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研究生:林奕祥
研究生(外文):Lin Yi-Hsiang
論文名稱:「型」有所「感」? 探討食品外型、食品類型與飲食控制對於消費行為的影響
論文名稱(外文):Feeling from the Shape! Influences of Food Shape, Food Perception, Food Type and Restraint Dieting on Consumption Behavior
指導教授:張純端張純端引用關係
指導教授(外文):CHANG,CHUN-TUAN
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:企業管理學系研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:企業管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2017
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:154
中文關鍵詞:產品評價飲食控制食品類型食品食用量跨型態對應食品感知食品外型
外文關鍵詞:food consumptionproduct evaluationdietary restraintfood typecrossmodal-correspoundfood perceptionfood shape
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本研究探討不同的食品外型(圓vs.方),是否會使消費者產生不同的食品感知,基於跨型態對應理論,提出食品類型及飲食控制會對食品外型具有干擾作用,並且影響到產品評價及食品食用量。
本研究共進行三個實驗,使用產品分別為,蘋果飲料、水果及餅乾。實驗一透過操弄飲料食品外型的不同(方 vs. 圓),來觀察外型影響食品感知的背後機制,實驗二則加入干擾變數食品類型,探討2(食品外型:方 vs. 圓)與2(食品類型:健康型 vs. 不健康型)雙因子組間設計,共四種情境。實驗三分成3a、3b,探討2(食品外型:方 vs. 圓)與2(食品類型:健康型 vs. 不健康型)及2(飲食控制:飲食控制者 vs. 非飲食控制者)的2x2x2三因子組間設計。
研究結果顯示,視覺堅硬度為食品外型產生不同食品感知的背後機制,方形會讓人產生健康的食品感知,圓形則讓人產生美味的食品感知。當食品類型為健康型時,搭配上方形食品外型,會相較圓形食品外型,讓消費者有較佳的產品評價及食品食用量,若食品類型為不健康型時,搭配上圓形的食品外型會相較於方形食品外型,讓消費者有較佳的產品評價及食品食用量。再者,當消費者本身為飲食控制者時,搭配上方形食品外型相較於圓形食品外型,會讓消費者有較高的食品食用量;當消費者為非飲食控制者時,搭配上圓形食品外型相較於方形食品外型,會讓消費者有較高的食品食用量。
This research examines how the different food shapes (circle vs. square) influence consumer perception and product evaluation and food consumption. Drawing from crossmodal-correspound theoty, food type and dietary restraint are proposed to moderate the effects of food shape.
Three experiments use apple beverage, fruit and cookies as test products. In Study 1, the effects of food shape (circle vs. square) on food perception is examined. Meanwhile, visual potency as the underlying mechanism behind the effects of food shape is also tested. In Study 2, a 2 (food shape: circle vs. square) x 2 (food type: vice vs. virtue) between-subject design is employed. In Studies 3a and 3b, a 2 (food shape: circle vs. square) x 2 (food type: vice vs. virtue) x 2 (dietary restraint: restraint vs. unrestraint) between-subjects design is conduced.
The results indicate that visual potency is the underlying mechanism that the square food shape is perceived as more healthy while the circle food shape is perceived as more tasty. When the food is percrvied as virtue, square food shape leads to more favorable product evaluation and more food consumption (compared with circle food shape). Opposite results are found when the food is considered as vice. Furthermore, the effects of square food shape are more effective to people with dietary restraint on their food consumption. On the other hand, the effects of circle food shape are more effective to people without dietary restraint on their consumption.
