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研究生:楊登順
研究生(外文):Teng-Shun Yang
論文名稱:探討大學生地方依附、地方意象及地方認同之關係:以居住時間為調節中介效果
論文名稱(外文):The Relationships between College Students’ Attachment, Image and Identity on the Place: The Moderated Mediation Effects of Residential Time
指導教授:洪瑞兒洪瑞兒引用關係
指導教授(外文):Zuway-R Hong
學位類別:博士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:教育研究所
學門:教育學門
學類:綜合教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:188
中文關鍵詞:地方認同地方意象居住時間地方依附大學生
外文關鍵詞:place identityplace imageresidential timecollege studentsplace attachment
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本研究目的在探討大學生的地方依附、地方意象及地方認同之差異,並檢視三個研究變項之間的關係,進而探究大學生居住時間的調節中介效果是否存在。作者發展三份研究工具:地方依附量表、地方認同量表與速寫地圖測驗,用來檢驗大學生的地方依附、地方認同及地方意象。預試階段以便利取樣選取236位大學生填答三份研究工具,再以項目分析及探索性因素分析檢驗研究工具的信效度後成為正式研究工具。接著再以叢集抽樣選取361位就讀南部某科技大學通識課程大學生填答正式問卷。所獲得資料經由驗證性因素分析、獨立樣本t檢定、單因子變異數分析、皮爾森相關分析、階層迴歸分析、結構方程模式拔靴法(bootstrap method)以及條件式PROCESS檢定法分析後,主要發現如下:(一)大學生的「校園依附」與「校園認同」具有性別差異與居住地差異,男大學生(N=156)的校園依附與校園認同顯著高於女大學生(N=205),住校學生(N=142)的校園依附與校園認同顯著低於外宿生(N=219);主修外語大學生的校園意象與校園認同顯著低於主修電資科系學生,本地大學生(N=65)的「城市依附」、「城市意象」及「城市認同」皆顯著高於外地大學生(N=296),住校學生的城市依附、城市意象及城市認同皆顯著低於外宿生,大三及大四學生的城市依附、城市意象及城市認同表現均顯著優於大一及大二學生;(二)大學生的校園依附與校園認同之間具有顯著正相關,而大學生的城市依附、城市意象及城市認同之間亦有顯著的正相關;(三)「城市意象」對於大學生城市依附與城市認同呈現部分中介效果;(四)居住時間愈久,大學生的「城市依附」會透過「城市意象」間接對「城市認同」具有顯著預測力。本研究針對大學生之地方依附、居住時間、地方意象與地方認同的差異性與相關性進行討論,可作為大學在規劃提升學生的地方依附與地方認同課程與教學之參考。
The purposes of this study were to explore the differences and relationships of Taiwanese college students’ attachement, image and identity on place, and investigate the mediated effect of place image, and further examined the moderated mediation effects of residential time. The inventory was proposed according to a literature review, and developed place attachment scale (PAS) as well as place identity scale (PIS) and sketch map test (SMT) to measure college students’ place attachment, place identity, and place image. First, 236 participants from a university in Kaohsiung City completed that 3 well-constructive instruments PAS, PIS and SMT to assess students’ attachment, identity and image on place. Second, 361 undergraduates were clusterly selected from a university in Kaohsiung City for this study. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, independent t-tests, ANOVA, correlation analysis, hierarchical regression, SEM bootstrapping, and conditional PROCESS analysis were used to analyze the quantitative data. It was found that the male and dormitory college students’ total scores on attachment and identity on campus are both significantly higher than female counterparts and students living off campus. Besides, undergraduates’ attachment and identity on city have significant differences with different birthplace, residences and grades. In addition, college students’ attachment on campus positively related to their campus identity. Moreover, it indicated that students’ attachment, image and identity on residential city have positive correlationships. Finally, this study adds empirical evidence and provides insights into how residential time can be moderated mediation effects on students’ city attachment and city identity via city image.
論文審定書…………………………………………………………. i

誌謝…………………………………………………………............. ii

中文摘要 …………………………………………………………... iii

英文摘要 …………………………………………………………... iv

第一章 緒論…………………………………………………. 1
第一節 研究背景與動機..………………………………….. 4
第二節 研究目的..………………………………………….. 9
第三節 名詞釋義…………………………………………… 9
第二章 文獻探討……………………………………………. 11
第一節 大學生與地方關係之相關研究發現………........... 11
第二節 地方依附與地方認同理論、評量工具及相關研究.. 15
第三節 地方依附與地方認同之差異性及相關性研究發現 35
第四節 地方依附、地方意象及地方認同相關研究發現… 44
第三章 研究方法……………………………………………. 55
第一節 研究架構與研究假設……………………………… 55
第二節 研究設計 ………………………………………….. 56
第三節 研究對象 ………………………………………….. 57
第四節 研究工具的發展與效化…………………………… 58
第五節 研究步驟 ………………………………………….. 73
第六節 資料分析 ………………………………………….. 73
第四章 研究結果與討論……………………………………. 93
第一節 大學生地方依附、地方意象及地方認同差異性.... 93
第二節 大學生地方依附、地方意象及地方認同相關性…. 109
第三節 大學生城市認同之居住時間調節中介效果驗證… 123
第五章 結論與建議…………………………………………. 138
第一節 結論………………………………………………… 138
第二節 建議………………………………………………… 140
第三節 未來研究方向……………………………………… 143
參考文獻…………………………………………………………. 148
附錄 大學生地方依附與地方認同問卷……………………… 171

