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研究生:藍湘勻
研究生(外文):LAN, HSIANG-YUN
論文名稱:組合式支持照護措施對早產兒住院期間睡眠型態之 影響:一個縱貫性隨機控制試驗
論文名稱(外文):Effects of a Supportive Care Bundle on Sleep Patterns of Preterm Infants during Hospitalization: A Longitudinal, Randomized Controlled Trial
指導教授:廖珍娟廖珍娟引用關係
指導教授(外文):LIAW, JEN-JIUAN
口試委員:高森永曾雅玲陳淑齡陳錫洲廖珍娟
口試委員(外文):KAO, SEN-YEONGTZENG, YA-LINGCHEN, SHU-LINGCHEN, SHYI-JOULIAW, JEN-JIUAN
口試日期:2018-03-01
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國防醫學院
系所名稱:醫學科學研究所
學門:醫藥衛生學門
學類:醫學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:英文
論文頁數:185
中文關鍵詞:組合式支持照護措施睡眠腕動計早產兒
外文關鍵詞:supportive care bundlesleep patternsactigraphypreterm infants
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背景:睡眠在早產兒的腦部發展和疾病復原上扮演非常重要的角色。然而,這些脆弱的早產兒經常暴露於會造成其疼痛的侵入性處置,反覆暴露於疼痛及壓力刺激會干擾早產兒的睡眠週期,影響他們的大腦發育及成長,並可能導致負面的神經行為結果。因此,了解早產兒住院期間的睡眠型態被哪些因素影響,並在新生兒重症加護病房的混亂環境中,提供支持照護的介入措施,以促進早產兒睡眠極為重要。然而,目前顯少有研究探討組合式支持照護措施對早產兒住院期間睡眠型態的影響。
研究目的:本研究目的為(1)探索來自早產兒特性(性別、年齡、週齡、體重及疾病嚴重度)與照護活動(餵食間隔及疼痛經驗)因素與早產兒睡眠型態的相關性;(2)調查組合式支持照護措施組(包含行為辨識、寧握、奶嘴吸吮及口服蔗糖溶液)與常規照護組早產兒的睡眠型態;(3)探討組合式支持照護措施對早產兒住院期間睡眠型態(包含睡眠潛伏期、睡眠效率、總睡眠時間、睡眠開始後的清醒時間、平均每次覺醒時間及覺醒次數)的影響。
研究設計:本研究為一縱貫性、重複測量之前瞻性隨機對照試驗。
收案地點:為台北某醫學中心的第三級新生兒重症加護病房和新生兒特殊照護單位。
研究對象:共收取66位早產兒(出生週數為28.43至35.71週),控制組及介入組各33位早產兒。
研究方法:符合收案條件之早產兒將隨機分派到兩種治療組別,在住院期間每次接受疼痛或壓力處置時:(1)控制組(常規護理)給予常規程序、姿勢擺位和溫柔的觸摸;(2)介入組除常規護理外,再提供組合式支持照護措施(包含行為辨識、寧握、奶嘴吸吮及口服蔗糖溶液)。本研究使用腕動計(wGT3X-BT)測量早產兒的睡眠(包含睡眠潛伏期、睡眠效率、總睡眠時間、睡眠開始後的清醒時間、平均每次覺醒時間及覺醒次數),在出生後第6天至第8天間連續測量3天(第一階段),並於早產兒的體重滿1950克時,再連續測量3天(第二階段)的睡眠。本研究使用廣義估計方程式進行結果資料的分析。
研究結果:在探索影響睡眠型態的因子中,研究結果發現性別會顯著影響早產兒住院期間的睡眠,本研究中女性早產兒的覺醒次數顯著多於男性早產兒(B = 0.129, p = .023)。此外,研究結果也發現,在調整時間、餵食頻率、餵食方式、疼痛經驗及第一階段的睡眠型態後,介入組的早產兒在睡眠效率及總睡眠時間上,從第一階段到第二階段的變化,顯著比控制組在兩個時間點的變化分別高出8.66%(p = .005)和92.29分鐘(p = .042);且介入組的早產兒在睡眠潛伏期和覺醒次數上,從第一階段到第二階段的變化,顯著比控制組在兩個時間點的變化減少4.63分鐘(p = .025) 和0.12次(p = .023)。再者,研究結果顯示,組合式支持照護措施不僅能顯著提高早產兒的睡眠效率和總睡眠時間,並能顯著降低早產兒的睡眠潛伏期和覺醒次數。
結論:本研究結果提醒臨床照護人員多關注早產兒住院期間的睡眠問題,並適當調整護理活動和醫療處置,提供個別性的照護及支持,以保護早產兒住院期間的睡眠。此外,提供組合式支持照護措施能有效改善早產兒住院期間的睡眠型態,研究結果可建立知識和證據來引導臨床人員將組合式支持照護措施結合到臨床實務中,並在早產兒接受侵入性處置時提供其組合式支持照護措施,以促進早產兒住院期間睡眠的完整性及睡眠品質。