第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 前言 1
第二節 研究背景 1
第三節 研究動機 3
第四節 研究目的與問題 5
第五節 研究流程 6
第二章 文獻探討 8
第一節 前言 8
第二節 線條、形狀產生的消費者感知背景理論 8
一、線條感知的相關研究 8
二、方圓形狀影響感知的相關研究 10
三、線、形於消費者行為領域的研究 12
第三節 跨型態對應 13
一、跨型態對應於感官對應研究 14
二、跨型態對應於形狀與味道的應用研究 16
三、跨型態對應於形狀與口腔體感的研究 18
第四節 食品類型 19
一、健康和非健康食品的分類 19
二、健康型與不健康食品類型於行銷領域的應用 22
第四節 飲食控制者 26
一、飲食控制者的定義 26
二、飲食控制者在消費者行為研究的表現 27
第五節 小節 27
第參章 研究設計與方法 28
第一節 前言. 28
第二節 研究假說與架構 28
一、食品外型與食品感知的關係 28
二、食品類型對於方圓食品外型干擾效果 30
三、飲食控制者對於方圓食品外型干擾效果 32
第三節 四個實驗的建立 33
第四節 前測 34
一、前測目的 34
二、前測問卷發放與設計 34
三、前測問卷分析 37
第五節 小結 39
第肆章 實驗一設計與結果分析 40
第一節 前言 40
第二節 研究變數操作型定義與衡量 40
一、自變數操弄及操弄檢定 40
二、依變數:食品感知 41
三、中介變數:視覺堅硬度 42
四、欲排除之中介變數 42
五、人口統計變數 43
第三節 研究設計 43
一、問卷題項設計 43
二、抽樣方法 44
第四節 實驗一結果分析 44
一、樣本背景資料敘述統計 44
二、實驗一信度分析 45
三、實驗一食品外型操弄檢定 45
四、實驗假說之檢驗 45
五、排除其他可能的中介變數 47
第五節 小結 48
第伍章 實驗二設計與結果分析 49
第一節 前言 49
第二節 研究變數操作型定義與衡量 49
一、自變數操弄及操弄檢定 49
二、依變數 52
三、個人差異變數 53
第三節 研究設計 55
一、問卷題項設計 55
二、抽樣方法 56
第四節 實驗二結果分析 56
一、樣本背景資料敘述統計 56
二、信度分析 57
三、研究設計操弄確認 57
四、潛在共變數確認 58
五、研究假說之檢驗 59
第五節 小節 67
第陸章 實驗三a設計與結果分析 68
第一節 前言 68
第二節 研究變數操作型定義及衡量 68
一、自變數操弄及操弄檢定 68
二、依變數 69
三、個人差異變數 70
第三節 研究設計 71
一、問卷題項設計 71
二、抽樣方式 72
第四節 實驗3a結果分析 72
一、樣本背景資料敘述統計 72
二、信度分析 73
三、研究設計操弄確認 73
四、潛在共變數確認 73
五、研究假說之檢驗 74
第六節 小節 77
第柒章 實驗三b設計與結果分析 78
第一節 前言 78
第二節 研究變數操作型定義與衡量 78
一、自變數操弄及操弄檢定 78
二、依變數 80
三、個人差異變數 80
第三節 研究設計 82
一、問卷題項設計 82
二、實驗流程 82
三、抽樣方法 83
第四節 實驗三b結果分析 84
一、樣本背景資料敘述統計 84
二、實驗三信度分析 84
三、實驗三操弄檢定 84
四、潛在共變數確認 85
五、研究假說之檢驗 85
第七節 小結 89
第捌章 結論與建議 90
第一節 前言 90
第二節 研究結果討論 90
一、食品外型影響食品感知的背後機制為視覺堅硬度。 90
二、食品外型使用方形,搭配健康型食品類型時,會有較好的產品評價;當消費者為飲食控制者時,食品外型使用方形會有較多的食品食用量。 91
三、食品外型使用圓形,搭配不健康型食品類型時,會有較好的產品評價;當消費者為非飲食控制者時,食品外型使用圓形會有較多的食品食用量。 91
第三節 研究貢獻 92
一、理論貢獻 92
二、實務貢獻 93
第四節 研究限制 95
一、樣本限制 95
二、實驗設計法 95
三、食品外型 95
四、食品感知衡量 96
第五節 未來研究建議 96
一、形狀特色應用於非食物品類 96
二、探討不同視覺元素 96
三、探討不同的個人差異變數 98
第六節 總結 98
參考文獻 99
附錄一 前測問卷 107
附錄二 實驗一問卷 109
附錄三 實驗二問卷 113
附錄四 實驗三a問卷 125
附錄五 實驗三b問卷 131
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