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研究生:梁原銘
研究生(外文):Liang,YUAN-MING
論文名稱:製程高溫設備失效模式與效應分析-以某半導體廠為例
論文名稱(外文):Application of Failure Mode and Effect Analysis in Risk Assessment and Management of Equipment Used in High-operating Temperatures for Production Processes – A Case Study of a Semiconductor Factory
指導教授:林居慶
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中央大學
系所名稱:環境工程研究所在職專班
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:英文
論文頁數:83
中文關鍵詞:失效模式與效應分析半導體封裝製程製程加熱設備風險評估
外文關鍵詞:Failure Mode and Effect AnalysisSemiconductor Packaging ProcessHigh Temperature Equipment in Production ProcessesRisk assessment
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半導體封測產業中許多化學原料(如易燃性化學品、強酸、強鹼、強氧化性物質、易燃性氣體)隨著製程需求而用於各種製程高溫設備,國內法規上雖已針對化學品使用訂定相關法令規定管理;但在設備上相關的法令要求、規範未如國外已訂定出明確可依循之標準規範,造成企業各界在設備採購規範訂定時,僅能憑藉經驗多寡來要求符合程度,在此情形下容易衍生出因設備安全設計不佳及現場管理不當而造成火災,再加上廠房設計多屬於密閉環境,發生火災時導致人員疏散及救災困難;本研究以失效模式與效應分析(Failure Mode and Effect Analysis, FMEA)、EMI S10風險評估方法,分析製程高溫設備在設備元件、排氣系統、安全連鎖裝置功能失效時可能產生的危害,並依風險評估結果研擬改善對策。
本研究以半導體封測產業內,針對製程高溫設備造成的火災項目進行失效分析,發現在設備元件以線路材質易碳化風險優先指數最高(RPN為320)、排氣系統以排氣管路內部凝結物風險優先指數最高(RPN為392)、安全連鎖裝置以安全連鎖裝置與溫度偵測系統風險優先指數最高(RPN為336);針對各失效項目進行分析,得知風險優先指數偏高的原因,除了具有因果關係外;普遍問題在於現有預防及偵測上的不足,導致無法防範失效發生;本研究以如何提早預防失效發生做為改善對策,改善前後進行差異性比較,結果如設備元件之異常以線路材質易碳化,RPN指數降至128;安全連鎖裝置之異常以安全連鎖裝置其RPN指數降至96、與溫度偵測系統其RPN指數降至144;在排氣風管之異常以排氣管路內部蓄積揮發凝結物,其RPN指數由392降至112,由改善成果得知應提早在設備規劃及評估階段中即訂定各項標準,可降低製程設備在運轉時所產生的失效發生機率。
綜合上述結果,排氣管路內部凝結物風險值最高,致因為高溫氣體接觸低溫表面時造成凝結現象。安全連鎖裝置功能風險值次高,致因為設備機構未與安全連鎖裝置連動控制。線路材質碳化,致因為元件溫度超過線路絕緣層溫度即產生碳化現象。上述項目在管理控制應加強人員例行檢測、清潔頻率及定期以紅外線熱影像儀量測溫度。工程控制上在排氣管路內部可設置凝結物收集板及排氣流量偵測器。安全連鎖裝置應以雙重及雙迴路式保護裝置作為連動控制。線路材質碳化應把材質更換成耐熱材質。
In the semiconductor packaging and testing industry, many raw materials (such as flammable chemicals, strong acids, strong alkalis, strong oxidizing substances and flammable gases) are used in various processes equipment operated at high temperatures according to the process requirements. While the products are regulated by the relevant laws and regulations, these laws and regulations are not as clear and specific as the standards that can be followed in foreign countries, resulting in that enterprises can only rely on the experience to set up their equipment procurement specifications. In this case, it is easy to derive the fire caused by poor equipment safety design and improper on-site management. In addition, the design of the plant is mostly in a closed environment, which leads to the difficulty of people evacuation and disaster relief when the fire occurs. In this study, the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) and EMI S10 risk assessment method are used to analyze the hazards that can be caused in the process of equipment with high-temperature operation (i.e., High Temperature Equipment) by the functional failure of apparatus components, exhaust system and the safety interlock devices, and study the improvement countermeasures according to the risk assessment results.

Using a semiconductor packaging and testing industry as a case, the failure analysis of the fire project caused by the process of High Temperature Equipment reveals that (i) among the Equipment Components, the highest risk priority number is when the element material is carbonated (RPN was 320); (ii) in the Exhaust System, when the pipeline full of internal condensation, the highest risk priority number is scored 392; (iii) among the Safety interlock System, the highest risk priority number of the safety interlock devices and the temperature detection devices are scored 336. According to the analysis of various failure items, it was found that the reason of the high risk priority, apart from causality, the general problems are lack of existing prevention and detection deficiencies, which leads to the failure to prevent the occurrence. This study also takes how to early prevention of failures as an improvement strategy to compare the differences between before and after improvement that is made. It is found that the abnormity of the equipment components is carbonated by the element material, the RPN scored is reduced to 128; the RPN scored of the safety interlock system is reduced to 96, and the RPN scored of the temperature detection system is reduced to 144; in exhaust pipe, the abnormal internal condensation in the pipeline which RPN scored fell from 392 to 112. From the outcome of the improvement, it is known that the Standards should be set up early in the stage of equipment planning and evaluation to reduce the failure rate of process equipment during operation.

According to the above results, the risk value of internal condensation of exhaust pipeline is the highest, resulting in condensation phenomenon caused when a high temperature gas contacting with cold surfaces. The second high risk value is the safety interlock system, because the equipment machine is not connected with the safety interlock devices. The element material carbonation ranks the third place, because the component temperature exceeds the circuit insulation temperature. Hence. the above projects in the management control should be strengthened via personnel routine testing, cleaning frequency and regular infrared thermal imaging instrument to measure temperature; further, in engineering control, a condensation collecting plate and the exhaust flow detector can be set up inside the exhaust pipe and safety interlock system should controlled by double and double loop protection devices; lastly, the material carbonation of the circuit material should be replaced with a heat-resistant material.
摘 要 I
ABSTRACT III
誌 謝 VI
目 錄 VII
圖 目 錄 IX
表 目 錄 X
第一章 前言 1
1.1研究緣起 1
1.2研究目的 3
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2.1半導體業相關發展 5
2.1.1半導體產業現況 5
2.1.2 半導體IC封裝產業製程簡介 5
2.1.3 半導體IC封裝廠高溫設備潛在危害 8
2.2國外相關規範 10
2.3 風險評估 10
2.3.1 風險評估說明 11
2.3.2 危害辨識及風險評估方法介紹 11
2.3.3 風險管理等級 16
2.4 FMEA之沿革與定義 18
第三章 研究方法 21
3.1 研究架構 21
3.2 研究對象 22
3.2.1 FMEA風險評估 22
3.2.2 FMEA 欄位說明 24
3.2.3 FMEA實施手冊第四版之實施流程 24
3.2.4 製程設備資料蒐集 26
3.3 FMEA 危害辨識 27
3.4 FMEA失效模式建立 28
3.5 FMEA風險評估方式 35
3.6 小結 37
第四章 結果與討論 38
4.1 高溫製程設備失效模式建立 38
4.2 失效項目分析及改善對策 43
4.3 SEMI 風險等級評估 51
第五章 結論與建議 55
5.1 結論 55
5.2 建議 55
參考文獻 56
附錄一 製程高溫設備失效模式結果分析表 59
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