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研究生:李雨順
研究生(外文):Lee, Yu-Shun
論文名稱:高屏溪河川揚塵事件沿岸敏感區域學校之教職人員對河川揚塵影響的認知研究—以屏東縣里港鄉為例
論文名稱(外文):Fugitive Dust Incidents along the Gaoping River: A Case Study of Taiwan’s Ligang Township
指導教授:謝連德
指導教授(外文):Hsieh, Lien-Te
口試委員:米孝萱廖渭銅胡明燦
口試委員(外文):Mi, Hsiao-HsuanLiao, Wei-TungHu, Ming-Tsan
口試日期:2018-07-07
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與科學系所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:168
中文關鍵詞:高屏溪河川揚塵河床裸露地問卷
外文關鍵詞:Kaopingriver dust emissionbare riverbedquestionnaire
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高屏溪流域因民國98年莫拉克風災造成上游多處山坡地崩塌,而暴雨將土石沖刷至下游,當河道水分蒸發後淤積的土石就形成大面積裸露地,近年來河川管理單位透過疏濬清淤、鋪設稻草蓆及植生狼尾草方式減少裸露面積,但改善面積卻因經費受限未能有效彰顯成效,而屏東縣里港地區即為淤積嚴重之區域。每年5月至10月為高屏溪河川揚塵好發季節,經常受到南風、颱風外圍風速影響,里港鄉首當其衝,無論是南風或西北風揚塵,都會是里港鄉地區民眾及學校師生受到河川揚塵影響。有鑑於此,本研究探討教職人員是否具備足夠的河川揚塵認知是相當重要的,採用問卷調查方式進行資料收集,瞭解教師對河川揚塵影響之認知情形。
本研究以屏東縣里港鄉內6所國民小學教師為研究對象,以隨機抽樣進行調查,回收之有效問卷共計140份。問卷回收後,以獨立樣本T考驗、卡方檢定考驗、單因子變異數及交叉分析等統計方法進行分析。本研究結果顯示:(a)有52%教師認為里港地區河川揚塵情況是嚴重,其次31%覺得非常嚴重,合計83%感覺嚴重;有50%的教師「瞭解」高屏溪會產生河川揚塵及瞭解每年6至10月是最常發生河川揚塵的季節,但僅有43.6%瞭解高屏溪吹拂南風跟西北風時才會發生揚塵。(b)在揚塵發生期間願意將室外課調整至室內上課之教師,有49%受訪教師表示願意,其次是37%的教師覺得非常願意,合計達86%教師對學生健康安全相當重視。(c)受訪教師在在河川揚塵污染、空品不良污染及河川揚塵影響及因應之認知概念表現上,性別有顯著性差異,是男性教師高於女性教師,其餘部分則顯示不因年齡、服務單位及教育程度而有所不同而有所差異。(d)受訪教師在河川揚塵資訊來源取得比例會因為性別的不同而有所差異,是男性教師高於女性教師。(e)在優先改善污染困擾項目中,「河川揚塵污染」在41至60歲以上教師選擇比例高於18至40歲之教師;「砂石車行駛造成飛塵污染」感受上,在里港北岸服務的教師選擇明顯高於在里港南岸服務的教師,推測與砂石場多座落於北岸有關。本研究發現多數受訪教師表示揚塵資訊接收不易,建議可開發APP軟體提升預警通報成效,未來可於無疑是未來可邁進的方向之一。
In 2009, Typhoon Morakot caused numerous landslides at the upstream mountainous area of the Kaoping in Taiwan. The heavy rain caused by the typhoon washed soil and rocks downstream, and after the river water evaporated, the debris-flow deposits formed a large bare land on the riverbed. In recent years, river management authorities have attempted to reduce bare riverbed by dredging, covering bare riverbed with straw blankets, and planting Pennisetum alopecuroides; however, these approaches are ineffective because of limited budgets. Ligang Township is one of the areas in Pingtung County that are most affected by siltation caused by torrential rain. Dust is typically emitted from Kaoping from June to October every year, during which the wind velocity of southern wind and of typhoons’ peripheral circulation is increased. During this period, Ligang Township is the first place to be affected by dust emission, which, caused by either southern or northeastern winds, affects residents (including students and teachers) along the west coast of Taiwan. In view of this, this study is very important to explore whether faculty members have enough awareness of river dust, and use questionnaires to collect data to understand teachers' cognitive research on the impact of river dust.
