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研究生:侯偉傑
研究生(外文):Wei-Jie Hou
論文名稱:G 型星超級閃焰與恆星黑子關係之研究
論文名稱(外文):The Correlation of Stellar Superflares and Star Spot on G-Type Stars
指導教授:葉永烜
指導教授(外文):Wing-Huen Ip
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:天文研究所
學門:自然科學學門
學類:天文及太空科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:英文
論文頁數:60
中文關鍵詞:G型星恆星黑子超級閃焰
外文關鍵詞:G-type starsStarspotsSuperflares
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在太陽的觀測中,閃焰被認為與黑子相關,例如閃焰經常發生於黑子附近的磁場活躍區域,且閃焰能量上限與黑子面積大小成正相關。而這種相關性在其他恆星並沒有被確定。G 型星的溫度、大小、質量等參數與太陽相近,且在某些 G 型星上發現了與太陽相似的閃焰現象,更甚至是超級閃焰現象。我們研究了克普勒任務觀測的 77 個 G 型星並找到了 4120個超級閃焰事件。在這些 G 型星的光變取現上也發現有黑子造成的光變影響,因此我們研究了閃焰位置和強度與黑子的關係。我們發現閃焰能量與黑子大小間有正相關。此外,黑子位置與閃焰發生並沒有發現確切的相關。
Solar flares are associated with Sunspot in the observations of the Sun, flare occurred on an active region near the Sunspot, and the upper limit of flare energy is increasing with spot area. And the relationship on other star has been not confirmed yet. The G-types stars have similar size, mass, the temperature to our Sun, most of them have flare even "superflare" phenomenon. We found 4120 superflares events on 77 G-type stars observed by Kepler. Those G-type stars have the periodic contribution of starspots on its light curve, and we thus investigate the relationship of intensity and position between starspots and superflares. We discovered that there is a tendency exists between the energy of superflares and size of starspots. Besides, there seems to be no relation between the occurrence time of flares and the position of spots.
中文摘要 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i
Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v
List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 G-Type Stars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Flares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2.1 Solar Flares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2.2 Superflares . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3 Spots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.3.1 Sunspots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.3.2 Starspots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.4 Kepler Mission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2 Observation & Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.1 Flaring G Dwarfs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.2 Kepler Data and Pipeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.3 Spot Variation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.3.1 Light Curve Detrend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2.3.2 Spot Variation Amplitudes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.3.3 Rotation Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.3.4 Spot Area Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.4 Flare Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.4.1 Flare Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
2.4.2 Flare Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.4.3 Flare Percentage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
v
3 Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4 Discussions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.1 Discussion on Spots Sizes and Flares . . . . . . . . . . 22
4.2 Relation between Spots Location and Flares . . . . . 30
5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Appendix A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
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