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研究生:邱亞琦
研究生(外文):Ya-Chi Chiu
論文名稱:虛空與意義:比較《等待果陀》與《傳道書》
論文名稱(外文):Vanity and Meaning: A Thematic Comparison of Waiting for Godot and Ecclesiastes
指導教授:柯志明柯志明引用關係歐司迪
指導教授(外文):Chih-Ming KeStephen Ohlander
口試委員:張逸帆陳靖奇梁台仙虞國芬柯志明歐司迪
口試委員(外文):Yih-Fan, ChangChing-Chi, ChenTai-Hsien, LiangKuo-Fen YuChih-Ming KeStephen Ohlander
口試日期:2018-07-03
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立高雄師範大學
系所名稱:英語學系
學門:人文學門
學類:外國語文學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:英文
論文頁數:322
中文關鍵詞:意義虛空《等待果陀》《傳道書》生命意義死亡果陀上帝好的文學永恆永恆主題
外文關鍵詞:MeaningVanityWaiting for GodotEcclesiastesThe Meaning of LifeDeathGodotGodLoveSubstantial LiteratureEternityPerennial Theme
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曾經,存在著確定的意義;然而,歷史與學科存在著一種走向,即所謂確定的意義逐漸消蝕。現代主義者已驚覺到意義的消蝕所帶來的痛苦,甚至後現代主義者拒絕任何確定的意義。倘若,文本的意義變得模糊、不確定,如何理解一個文本?怎樣的理解才有意義?文本的價值如何判定?進而提問:如何判定什麼是好的文學?如果沒有確定的意義,如何確定有好的文學作品?因此,找到一個有意義的進路來探討文本是理解文本並判定文本價值中最根本的。依此檢視當代文學理論,如讀者反應理論、解構、後殖民理論、後現代理論、心理分析理論、女性主義理論、同性戀及酷兒理論,這些理論都不足以幫助我們分析及找出文本最根本的價值,或作為判斷文本好壞之標準,至多僅揭露一種建基在客觀文本意義上不同視角之理解。因此,本文試著提出一個更能客觀理解各個文本的進路,去掌握文本的基本價值。

首先,文學呈現永恆主題,而凡永恆主題都集中在一個問題上,即生命意義,也就是說,生命意義就是作為判定一文本之價值的判准。本論文以《等待果陀》與《傳道書》為代表,比較探討生命意義。第二章,透過永恆主題分析生命中根深蒂固的虛無,據此解開《等待果陀》的意義。第三章,透過永恆主題分析處理《傳道書》所呈現的人類存在上最根本的困境:人類處在虛無當中主要是因為死亡存在。第四章,為兩個作品的比較:《等待果陀》沒有提出處理存在之無意義的方法,也沒有找到生命的意義,因為《等待果陀》的世界是一個不存在超越性之可能的世界,因此也是一個沒有希望的世界。相對而言,《傳道書》確信這是一個有上帝存在的世界,因此它提供一個超越虛無及獲得意義的可能性。

顯然,永恆的生命及一位全知、全能、全善的超越救助者,是生命有意義的最根本條件。並且,我們認為生命的意義就是愛,因此好的文學必定呈現愛。
There was a time when there existed in the minds of men fixed and certain meaning; however, history and science have moved them in the direction of the eclipse of fixed and certain meaning. Modernists feel the anguish of this eclipse of meaning, and postmodernists especially reject any idea of certainty of meaning. If the meaning of texts turns out to be obscure, how do we understand a text? What is a meaningful way to understand a text? How do we judge the value of a text? We can ask further: How do we judge what substantial literature is? If there is no certainty of meaning, how do we know there is a substantial literary work? Thus, to find out a meaningful approach to examine a literary text is the fundamental step to take before understanding and judging a literary text. Contemporary literary theories, such as reader response, deconstruction, postcolonial criticism, postmodernism, psychoanalytic criticism, feminist criticism, and gay/lesbian criticism and queer theory, are not sufficient to serve as an approach that can help us to analyze and find out the essential value of a literary work. At most, they disclose a different angle of viewpoint, which is founded on an objective meaning of the text. Thus, this dissertation intends to advance an objective method to approach a literary work, so that it can help us to grasp the essential value of a literary text that makes the work substantial.

First of all, literature presents perennial themes and all those themes converge on one question—that is, the meaning of life, and the meaning of life serves as a standard to judge whether a literary work is good or not. This dissertation examines and compares two representative works, Waiting for Godot and Ecclesiastes.

