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研究生:賴意婕
研究生(外文):Yi-chieh Lai
論文名稱:臺灣海洋保護區成效評估指標建構研究-以琉球漁業資源保育區為例
論文名稱(外文):Establishing Indicators Framework to Evaluate Marine Protected Areas in Taiwan – A Case Study of Liouciou Fish Recourse Conservation Area
指導教授:張水鍇張水鍇引用關係
指導教授(外文):Shui-kai Chang
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:海洋事務研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:210
中文關鍵詞:海洋保護區模糊層級分析法修正式德菲法評估指標小琉球琉球漁業資源保育區
外文關鍵詞:marine protected areaevaluation indicatorLiouciou Fish Recourse ConservationLiouciouFuzzy Analytic Hierarchy ProcessModified Delphi method
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海洋保護區公認為是提高生物多樣性、保育漁業資源與自然環境的最適工具之一,使得劃設海洋保護區與網絡成為全球海洋保育的趨勢。然而海洋保護區的成功不僅在規劃得宜,海洋保護區成立後更應定期進行經營管理成效評估,以檢視保護區的成果及是否達成原訂目標。當全世界都著重在海洋保護區的數量與面積時,更突顯評估管理成效的重要性,因資源與環境需要的是一個管理良善的海洋保護區,而非大而不實的紙上公園。本研究從國際間評估海洋保護區的指導性指標中,歸納出一指標架構,並使用修正式德菲法問卷邀請專家進行意見調查,研究結果確立7項層面30項指標;再透過模糊層級分析法取得指標相對權重值。指標層面權重由高至低依序為「法律制度」、「民眾參與及認知」、「管理制度」、「人員制度與能力建構」、「環境教育及宣導」、「監測、評估與研究」、「保護區設計與基礎設施」,其中專家對於法律制度與民眾參與及認知層面具高度共識性。整體指標權重值顯示「有/無給職人員人數與能力」,以及「權益關係人參與保護區管理的程度」、「經費來源」為評估過程中最重要的指標。本研究並實際應用所建構之指標架構客觀評估「琉球漁業資源保育區」現況,除藉由評估結果提出改善建議,同時試驗其指標的可行性,以作為後續進一步評估時的修正參考。
The study aims to establish an indicator framework for evaluating the management effectiveness of marine protected areas (MPAs) in Taiwan. MPAs are considered one of the most appropriate tools to raise biodiversity and preserve marine resources and environment. Establishing MPA networks has been working around the world; however, a successful MPA should not only establishing properly but also implementing schedule evaluation and adaptive management. Instead of establishing an exaggerated paper parks, what we need is a well-managed MPA. The study through Modified Delphi method and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP) methods to define and prioritize management effecitivess indicators. The results defined 7 dimensions and 30 indicators as the MPA management evaluation indicators. The priority rankings of the indicators are legal system, public participation and cognition, management system, personnel system and capacity building, environmental education, monitoring and researching, design and infrastructure of MPAs. The overall weighting showed experts placed “personnel system and capacity building”, “level of stakeholder participation” and “financial resource” as the high priority indicators in the evaluation process. The MPA management evaluation indicators framework was applied to conducted a feasibility study for evaluating the management effectiveness of Liouciou Fish Recourse Conservation Area and gave suggestions for improving its performance.
論文審定書 i
誌謝 ii
摘要 iii
Abstract iv
目錄 vi
圖次 ix
表次 x
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究緣起 1
第二節 研究動機與目的 3
第三節 研究流程與限制 6
第二章 海洋保護區概述 9
第一節 海洋保護區之概念簡史 9
第二節 海洋保護區定義與類型 19
第三節 海洋保護區概念之演變趨勢 32
第三章 海洋保護區成效評估方法與指標 42
第一節 成效評估概念與IUCN-WCPA架構 42
第二節 執行成效評估之必要性 46
第三節 成效指標定義 46
第四節 海洋保護區成效評估指標 49
第四章 研究設計 70
第一節 臺灣海洋保護區成效評估指標之初步建構 70
第二節 研究方法 75
第三節 修正式德菲法與模糊層級分析法之受訪專家選定 82
第四節 研究工具 84
第五章 問卷結果討論與分析 89
第一節 修正式德菲法問卷結果與分析 89
第二節 模糊層級分析法問卷結果 94
第三節 問卷結果綜合討論 102
第六章 琉球漁業資源保育區評估結果 106
第一節 琉球漁業資源保育區介紹 106
第二節 琉球漁業資源保育區評估結果 108
第三節 評估結果與討論 139
第七章 結論與建議 148
第一節 結論 149
第二節 建議 153
第三節 後續研究建議 156
參考文獻 157
附錄 170
附錄一 海洋保護區成效評估指標說明 170
附錄二 模糊集合理論之概念 178
附錄三 德菲法建構海洋保護區成效評估指標問卷 180
附錄四 屏東縣琉球漁業資源保育區管理計畫書 186
附錄五 琉球、車城漁業資源保育區及有關限制事宜 188
附錄六 琉球漁業資源保育區公告修正歷程 194
一、中文文獻
專書
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邵廣昭(2013)。魚線盡頭的省思。農訓雜誌,285,18-21。
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楊清閔、賴繼昌、許明樹、黃星翰、吳龍靜(2013)。台灣小琉球舢舨漁船漁
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劉光明、金建邦(2012)。漁業管理新思維–以生態系為基礎。科學發展,478
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官方文件
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行政院經濟建設委員會(2012)。國家氣候變遷調適政策綱領。台北市,經
  建會。
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研究報告
王奕晟(2015)。澎湖南方四島國家公園管理法政之未來展望。海洋國家公園
  管理處104年補(捐)助研究生進行專題研究計畫。
台灣珊瑚礁總體檢成果報告書(2010,12月)。檢自:
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台灣珊瑚礁總體檢成果報告書(2012,12月)。檢自:
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台灣珊瑚礁總體檢成果報告書(2013,11月)。檢自:
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台灣珊瑚礁總體檢成果報告書(2014,12月5日)。檢自:
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台灣珊瑚礁總體檢成果報告書(2015,12月)。檢自:
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台灣珊瑚礁總體檢成果報告書(2016,12月)。檢自:
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林季平(2008)。社會發展政策統計與調查資料庫規劃(上冊-第一章至第八
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研討會論文
盧美智、李明聰(2004,2月)。小琉球遊客的環境態度與行為關係之研究。
  2004年健康休閒暨觀光餐旅產官學研討會會議論文,台南。