Background: Sleep plays a very important role in preterm infants’ brain development and illness recovery. However, these fragile infants are frequently exposed to painful procedures that may disturb their sleep cycle and affect their growth. Therefore, it is crucial to explore potential factors related to preterm infants’ sleep patterns and provide supportive interventions to facilitate infants’ sleep in the chaotic environment of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). However, few studies have evaluated the effects of the supportive care bundle (SCB) on sleep patterns of preterm infants during hospitalization.
Objectives: The study aims were to: (1) explore the factors from the infants’ characteristics (gender, chronological age, postmenstrual age, body weight, and illness severity) and caregiving activities (feeding intervals and painful experiences) associated with their sleep patterns during hospitalization; (2) investigate sleep patterns of preterm infants of the SCB (modulation of the infants’ states, sucking, tucking, and oral sucrose feeding) and control groups; and (3) examine the effects of the SCB on sleep patterns (sleep latency, sleep efficiency, total sleep time, wake after sleep onset, average awaken time, and frequency of awakening bouts) of preterm infants during hospitalization.
Design: This was a prospective randomized controlled trial with a longitudinal, repeated-measures design.
Settings: Level III NICU and a neonatal special care unit at a medical center in Taipei.
Participants: A convenience sample of 66 preterm infants (gestational age 28.43– 35.71 weeks), and each group has 33 preterm infants.
Method: Preterm infants were randomly assigned into one of two treatment conditions while receiving intrusive procedures: (1) control condition (usual care) included routine procedures, positioning, and gentle touch or (2) intervention condition added the SCB besides the usual care. Sleep patterns were collected using actigraphy (wGT3X-BT) for 3 continuous days between the 6th and 8th day after birth (phase1), and collected for another 3 continuous days when the infant’s body weight was ≥1950 grams (phase2). The generalized estimating equation was used for data analysis.
Results: In this study, we found that preterm infants’ gender was significantly associated with most sleep patterns. Female infants had significantly more frequencies of awakening bouts (B = 0.129, p = .023) than male infants. In addition, after adjusting for the effects of time, feeding intervals, feeding types, painful experiences, and phase1 sleep patterns, the change of sleep efficiency and total sleep time from phase1 to phase2 for those infants under intervention condition were 8.66% (p = .005) and 92.29 minutes (p = .042) significantly higher than the change under control condition. Furthermore, the change of the sleep latency and frequency of awakening bouts from phase1 to phase2 for those infants under intervention condition were 4.63 minutes (p = .025) and 0.12 times (p = .023) significantly lower than the change under control condition. The results showed that the SCB not only significantly increased sleep efficiency and total sleep time, but also significantly decreased duration of sleep latency and frequency of awakening bouts.
Conclusions: These findings can help clinicians recognize preterm infants’ sleep problems, properly adjusting caregiving activities and medical procedures to provide individualized support to maintain these infants’ sleep quality. Besides, the use of the SCB could effectively improve preterm infants’ sleep patterns. Thus, these results provide evidence for clinicians to incorporate SCB into clinical practice during intrusive procedures to facilitate infants’ sleep integrity and quality during hospitalization.

LIST OF TABLES IV
LIST OF FIGURES VI
ABSTRACT IN CHINESE VII
ABSTRACT X
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1
RESEARCH BACKGROUND AND SIGNIFICANCE 1
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY 7
RESEARCH QUESTIONS 9
HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY 10
SUMMARY 11
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW 12
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK 12
Als’ synactive theory of development 12
Developmental care model 14
Transactional model 17
RESEARCH RELATED TO THIS STUDY 20
Preterm infants’ prevalence and characteristics 20
Importance and development of preterm infants’ sleep 22
Factors affecting preterm infants’ sleep 26
Extrinsic factors 27
Intrinsic factors 29
Effects of pain/stress on preterm infants’ sleep 32
Supportive interventions to facilitate preterm infants’ sleep 35
Preterm infants’ sleep assessment 40
SUMMARY 44
CHAPTER III RESEARCH FRAMEWORK 46
RESEARCH FRAMEWORK 46
DEFINITION OF TERMS 48
Preterm infants 48
Control group 48
Supportive care bundle (SCB) 48
Intrusive procedures 48
Sleep patterns 49
CHAPTER IV METHODOLOGY 50
RESEARCH DESIGN 50
SUBJECTS AND SETTING 52
INTERVENTIONS 55
SCB intervention 55
INSTRUMENTS 59
Measures 59
Preterm infants’ characteristics 60
Preterm infants’ illness severity 60
Preterm infants’ caregiving information 61
Preterm infants’ sleep patterns 62
PROCEDURES 66
ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS 70
DATA ANALYSIS 70
SUMMARY 73
CHAPTER V RESULTS 74
DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF PRETERM INFANTS 75
FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH INFANTS’ SLEEP PATTERNS 80
DESCRIPTIVE RESULTS OF PRETERM INFANTS’ SLEEP PATTERNS 85
EFFECTS OF SUPPORTIVE CARE BUNDLE ON SLEEP PATTERNS 83
Univariate analysis of the factors associated with the infants’ sleep patterns 83
Effects of the SCB on sleep efficiency 90
Effects of the SCB on total sleep time 94
Effects of the SCB on WASO 98
Effects of the SCB on average awaken time 102
Effects of the SCB on frequency of awakening bouts 106
SUMMARY 110
CHAPTER Ⅵ DISCUSSION 111
PRETERM INFANTS’ SLEEP PATTERNS 111
FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH PRETERM INFANTS’ SLEEP PATTERNS 112
EFFECTS OF THE SCB ON SLEEP PATTERNS OF PRETERM INFANTS 114
IMPLICATIONS FOR CLINICAL PRACTICE 120
IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH 121
IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATION 122
STRENGTHS OF THE STUDY 124
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 124
CONCLUSIONS 125
SUMMARY 126
REFERENCES 127
APPENDIX 157
APPENDIX A 157
APPENDIX B 159
APPENDIX C 161
APPENDIX D 162
APPENDIX E 164

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