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研究生:張譽紘
研究生(外文):Yu-Hung, Chang
論文名稱:直播主與觀眾之間,直播主之個人品牌個性會導致什麼樣的關係?以觀眾之使用滿足感為中介變數
指導教授:李憶萱李憶萱引用關係
指導教授(外文):Yi-Hsuan Lee
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:137
中文關鍵詞:網路直播品牌個性使用與滿足理論工具性關係情感性關係混合性關係階層線性模型
外文關鍵詞:Live streamingBrand personalityUses and gratifications theoryInstrumental tiesExpressive tiesMixed tiesHierarchical linear modelingLive broadcast
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在2010年代後,由於智慧型手機和行動網路的出現,一般人分享資訊時又更加方便與快速,因此「網路影音直播平台」更加地蓬勃發展。經營直播頻道的直播主們將影音內容透過即時串流向觀眾公開播放,觀眾們可透過聊天室與直播主和其他觀眾進行即時性的互動。
近幾年,國內外的直播平台業者如「Twitch」、「Periscope」、「17直播」、「鬥魚直播」的網站流量及用戶數皆不斷逐年攀升,根據相關調查,全球最大直播平台Twitch的用戶在2018年1~4月的總流量已超過20 億小時,且2018年全球線上直播的相關收益將達74億美元,其中臺灣、中國地區占了全球收益的一半以上。由此可知,「直播產業」不但是往後幾年的網路趨勢,且臺灣、中國等華人地區的網路直播使用情形也是值得探討的議題。
本研究試圖回答:「直播主與觀眾之間,若以觀眾之使用滿足感作為中介變數,直播主品牌個性會導致什麼樣的關係?」本研究整合了過去文獻,建立一個系統性的方式整合觀眾群體及個體兩個層次,探討不同的直播主「品牌個性」透過「觀眾使用滿足感」之關鍵中介角色來影響不同類型的「觀眾與直播主的關係」。本研究採用階層線性模型進行跨層次分析,以臺灣 28 位直播主與中國20位直播主的主要觀眾群作為研究對象,問卷共發放913份,有效問卷共566份,有效問卷回收率為61.99%(臺灣有效問卷430 份,臺灣有效問卷回收率為64.47%;中國問卷 136 份,中國有效問卷回收率為55.28%)。
此本研究將分為兩個部分進行探討,第一部分為探討不同直播主的人物品牌個性(真誠、刺激、能力、雅緻、粗獷)是否會影響不同觀眾與直播主關係(工具型關係、情感性關係、混合性關係)的建立;第二部分為探討觀眾之使用滿足感在不同的直播主品牌個性與不同的觀眾與直播主關係是否具有中介效果。研究結果顯示,「刺激」、「能力」之品牌個性,皆須透過觀眾之使用滿足感這個中介變數才能對不同的觀眾與直播主關係有影響;另一方面,「雅緻」、「粗獷」大致上則不須透過觀眾之使用滿足感就能對不同的觀眾與直播主關係有直接影響;此外,「真誠」無論有沒有透過觀眾之使用滿足感這個中介變數,對於三種關係都沒有顯著影響力。
本研究貢獻分為五個部分,第一,本研究將「品牌」經營的概念用於探討直播主,並著重於探討直播主的「品牌個性」對於「觀眾與直播主關係」的影響;第二,目前華人地區(臺灣、中國)所帶來的直播相關收益超過全球收益的一半,因此華人地區的網路直播使用行為是很重要的議題,本研究採用了聚焦於華人社會人際關係的「關係」理論,來衡量華人直播情境中不同類型的「觀眾與直播主之間的關係」,填補了華人社會中「觀眾與直播主關係」相關研究的理論缺口;第三,本研究將使用滿足感視為中介變數來探討其對「品牌個性」與「觀眾與直播主的關係」的中介效果,填補了目前品牌和網路直播相關文獻上所缺乏「使用滿足感」之中介效果的實證研究;第四,本研究期望透過對網路直播使用者行為之探討,能夠為華人地區直播領域的相關研究發展,提供一個完整的理論架構與實證研究;第五,本研究採用階層線性模型進行跨層次分析,以精確衡量直播主與觀眾之間的關係,此方法論對網路情境之直播主人物品牌研究具有創新性與貢獻性。
Since 2010, the creation of smartphone and the evolution of mobile internet technologies allow people to share information conveniently and instantly. Therfore, the “live streaming platform” develops rapidly. The broadcasters can share videos through the live streaming platform and the viewers can interact or respond to broadcasters and other viewers immediately.
In recent years, domestic and foreign broadcast platforms (such as Twitch, Periscope, 17 and douyu live) have been watched by an increasing number of web traffic and users. According to the relevant rsurvey, the total watching hours of Twitch, the world's largest live platform, have more than 2 billion hours in the first quarter of 2018. In addition, the world's broadcast income will increase up to $7.4 billion, including Taiwan and China accounted for more than half of that. Therefore, “broadcast industry” is the trend of the Internet over the next few years and the broadcast usage behaviors of Mandarin region (Taiwan, China) will be a popular issue.
This study attempts to investigate how brand personality improves viewer-broadcaster relationship via key mediator of viewers’ gratifications. I developed a systematic two-level framework,including the group and individual levels, to extensively explore how brand personality improves viewer-broadcaster relationship through the key mediating roles of viewers’ gratifications. The present study employed hierarchical liner modeling to test the research hypotheses. In total, 913 surveys were distributed, and a total of 566 valid samples were retrieved from 28 viewer-groups in Taiwan and 20 viewer-group in China, yielding a valid total response rate of 61.99%;Taiwan sample size was 430, yielding a valid response rateof 64.47%; China sample size was 136, yielding avalid response rate of 55.28%.