圖 次
圖2-1人地關係圖…………………………………………………. 12
圖2-2 Williams與Roggenbuck (1989) 之地方依附二因子模式圖 16
圖2-3 Kyle, Graefe與Manning (2005) 之地方依附三因子模式圖 16
圖2-4 Hammit, Backlund與Bixler (2006)之地方連結五因子模式圖 17
圖2-5 Ramkissoon, Smith與Weiler (2013)之地方依附四因子模式圖17
圖2-6 Hidalgo與Hernández (2001) 等人之地方依附單因子模式圖 18
圖2-7 Jorgensen與Stedman (2001) 之地方感二階三因子模式圖 19
圖2-8 Lalli (1992)之地方認同五因子模式圖……………………... 29
圖2-9 Knez (2005)之地方認同五因子模式圖……………………. 29
圖2-10 Lynch (1960)之城市意象三因子模式圖…………………. 45
圖2-11 Pocock與Hudson (1978)之目的地意象二因子模式圖…. 45
圖2-12結構性地方意象單因子模式圖…………………………… 47
圖2-13 Gartner (1994)之目的地意象三因子模式圖……………… 48
圖2-14 Pocock與Hudson (1978)之旅遊地意象二因子模式圖…. 48
圖3-1 大學生地方認同之假設理論模式圖……………………… 56
圖3-2 校園意象(速寫地圖)計分表及其圖例………………… 71
圖3-3 城市意象(速寫地圖)計分表及其圖例………………… 72
圖3-4城市認同五因子斜交模式(模式6)之標準化參數估計值結果82
圖3-5城市認同二階五因子假設模式(模式7)之標準化參數估計值結果83
圖3-6校園認同五因子斜交模式(模式6)之標準化參數估計值結果89
圖3-7校園認同二階五因子假設模式(模式7)之標準化參數估計值結果90
圖4-1居住時間、城市依附及城市認同之結構模式路徑分析圖.. 112
圖4-2居住時間、校園依附及校園認同之結構模式路徑分析圖.. 112
圖4-3城市空間尺度之整體測量模式分析圖……………………. 125
圖4-4大學生城市認同假設理論模式(模式一)之結構模式路徑分析圖. 127
圖4-5大學生城市認同競爭模式(模式二)之結構模式路徑分析圖. 128
圖4-6大學生城市意象競爭模式(模式三)之結構模式路徑分析圖. 129
圖4-7 居住時間對城市依附與城市意象關係之調節效果圖…… 133

表 次
表1-1 地方依附與地方認同相關文獻出版情形彙整表…………. 2
表2-1 地方依附與地方認同相關文獻彙整表……………………. 13
表2-2 遊憩地方依附(連結)評量工具之因素試題統整結果…. 21
表2-3 居住地方依附評量工具之因素試題統整結果……………. 23
表3-1 大學生正式樣本基本資料次數分配表……………………. 58
表3-2 地方依附預試量表之項目分析結果………………………. 60
表3-3 地方依附預試量表之探索性因素分析、信度分析結果……... 61
表3-4 城市認同預試分量表之項目分析結果……………………. 63
表3-5 城市認同預試分量表之探索性因素分析、信度分析結果... 64
表3-6 校園認同預試分量表項目分析結果………………………. 66
表3-7 校園認同預試分量表探索性因素分析、信度分析結果…….. 67
表3-8 地方意象計分範例…………………………………………. 70
表3-9 城市依附、城市意象、城市認同量表之構面與題目……. 76
表3-10 城市依附、城市意象、城市認同測量模式之CFA分析結果 77
表3-11不同競爭模式之城市認同量表配適指標分析結果……… 81
表3-12 校園依附、校園意象、校園認同量表之構面與題目…… 85
表3-13校園依附、校園意象、校園認同測量模式之CFA分析結果.. 86
表3-14不同競爭模式之校園認同量表配適指標分析結果……… 88
表4-1 大學生地方潛在變項之性別差異獨立樣本t考驗分析結果.. 94
表4-2 大學生地方潛在變項之出生地差異獨立樣本t考驗分析結果 95
表4-3 大學生地方潛在變項之居住地差異獨立樣本t考驗分析結果 96
表4-4 大學生地方潛在變項之年級差異單因子變異數分析結果 97
表4-5 大學生地方潛在變項之主修差異單因子變異數分析結果 99
表4-6 大學生城市依附、城市意象與城市認同之差異性分析結果 100
表4-7大學生居住地與年級交叉表………………………………. 105
表4-8大學生主修與性別交叉表…………………………………. 108
表4-9 大學生城市依附、城市意象與城市認同之相關分析結果 109
表4-10 大學生校園依附、校園意象與校園認同之相關分析結果 110
表4-11大學生居住時間、地方依附、地方認同之路徑分析結果 111
表4-12地方依附、地方意象對大學生地方認同之階層迴歸分析結果114
表4-13 城市地方構面之觀察變項描述統計分析表……………. 124
表4-14 城市空間尺度各潛在構面Bootstrap相關係數95%的信賴區間估計結果126
表4-15 城市意象之拔靴法中介效果分析結果…………………. 130
表4-16居住時間之PROCESS model 1調節效果分析結果………. 133
表4-17居住時間調節式中介模式之條件式間接效果分析結果…….. 134
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