Chapter two makes some contribution to the unraveling of Waiting for Godot through a perennial thematic analysis of life’s circumstances that indicates a deep-seated vanity.

Chapter three deals exclusively with the human existential predicament in Ecclesiastes: humans dwell in vanity mainly because death exists and may be the end of the existence of every human mortal.

Chapter four makes a comparison of the two works: Waiting for Godot does not propose a way to cope with the meaninglessness of existence or find the meaning of life—if there even is one—because the world in Waiting for Godot is evidently a world without the possibility of the existence of transcendental help or hope, but Ecclesiastes does provide the possibility of overcoming vanity and the possibility of attaining meaning, on account of the existence of God, especially when it is interpreted, as it should be, as an integral part of the entire Bible.

The last chapter concludes with the conditions necessary for a meaningful life: the promise of eternity and the existence of transcendental help from an Entity who is omniscient, omnipotent, and omnibenevolent. Consequently, we can conclude that the meaning of life is love, and since literature presents love, we can say that it is meaningful and substantial, apart from the question of a work’s literary quality.
Acknowledgments i
Dedication iii
Chinese Abstract v
English Abstract vii
Table of Contents ix

Chapter I. Introduction 1
A. Research Objectives and Research Questions 2
B. Literature Review and Literary Theories 3
1. Literature Review 3
2. Literary Theories 7
a. Reader-Response Theory 7
b. Deconstruction 10
c. Postcolonial Criticism 12
d. Postmodernism 14
e. Psychoanalytic Criticism 18
f. Feminist Criticism 20
g. Gay/Lesbian Criticism and Queer Theory 22
C. Perennial Themes and the Meaning of Life 25
D. Research Design 35

Chapter II. Vanity in Waiting For Godot 39
A. Introduction to Waiting For Godot 39
B. The Vanity of Life 43
1. The Vanity of Repetitiveness 43
2. The Vanity of Wealth and Power 48
3. The Vanity of Relationship 48
4. The Vanity of Wisdom 54
5. The Vanity of Inaction and Action 55
6. The Vanity of Uncertainty 58
7. The Vanity of Suffering 66
8. The Vanity of Perpetual Waiting 72
9. The Vanity of Belief 79
C. Vanity of Vanities: Death 84
D. The Vanity of All Humanity 88

Chapter III. Vanity in Ecclesiastes 103
A. Introduction to Ecclesiastes 105
B. The Vanity of Life 118
1. The Vanity of Toil 118
2. The Vanity of Determinism 125
3. The Vanity of Loneliness 133
4. The Vanity of Foolishness 135
5. The Vanity of Suffering and the Vanity of Morality 137
C. The Vanity of Human Wisdom 144
1. The Vanity of Pursuing Wisdom 144
2. The Vanity of Pursuing Wealth 149
3. The Vanity of Pursuing Pleasure 155
D. Vanity of Vanities: Death 159
1. All Ends in Death 159
2. Death Causes Vanity? 168
3. Death Negates the Meaning of Life 181
4. The Cause of Death 189
Conclusion 204

Chapter IV. A Comparison: The Possibility of Attaining to the Meaning of Life? 207
A. Vanities 207
B. Death 211
1. Waiting for Death in Waiting for Godot 211
2. Death in Ecclesiastes 216
C. God 217
1. Waiting for A Parodied God in Waiting for Godot 217
2. The Absence of God in Waiting for Godot 222
3. God in Ecclesiastes 224
D. How Shall Humans Live? 229
1. Continuous Waiting for a Possible Hope 229
2. The Preacher’s Miscellaneous Exhortations 229
E. The Possibility of Attaining to the Meaning of Life? 244
1. The Death of Jesus Christ 246
2. The Resurrection of Jesus Christ 252
3. Beyond Death 258
4. Beyond the Vanity of Life 262
a. Beyond the Vanity of Toil 262
b. Beyond the Vanity of Determinism 265
c. Beyond the Vanity of Loneliness 272
d. Beyond the Vanity of Foolishness 273
e. Beyond the Vanity of Suffering and the Vanity of Morality 274
5. Beyond the Vanity of Human Wisdom 281
a. Beyond the Vanity of Pursuing Wisdom 281
b. Beyond the Vanity of Pursuing Wealth 285
c. Beyond the Vanity of Pursuing Pleasure 289
Conclusion 291

Chapter V. Conclusion: The Meaningful Life 293
A. Conditions for a Meaningful Life 293
B. The Meaning of Life is Love 302
C. Literature Presents the Meaning of Life 303

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