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研究生:陳家誠
研究生(外文):Chen, Chia-Cheng
論文名稱:鳳山溪水體新興污染物之分佈與風險評估
論文名稱(外文):The Distribution and Risk Assessment of Emerging Contaminants in Fengshan River
指導教授:謝季吟
指導教授(外文):Hsieh, Chi-Ying Hsieh
口試委員:柯風溪繆昌琳
口試委員(外文):Ko, Fung-ChiMiao Chang-Lin
口試日期:2018-07-25
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立屏東科技大學
系所名稱:環境工程與科學系所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:79
中文關鍵詞:新興污染物鳳山溪生態風險評估雙酚A
外文關鍵詞:Emerging ContaminantsFengshan RiverEcological Risk AssessmentBisphenol A
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水體品質向來為整體環境中相當重要之一環,水體品質亦影響人民生活及健康甚鉅。除了常見之水質監測外,近年來許多研究已開始將焦點聚集在環境中新興污染物。目前對於新興污染物是否經由污水處理廠處理不完全而進入水域環境之相關議題被廣為探討,但其排入溪流水體對水域生物的危害則尚未被證實。因此,選定高雄市人口最高亦有事業廢水及生活污水排放之鳳山溪流域進行調查研究。本研究分別於假日及非假日之早上8時、中午14時及晚上20時三個時段採集鳳山溪流域12個樣站,並進行烷基酚類(4n-NP、t-NP、OP、BPA、NP1EO及NP2EO)、驅蟲劑(DEET)、防曬劑類(Benzophenone、4-MBC及BP-3)、抗菌劑類(TCC、PCMX及TCS)、雌激素類(E1、E2、E3、EE2及DES)、防腐劑類(MP、EP、PP及BP)化合物水體濃度分析,藉以探討該流域是否存在平假日之人口活動及污染排放模式差異,此外,針對檢出率最高之化合物進行急慢毒性探討,最後再以新興污染物分析與生物毒性相關性進行生態風險評估之討論。
本研究結果顯示,鳳山溪水質RPI水體狀況為中度污染至嚴重污染,烷基酚類、驅蟲劑類、防曬劑類、抗菌劑類、雌激素類及防腐劑類PCPs (Personal Care Products) 濃度調查結果顯示平、假日差異最大之主要為烷基酚類化合物,假日為平日的1.47倍, NP之差異更是高達2.89倍,推測主要原因為假日中家庭清洗行為增加,導致清潔劑分解後產物濃度上升,此外可以發現抗菌劑類濃度在假日中有明顯的下降趨勢(由33%下降至8%),經分析後發現主要為平日採樣中P4樣站 778.9 ng/L及P10樣站 644.6 ng/L數據偏高所導致,推測2樣站應有污染來源匯入。
此外,本研究結果顯示BPA平均檢出率高達95.8%,檢測出之濃度介於N.D. ~ 178.8 ng/L,顯示此化合物於環境中廣泛存在,因此,該化合物可能對水生生物造成致死性和亞致死性毒性效應值得更加注意與重視,而高濃度之水體污染是否可能藉由吸附於底泥,進而對底棲生物造成影響,未來可進一步進行調查,已得知較完整之生態風險。
Water quality has always been one of the most important aspects in the process of watershed management due to its potential for affecting people's lives and health directly or indirectly. Studies have begun to focus on emerging environmental contaminants (ECs) in recent years. At present, the issue concerning whether ECs enter watersheds through direct discharge or incomplete treatment by sewage treatment plants is widely discussed, but harmful effects to biota have not been confirmed. The current research investigated ECs such as alkylphenolics (4n -NP, t-NP, OP, BPA, NP1EO, and NP2EO), an insect repellent (DEET), sunscreens (benzophenone, 4-MBC, and BP-3), antibacterial agents (TCC, PCMX, and TCS), estrogens (E1, E2, E3, EE2, and DES) and preservatives (MP, EP, PP, and BP) at 12 sampling sites in the Fengshan River Basin, which has received large amounts of industrial and household wastewaters. Samples were collected from three time-slots, including morning (08:00), noon (14:00), and evening (20:00), and from holiday and non-holiday periods. In addition to chemical analysis, acute and chronic toxicity data are used in collaboration to discuss the ecological risks associated with the compounds that exist in the highest concentrations.
The results show that the water quality of the Fengshan River qualifies under the River Pollution Index (Recchia et al.) as moderately to seriously polluted. The concentrations of alkylphenolic compounds, which are common ingredient in detergents, exhibited marked differences, with holiday samples being 1.47 times higher than non-holiday samples. A difference was also observed in NP, which was 2.89 times higher during holidays than non-holidays. We speculate that increased household cleaning behavior during holidays led to the higher levels of alkylphenolic compounds and their decomposition byproducts being detected. In addition, it was found that the concentrations of antibacterial agents decreased significantly (8-33%) during the holiday period. Triclosan in samples collected from sites P4 and P10 were dramatically decreased from 778.9 ng/L and 644.6 ng/L in weekday sampling. It is speculated that some polluters along these two stations would be the major sources of antibacterial agents.
The results of this study show that the average detection rate of BPA is as high as 95.8% and its concentrations detected by a combination of chemical analysis and toxicological data range from ND to 178.8 ng/L, indicating that BPA is widely present in this watershed. We conclude that BPA has no acute lethality effect; however, its chronic presence deserves more attention. Moreover, considering its high detection rate and physico-chemical properties, the amount of this compound in these sediments can affect benthic organisms. Further investigation should be conducted in order to more completely understand its ecological risks.
摘要 I
Abstract III
謝誌 V
縮寫表 VI
目錄 VII
圖目錄 IX
表目錄 XI
第1章 前言 1
1.1 研究緣起 1
1.2 研究目的 3
第2章 文獻回顧 4
2.1藥物及個人護理產品(PPCPs) 4
2.2目標化合物背景資料 7
2.2.1烷基酚類化合物 13
2.2.2驅蟲劑 15
2.2.3防曬劑類化合物 16
2.2.4抗菌劑類化合物 17
2.2.5雌激素化合物 17
2.2.6防腐劑類化合物 18
2.3 研究地區背景 19
2.3.1 氣候資料 19
2.3.2 水質資料 21
2.3.3 污染現況 21
第3章 材料與方法 23
3.1 實驗材料 23
3.1.1 實驗藥品 23
3.1.2 實驗設備及器材 24
3.2 樣品採集 25
3.2.1 採樣點環境 25
3.2.2 採集頻率 26
3.2.3 水質分析 26
3.3 化學分析 28
3.3.1 樣品前處理製備 28
3.3.2 參數設定 29
3.3.3 品保品管 31
第4章 結果與討論 32
4.1 鳳山溪水質資料 32
4.1.1 pH值 33
4.1.2 水溫 34
4.1.3溶氧 35
4.1.4導電度 36
4.1.5懸浮固體 37
4.1.6 總氮 38
4.1.7生化需氧量(Biochemical Oxygen Demand, BOD5) 42
4.1.8 化學需氧量(Chemical Oxygen Demand, COD) 43
4.1.9 河川污染指標 44
4.2新興污染物分析 46
4.2.1 驅蟲劑 46
4.2.2 防曬劑類 47
4.2.3 抗菌劑類 49
4.2.4 防腐劑類 50
4.2.5 雌激素類 52
4.2.6 烷基酚類 54
4.3 風險評估 57
第5章 結論與建議 60
第6章 參考文獻 73
作者簡介 79
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