學位論文
王奕晟(2015)。我國海洋保護區法制之未來展望─從海洋自然保育與水下文
  化資產保護之兼容觀點。政治大學碩士論文。
巫昌陽(2013)。墾丁國家公園海岸與海洋遊憩區整合管理指標之研究。國立
  體育大學博士論文。
李佩娟(2013)。臺灣漁業保育措施轉型為海洋保護區之可行性研究。臺灣海
  洋大學碩士論文。
孫介珩(2013)。美國與我國海洋保護區劃設程序與管理內涵之比較研究:以
  帕帕哈瑙莫庫瓦基亞海洋國家紀念碑與東沙環礁國家公園為例。中山大學
  碩士論文。
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  估。臺灣大學碩士論文。
許宏昌(2014)。小琉球潮間帶遊憩衝擊議題分析-在地居民與民宿業者觀點。
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報紙/網路媒體/其他
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莊瑞萌(2016,10月27日)。融冰快速消失 髯海豹列受威脅名單。台灣醒報。   檢自https://anntw.com/articles/20161027-aalR(檢視日期:2017年3月5
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二、英文文獻
專書
Lockwood, M., Worboys, G., & Kothari, A. (Eds.). (2012). Managing protected
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專書文章/章節
Ocean Studies Board and National Research Council (2011). Historical Background
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Gallopín, G.C. (1997). Indicators and Their Use: Information for Decision-making.
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Pelletier, D. (2011). Constructing and validating indicators of MPA effectiveness. In
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Scheibe, M., Skutsch, M., & Schofer, J. (2002). IV. C. Experiments in Delphi
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  techniques and applications (pp.257-281).


期刊雜誌
Angulo-Valdés, J. A., & Hatcher, B. G. (2010). A new typology of benefits derived
  from marine protected areas. Marine Policy, 34(3), 635-644.
Araújo, J. L., & Bernard, E. (2016). Management effectiveness of a large marine
  protected area in Northeastern Brazil. Ocean & Coastal Management, 130, 43-
  49.
Bennett, N. J., & Dearden, P. (2014). From measuring outcomes to providing inputs:
  Governance, management, and local development for more effective marine
  protected areas. Marine Policy, 50, 96-110.
Chaigneau, T., & T.M. Daw (2015). Individual and village-level effects on
  community support for Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the Philippines.
  Marine Policy, 51, 499-506.
Chang, P. C., Tsou, N. T., Yuan, B. J., & Huang, C. C. (2002). Development trends in
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Charnley, S., Fischer, A. P., & Jones, E. T. (2007). Integrating traditional and local
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新聞媒體
MPA News. (2006). On defining MPA “success” and choosing an evaluation method:
  Interview with Marc Hockings.7(10): 4.
MPA NEWS. (2011, MAY/JUNE). Finding the Balance: Strengthening MPA
  Governance by Mixing Top-Down, Bottom-Up, and Other Approaches. Marine
  Affairs Research and Education, 12(6).

網路資料與其他
Brown, C., Parker, B., Ahmadia, G. N., Ardiwijaya, R., Purwanto, P., & Game, E. T.
  (2017). The cost of enforcing marine protected areas to achieve ecological
  targets. bioRxiv.
FAO (n.d.). Marine protected areas in the high seas. Retrieved from
  http://www.fao.org/fishery/topic/16204/en (October 15, 2016)
IUCN (September 07, 2017). Global shift in Marine Protected Area analysis and
  reporting. Retrieved from https://www.iucn.org/news/protected-
  areas/201709/global-shift-marine-protected-area-analysis-and-reporting
  (October 30, 2017)
The Official Portal For Department Of Marine Park Malasia (n. d.). How much do I
  have to pay for the Conservation Charge? Retrieved from
  http://www.dmpm.nre.gov.my/faq.html?uweb=jtl&lang=en (October 30, 2017)
The Pew Charitable Trusts. (2016). Highly protected marine reserves around the
  globe.
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