配比與編號 ................................................................................. 55
4-3-1 前導試驗 .................................................................................. 55
4-3-2 自充填混凝土性質研究 .......................................................... 57
4-4 試驗方法 .............................................................................................. 60
4-4-1 孔隙溶液pH 值檢測 ............................................................... 60
4-4-2 混凝土配比篩選 ...................................................................... 72
4-4-3 流下性試驗(漏斗法) ............................................................... 72
4-4-4 凝結時間試驗 .......................................................................... 73
4-4-5 角柱乾縮試驗 .......................................................................... 73
4-4-6 抗硫酸鹽侵蝕試驗 .................................................................. 73
4-4-7 彈性模數試驗 .......................................................................... 73
4-4-8 快速氯離子滲透試驗 .............................................................. 77
4-4-9 水壓下貫入試驗 ...................................................................... 79
4-5 試驗儀器設備...................................................................................... 81
4-5-1 混凝土拌合試驗 ...................................................................... 81
4-5-2 硬固性質試驗 .......................................................................... 83
4-5-3 體積穩定性及耐久性質 .......................................................... 85
4-5-4 微觀試驗 .................................................................................. 87
第五章 前導試驗 ......................................................................................... 88
5-1 pH 影響因子探討 ................................................................................. 88
5-1-1 含水狀態 .................................................................................. 89
5-1-2 密封靜置時間 .......................................................................... 93
5-1-3 粒徑大小 .................................................................................. 96
5-1-4 溶液溫度 .................................................................................. 98
5-1-5 重複性試驗 ............................................................................ 100
5-2 漿體性質探討.................................................................................... 101
5-2-1 pH 值試驗 ............................................................................... 102
5-2-2 抗壓強度 ................................................................................ 105
5-3 綜合討論 ............................................................................................ 108
5-3-1 pH 值本土化檢測程序建立與合適性評估 ........................... 108
5-3-2 礦物摻料初步性質 ................................................................ 112
第六章 混凝土試驗結果與分析 ............................................................... 119
6-1 矽灰取代水泥性質探討 (雙系統) ................................................... 122
6-1-1 新拌性質分析 ........................................................................ 122
6-1-2 硬固性質分析 ........................................................................ 128
6-1-3 pH 值 ....................................................................................... 132
6-1-4 體積穩定性與耐久性 ............................................................ 136
6-1-5 快速氯離子滲透試驗 (RCPT) ............................................. 141
6-1-6 水壓下貫入試驗 (水密性) ................................................... 143
6-2 矽灰與飛灰取代水泥性質探討 (三系統) ....................................... 145
6-2-1 新拌性質分析 ........................................................................ 145
6-2-2 硬固性質分析 ........................................................................ 154
6-2-3 pH 值 ....................................................................................... 159
6-2-4 體積穩定性與耐久性 ............................................................ 163
6-2-5 水壓下貫入試驗 (水密性) ................................................... 167
6-3 微觀性質分析.................................................................................... 170
6-3-1 XRD ......................................................................................... 170
6-3-2 SEM/EDS ................................................................................ 173
6-4 綜合討論 ............................................................................................ 180
6-4-1 SCC 工作性 ............................................................................. 180
6-4-2 抗壓強度、彈性模數及水密性 ............................................ 180
6-4-3 體積穩定性與耐久性 ............................................................ 183
6-4-4 pH 值與微觀特性 ................................................................... 183
第七章 結論與建議 ................................................................................... 185
7-1 結論 .................................................................................................... 185
7-2 建議 .................................................................................................... 186
參考文獻 ....................................................................................................... 187
附錄 ....................................................................................................... 197
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