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研究生(外文):Chia-Yin Lai
論文名稱(外文):A Dual-Process Perspective on Information Privacy Paradox: A Neural Science Study
指導教授(外文):Kai-Lung HuiTing-Peng Liang
外文關鍵詞:Privacy paradoxprivacy calculusdual-process modelelectroencephalographic (EEG)brain waveneuroscience
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隨著資訊科技的大量使用,個人隱私資料的傳播日益氾濫,成為資訊時代大家關心的問題。過去許多研究都證實雖然人們都說很在意隱私資料的保護,但是實際上又會很輕易地揭露個人隱私資訊,這種現象叫做「隱私矛盾」(Privacy Paradox),也就是人們所陳述的自身資訊的分享意圖與他們實際上的資訊分享行為並不吻合。過去文獻針對隱私顧慮的信念意圖和實際行為間不一致,提出了這是因為人們在決策過程中理性的,並且會受到隱私計算理論的影響,進而改變原有的態度或行為。然而決策的制定並不全然是理性的,可能會受到心理限制或情境因素的影響。某些時候人們可能是憑直覺,並沒有經過邏輯思考來做決策。本研究從資訊處理之雙路徑模式的觀點來探討隱私矛盾的現象,推論人們在實際行為中所採用的決策方式與回答問卷時所採用的決策方式有所不同,是造成隱私矛盾的原因。過去關於隱私資訊的研究經常使用問卷調查來了解消費者的態度,及消費者對於隱私顧慮的程度及揭露意圖,但是卻很少衡量到實際的揭露行為。因此,本研究的主要目的在探討隱私矛盾的問題,藉由實驗法來分析隱私資訊揭露意圖與實際行為之間不一致的現象。
Information technologies have raised enduring concerns about privacy. Most people report that they worry about disclosures of their private information, yet keep revealing it through their actual technology-usage behavior. This inconsistency between intended and actual information-sharing has been termed the “privacy paradox”, and prior research has sought to explain it through cost-benefit or other frameworks rooted in rationality: for example, privacy calculus. However, individuals are not purely rational decision-makers, but tend to be strongly affected by psychological limitations that are often unconscious; and in many cases, people self-report their choices in terms of rational information processing, even when their behavior indicates they are following their intuition instead. Accordingly, drawing on the dual-process model from the field of psychology, this study approaches the privacy paradox from a neuroscience perspective, arguing that such discrepancies between statement and behavior are inherent in natural instinct.
Specifically, the present research investigates the privacy paradox via two electroencephalographic (EEG) experiments, designed to establish whether physiological evidence (brain wave) can enhance our understanding of this phenomenon. It will also test whether such an approach can effectively address the limitations of self-report data, by capturing individuals’ direct responses when they make privacy-related decisions. The primary causes of the privacy paradox and its corresponding brain activities will also be explored.
論文審定書 i
Acknowledgements ii
摘要 iii
Abstract iv
Table of Content v
List of Figures viii
List of Tables x
Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1 Research Background 1
1.2 Research Objective 3
1.3 Research Procedure 5
1.4 Thesis Organization 6
Chapter 2. Literature Review 7
2.1 Information Privacy 7
2.1.1 Value-based privacy 8
2.1.2 Cognate-based privacy 9
2.2 Privacy Concern 11
2.3 The Privacy Paradox 12
2.3.1 Privacy decision-making and rationality 15
2.4 The Dual-processing View of Decision-making Processes 17
2.5 Neuroscientific Evidence for the Dual-processing View 19
Chapter 3. Research Methodology 23
3.1 Participants 25
3.2 EEG Signal Acquisition and Processing 25
Chapter 4. Experiment 1 27
4.1 Design of Experiment 1 27
4.1.1 Materials 34
4.1.2 Statistical power 36
4.2 Experiment 1 Procedures 37
4.3 Experiment 1 Pilot 38
4.4 Experiment 1 Results 39
4.4.1 Manipulation check 41
4.4.2 Data analysis 43
4.5 Summary 54
Chapter 5. Experiment 2 55
5.1 The Design of Experiment 2 55
5.1.1 Statistical Power 57
5.1.2 Measurement of the elaborated likelihood model 57
5.1.3 Measurement of mindfulness 59
5.2 Experiment 2 Procedures 61
5.3 Experiment 2 Pilot 62
5.4 Experiment 2 Results 65
5.4.1 Manipulation check 66
5.4.2 Data analysis 68
5.5 Summary 94
Chapter 6. Discussion and Contribution 95
6.1 Discussion 95
6.1.1 Physiological evidence 97
6.1.2 ELM 99
6.1.3 State mindfulness 100
6.1.4 Final download decision 102
6.2 Contributions 105
6.3 Limitations and Directions for Future Research 108
References 111
Appendix A -Questionnaire item 124
Appendix B – Questionnaire items for Experiment 2 138
Appendix C Experiment Schedule 140
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