The questionnaire was randomly distributed to teachers of six elementary schools in Ligang Township and 140 valid responses were retrieved. The collected data were analyzed using independent t-test, chi-squared test, one-way ANOVA, and cross analysis. The analysis results are as follows: (a) River dust emission in Ligang was perceived as serious by 52% of the respondents and as very serious by 31% of the respondents. That is, 83% of the respondents in total perceived river dust emission as serious. In addition, 50% of the respondents “are aware” that the dust is emitted from the Gaoping River and that the emission occurs between June and October the most frequently. However, only 43.6% of the respondents are aware that the dust emission occurs only during the season of southern and northeastern winds. (b) A total of 86% of the respondents valued students’ health, comprising 49% of the respondents willing to change classroom location from outdoor to indoor environments and 37% very willing to do so. (c) Male respondents have significantly higher perceptions of river dust pollution, poor air quality, the effect of river dust emission, and the measures to respond to the dust emission than female respondents do. However, the perception differences were nonsignificant between respondents of different ages, working in different schools, and with different educational levels. (d) Male respondents have significantly more information sources regarding river dust emission than female respondents do. (e) The percentage of respondents aged from 41 to 60 years and above who prioritized “river dust pollution” as the top item requiring mitigation is higher than that of respondents aged between 18 and 40 years. Respondents working in schools located at the northern bank of Ligang have higher perception of dust pollution caused by dump trucks than those in schools located at the southern bank. This phenomenon may be attributed to the fact that most of the local quarries are located at the northern bank. This study found that most of the teachers surveyed said that it is not easy to receive information on the dust. It is suggested that the APP software can be developed to improve the effectiveness of early warning notification. The future is undoubtedly one of the directions that the future can move forward.
目 錄
摘要 I
Abstract III
誌謝 V
目錄 VI
表目錄 X
圖目錄 XIII
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 名詞釋義 3
1.4 研究範圍與限制 4
第二章 文獻回顧 6
2.1 懸浮微粒的定義 6
2.2 懸浮微粒的成分與來源 8
2.3 我國中央管河川易發生河川揚塵之區域概況 10
2.3.1 高屏溪流域背景資料 18
2.3.2 高屏溪河川揚塵特性 32
2.4 沙塵暴特性及影響 45
2.5 國內外揚塵防制工法探討 47
2.6 高屏溪空品不良特性 53
2.7 懸浮微粒對人體健康之影響 57
2.8 中央補助易發生揚塵縣市政府執行河川揚塵改善概況 61
第三章 研究方法 71
3.1 研究對象 71
3.2 研究架構與流程 72
3.2.1 研究架構 72
3.2.2 研究流程 73
3.3 研究工具 76
3.3.1 研究工具之設計 76
3.3.2 問卷編輯之設計 76
3.3.3 信效度分析及預試作業 80
3.4 正式問卷 103
3.4.1 資料蒐集與彙整 103
3.4.2 資料建置 104
3.4.3 資料分析 105
第四章 結果與討論 108
4.1 沿岸教師基本資料分佈情形 108
4.1.1 研究對象基本資料 108
4.1.2 研究對象各層面勾選分布情形 110
4.2 教師在各研究變項之分布情形及現況 132
4.2.1 瞭解河川揚塵污染與空品不良污染特性之不同量表分析結果 132
4.2.2 高屏溪河川揚塵對於沿岸敏感區域影響及因應認知量表分析結果 135
4.2.3 河川揚塵抑制改善作為認知量表分析結果 139
4.3 教師基本資料中各單項在河川揚塵認知之差異情形 141
4.3.1 性別在河川揚塵認知之差異情形 141
4.3.2 年齡在河川揚塵認知之差異情形 142
4.3.3 服務單位在河川揚塵認知之差異情形 143
4.3.4 教育程度在河川揚塵認知之差異情形 144
4.3.5 教師基本資料在河川揚塵認知上之差異彙整 144
4.4 教師基本資料在河川揚塵抑制改善作為及未來建議需求之差異情形 145
4.4.1 性別在河川揚塵抑制改善作為及未來建議需求之差異情形 148
4.4.2 年齡在河川揚塵抑制改善作為及未來建議需求之差異情形 150
4.4.3 服務單位在河川揚塵抑制改善作為及未來建議需求之差異情形 152
4.4.4 教育程度在河川揚塵抑制改善作為及未來建議需求之差異情形 154
第五章 結論與建議 156
5.1 結論 156
5.2 建議 158
參考文獻 160
附錄 164
作者簡介 168
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