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研究生:童子函
研究生(外文):Tung-Tzu Han
論文名稱:改良型差分麥克風陣列之波束成型系統設計與實現
論文名稱(外文):Design and Implementation of an Improved Differential Microphone Arrays Beamforming System
指導教授:徐國鎧
指導教授(外文):Kuo-Kai Shyu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:76
中文關鍵詞:麥克風陣列差分麥克風陣列波束成型白雜訊增益分時取樣
外文關鍵詞:Microphone arrayDifferential Microphone ArrayBeamformingwhite noise gainTime-interleaved sampling
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本論文主要研製一個麥克風陣列之波束成型系統,麥克風陣列是一個非常敏感的系統,受致於麥克風的放大倍率、延遲時間以及擺放位置有所不同,所呈現的指向性會有極大的不同,並且麥克風陣列常會有白雜訊增益的問題。因此本論文藉由設計與實現均勻線性的差分麥克風陣列波束成型系統,分析硬體電路以及演算法架構對雜訊的影響且比較常見的兩種差分麥克風陣列架構並對其做出改良,以改善原有架構的缺點,並使開發人員在設計時對於不同的需求,有更多樣化的選擇。
This thesis focuses on the design and implementation of a differential microphone array beamforming system. The microphone array system is sensitive to the microphone's gain, delay time, and placement position. Those factor quite influence presented directivity. Moreover, the microphone array often suffers from white noise gain.
Therefore, this paper designs and implements a uniform linear differential microphone array beamforming system. It analyzes the effect of algorithm on noise. Introduce the common two kinds of differential microphone array structure and make improvements to it. Allows developers to have more diversified choices for different needs when designing.
摘要 i
Abstract ii
致謝 iii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 vi
表目錄 ix
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機與目標 1
1.2 文獻探討 2
1.3 論文架構 3
第二章 麥克風陣列 4
2.1 麥克風陣列簡介 4
2.1 波束成形 6
第三章 差分麥克風陣列 9
3.1 差分麥克風陣列簡介 9
3.2 數學模型 11
3.3.1 波束圖形(Beampattern) 16
3.3.2 前後比 (Front-to-Back Ratios) 18
3.3.3 指向性因子 (Directivity Factors) 19
3.3.4 信噪比增益(Signal-to-Noise Ratio Gains) 19
3.3.5 白雜訊增益(White Noise Gain) 21
3.4 空間響應圖設計 21
3.4.1 零點配置設計 22
3.4.2 最佳化設計 23
3.5 各架構分析與改良 25
第四章 系統設計 28
4.1 硬體設計 28
4.1.1 MEMS麥克風 29
4.1.2 帶通濾波器 30
4.1.3 類比開關 30
4.1.4 偏壓電路 30
4.1.5 類比數位轉換器 31
4.1.6 數位類比訊號隔離 31
4.2 數位訊號處理器 32
4.3 分數延遲濾波器 33
4.4 分時取樣補償 35
第五章 實驗與討論 37
5.1 模擬結果 37
5.2 硬體電路實現 44
5.3 實驗結果與討論 49
5.3.1 實驗設置 49
5.3.2 實驗結果與討論 51
第六章 結論與未來展望 59
參考文獻 60
[1]J. Benesty, J. Chen and C. Pan, Fundamentals of Differential Beamforming., Springer Singapore, 2016.
[2]J. Benesty and J. Chen, Study and Design of Differential Microphone Arrays., Berlin, Germany:Springer-Verlag, 2012.
[3]G. Elko and A. Pong, “A simple adaptive first-order differential microphone,” in IEEE ASSP Workshop on Applications of Signal Processing to Audio and Acoustics, 1995, pp. 169–172.
[4]C. Pan, J. Chen and J Benesty, “Theoretical Analysis of Differential Microphone Array Beamforming and an Improved Solution,” IEEE Trans. Acoustics Speech Signal Process., vol. 23, pp. 2093-2105, Nov. 2015.
[5]E. De Sena, H. Hacihabiboğlu and Z Cvetković, “On the Design and Implementation of Higher Order Differential Microphones,” IEEE Trans. On Audio, Speech, And Language Processing., vol. 20, pp. 162-174, 2012.
[6]T. D. Abhayapala and A. Gupta, “Higher order differential-integral microphone arrays,” J. Acoust. Soc. Amer., vol. 127, no. 5, pp. EL227–EL233, Apr. 2010.
[7]A. Bernardini, F. Antonacci and A. Sarti, “Wave Digital Implementation of Robust First-Order Differential Microphone Arrays,” IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 25, Feb. 2018.
[8]T. I. Laakso, V. Välimäki, M. Karjalainen, and U. K. Laine, “Splitting the unit delay,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 30–60, Jan. 1996.
[9]M.A. Al-Alaoui, “Novel digital integrator and differentiator,” Electron. Lett., vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 376–378, Feb. 1993.
[10]J. Chen, J. Benesty, and C. Pan, “On the design and implementation of linear differential microphone arrays, ”J. Acoust., Soc. Amer., vol.136, pp. 3097–3113, Dec. 2014.
[11]J. Benesty, M. M. Sondhi, and Y. Huang, eds., Springer Handbook of Speech Processing. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2007.
[12]N. Stefanakis and D. Pavlidi, “Perpendicular Cross-Spectra Fusion for Sound Source Localization With a Planar Microphone Array,” IEEE Trans. on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing., vol. 25, pp. 1821-1835, Sep. 2017
[13]J. Chen and J. Benesty, “A general approach to the design and implementation of linear differential microphone arrays,” in Proc. Asia-Pacific Signal Inf. Process. Assoc. Annu. Summit Conf.(APSIPA), 2013.
[14]M. M. Faraji, S. B. Shouraki and E. Iranmehr, ”Spiking Neural Network for Sound localization Using Microphone Array,” 23rd Iranian Conference on Electrical Engineering, pp.1260-1265, Tehran, Iran, May 2015.
[15]Matthew B. Hawes and Wei Liu, “Sparse Array Design for Wideband Beamforming With Reduced Complexity in Tapped Delay-Lines,” IEEE Trans. on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing., vol 22, pp. 1236-1247, Aug. 2014.
[16]L. Zhao, J. Benesty and J. Chen, “Design of Robust Differential Microphone Arrays,” IEEE Trans. on Audio, Speech, and Language Processing., vol 22, pp. 1455-1466, Nov. 2014.
[17]J. Dmochowski, J. Benesty, and S. Affes, “On Spatial Aliasing in Microphone Arrays,” IEEE Trans Signal Process., vol. 57, pp. 1383–1395, April 2009.
[18]Y. Huang and J. Benesty, “A class of frequency-domain adaptive approaches to blind multi-channel identification,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 51, pp. 11–24, Jan. 2003.
[19]M. Brandstein, and D. Ward, eds., Microphone Arrays: Signal Processing Techniques and Applications, Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 2001.
[20]Knowles, “Amplified SiSonic Microphone,” SPU0414HR5H-SB data sheet, Mar. 2013.
[21]Elmar Messner, ”Differential Microphone Arrays,” Graz University of Technology, Master Thesis, 2013.
[22]王基鴻,「空間濾波器於麥克風陣列之設計」,國立中央大學電機工程系,碩士論文,民國101年6月。
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