This research was divided into two parts. First, how do brand personalities (which includes sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication and ruggedness) affect the viewer-broadcaster relationship (which includes instrumental ties, expressive ties and mixed ties) was explored. Second, the mediating effects of viewers’ gratifications between brand personalities and viewer-broadcaster relationshipwere examine. The results show that:
1. The “excitement” and the “competence” don’t have positive effect on all kinds of the viewer-broadcaster relationship but they can affect all kinds of the viewer-broadcaster relationship through viewers’ gratifications.
2. The “sophistication” and the “ruggedness” affect positive two of the viewer-broadcaster relationship. However, they don’t affect the viewer-broadcaster relationship through viewers’ gratifications.
3. The “sincerity” has no effect on all kinds of the viewer-broadcaster relationship through viewers’ gratifications.
This study contributes to research in five aspects. First, the concept of “personal brand” was applied to investigate the behaviors of broadcasters. Second, the Mandarin region (Taiwan, China) brings over half of the world's broadcast income, so the broadcast usage behaviors of Mandarin region is a popular issue. Hwang’s “Chinese relationship theory (1987)” was applied to explore the broadcast usage behaviors of Mandarin region. Third, the mediating effects of viewers’ gratifications between brand personalities and viewer-broadcaster relationship were examined; it fills the theoretical gap of the research field associated with brand and broadest. Fourth, a comprehensive theoretical framework for broadcast in Mandarin region were proposed. Finally, hierarchical liner modeling was conducted to analyze the research hypotheses. Hierarchical liner modeling was used to analyze the cross-level relationships between the the group and individual level effectively and accurately. This methodology contributes and advances the research field of broadcasters’ brand personality.
摘要 i
Abstract iii
致謝辭 v
圖目錄 x
表目錄 xi
一、 緒論 1
1-1  研究背景 1
1-2  研究目的 2
1-3  研究動機與預期貢獻 7
二、 文獻探討與研究假設 9
2-1  品牌個性 9
2-2  關係理論 13
2-3  使用與滿足理論 16
2-4  「品牌個性」與「觀眾與直播主的關係」 18
2-5  「觀眾之使用滿足感」對「品牌個性」與「關係」之中介效果 24
三、 研究方法 29
3-1  研究對象與樣本發放 29
3-2  問卷設計 30
3-3  變項衡量方式 30
3-3-1 直播主的品牌個性 30
3-3-2 觀眾之使用滿足感 32
3-3-3 觀眾與直播主的關係 34
3-4  控制變數 37
3-5  分析方法 38
3-5-1 敘述性統計與相關分析 38
3-5-2 因素分析 38
3-5-3 信度分析 39
3-5-4 效度分析 39
3-5-5 共同方法變異控制 40
3-5-6 變數之組內與組間變異成份分析 40
3-5-7 階層線性模型分析 41
四、 資料分析 42
4-1  敘述性統計分析 42
4-2  相關分析 45
4-3  信度分析 47
4-4  建構效度分析 47
4-4-1 收斂效度 47
4-4-2 區別效度 49
4-5  變數之組內與組間變異成份分析 50
4-6  共同方法變異分析 51
4-7  階層線性模型之假設分析結果 51
4-7-1 關係之虛無模型 52
4-7-2 直播主品牌個性與工具性關係之關係 55
4-7-3 直播主品牌個性與情感性關係之關係 57
4-7-4 直播主品牌個性與混合性關係之關係 59
4-7-5 觀眾之使用滿足感對品牌個性與工具性關係之中介關係 61
4-7-6 觀眾之使用滿足感對品牌個性與情感性關係之中介關係 68
4-7-7 觀眾之使用滿足感對品牌個性與混合性關係之中介關係 74
五、 結論與建議 80
5-1  研究結果 80
5-1-1 直播主品牌個性如何影響關係 80
5-1-2 觀眾之使用滿足感在直播主品牌個性與關係的中介效果 86
5-1-3 研究發現 90
5-2  研究貢獻 92
5-2-1 研究架構層面 92
5.2.2 理論意涵層面 92
5-3  實務建議 93
5-4  研究限制與後續研究建議 95
參考文獻 97
附錄一、研究問卷 118
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溫福星, & 邱皓政. (2012). 多層次模式方法論:階層線性模式的關鍵問題與試解
別蓮蒂, 陳明怡, & 劉吉傑. (2012). 領導者特質, 企業文化與品牌個性間之關係初探-長期歷史觀點. 管理評論, 31(3), 49-72.
吳昭賢. (2007). 自我一致性, 品牌態度與品牌忠誠度關係之研究. 朝陽科技大學企業管理研究所, 碩士論文..
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三、 網路資料
Five Key Insights into Twitch and YouTube Gaming and the 2.4Bn Viewing Hours They Generated in Q1 2018. (2018). Newzoo. 取自:
https://newzoo.com/insights/articles/five-key-insights-into-twitch-and-youtube-gaming/
2017上半年中國直播app白皮書. (2017). GoodBene好說. 取自: http://www.goodbene.com/?p=3514
人氣實況主爭霸戰!統神奪冠最大障礙竟是「特哥」. (2017). DailyView 網路溫度計. 取自: https://dailyview.tw/Daily/2017/01/18?page=0
勤業眾信2018全球高科技、媒體及電信產業趨勢預測. (2018). 勤業眾信Deloitte & Touche. 取自:
https://www2.deloitte.com/tw/tc/pages/technology-media-and-telecommunications/articles/tmt-predictions-2018.html
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