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研究生:黃安琪
研究生(外文):An-chi Huang
論文名稱:側向場激發縱模態與剪模態之氧化鋅固態微型諧振器研製
論文名稱(外文):Study of longitudinal mode and shear mode by lateral fieldexcitation with ZnO based solidly mounted resonators
指導教授:陳英忠
指導教授(外文):Ying-Chung Chen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:118
中文關鍵詞:氧化鋅縱模態剪模態固態微型諧振器橫向激發共面電極
外文關鍵詞:Shear modeLongitudinal modeSolidly mounted resonatorsCoplanar electrodeLateral field excitationZnO
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隨著目前半導體技術及微奈米化製程發展,固態微型諧振器(SMR)因其為穩固性之壓電效應的微機電系統(MEMS)元件,具高諧振頻率、質量靈敏測度高、尺寸微奈米大小範圍及CMOS工藝兼容技術的特質。SMR在無線通訊、感測器、物聯網及汽車電子等應用引起巨大發展商機的浪潮,因此也將激勵新一波的市場需求與相關學術關注,是持續密切關注其前撲後繼發展之重要研究。
生物及液態感測器一般來說是在液相環境下進行,但傳統型SMR元件之縱波使用在液態環境下會有非常嚴重的能量耗散至液體,因此在液態環境下能保持能量的剪模態成為了重要物及液態感測的關鍵。本研究成功地研製及分析了基於C軸取向氧化鋅(ZnO)激發側向場之厚度純剪模態及純縱模態固態微型諧振器,以特殊光照設計的A-Type和B-Type 之8種共面電極,以鉬(Mo)和二氧化矽(SiO2)材料推疊成的布拉格反射器,並且探索共面電極設計對SMR元件頻率響應之影響。有別於過去研究方向單純只以共面電極激發出剪模態訊號,驗證電極各別激發強度集中純剪模態與純縱模態諧振元件。
對於元件選用合適壓電材料(Piezoelectric material),我們採用梅森等效電路(Mason equivalent circuit)在先進設計系統(Advanced Design System, ADS)軟體上仿真與建模型固態微型諧振器,分析常用壓電材料氮化鋁、氧化鋅在SMR元件頻率響應。對設計結果進行良率分析及優化改善,進而大幅提升複雜型電路的設計效率。為了進一步最佳化氧化鋅激勵側向場之厚度剪模態及縱模態固態微型諧振器架構設計。我們藉由COMSOL有限元件軟體(COMSOL Multiphysics),模擬SMR元件模型。分析壓電薄膜的壓電特性、壓電薄膜和電極在電場做用變形反應和在元件內的能量分布,及特徵頻率範圍下的共振信號,實作與模擬相互驗證元件設計。
With the development of semiconductor technology and micro–nano technology in recent times, a solidly mounted resonator (SMR) has been used as a stable piezoelectric microelectromechanical system (MEMS), possessing the advantages of high resonant frequency, mass sensitivity, nano to micrometre size, and CMOS-compatibility.
The application of SMRs in wireless communication, sensors, the internet of things, vehicle electronics, etc., will bring about a large number of business opportunities, and will inspire new market demand and related academic interest, thus making it a potential research area worth investing in. Typically, biological, and liquid sensors are used in aqueous conditions. However, the use of longitudinal wavelets from a traditional solidly mounted resonator in aqueous condition dissipates large amounts of energy into the fluid. Therefore, a shear modulus that can maintain energy in an aqueous condition becomes important and is a key aspect for liquid sensors.
This study successfully develops and analyses an SMR based on a high C-axis oriented ZnO film operating in thickness-shear mode excited by a lateral electric field. Two designs, type A and B, are proposed, and eight coplanar electrodes are developed with a special coplanar electrode mask. A Bragg reflector is made from Mo and SiO2. The effects of the coplanar electrodes on the frequency response of SMR components are investigated as well. Unlike past research, in which coplanar electrodes excite only the signals in shear mode, this study verified thatexciting both pure shear and pure longitudinal resonating modes in high intensities by the electrodes.
With respect to the choice of suitable piezoelectric material for the SMR components, we simulate an SMR in the Advanced Design System using Mason''s equivalent circuit and measure the frequency response of commonly used piezoelectric materials such as AlN and ZnO as components. Yield analysis and optimization are performed on the design to improve the efficiency of the complex circuit. For further improving the design of the ZnO film-based SMR operating in thickness-shear mode and longitudinal mode excited by a lateral electric field, the SMR components are modelled by COMSOL Multiphysics. The piezoelectric property, deformation of the piezoelectric film and electrode in an electric field, and energy distribution in the components are analysed, along with the resonation signal under characteristic frequencies. The SMR design in this study is verified by both actual experimentation and simulation.
中文審定書 i
英文審定書 ii
致謝 iii
摘要 iv
Abstract vi
目錄 viii
圖目錄 xii
表目錄 xv
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 薄膜體聲波諧振器的發展與研究現況 4
1.2.1 薄膜體聲波諧振器之簡介 4
1.2.2 測向激勵固態微型諧振器的研究現況 7
1.3 本論文研究動機 10
1.4 本論文的內容及章節安排 10
第二章 理論分析 13
2.1 壓電現象 13
2.1.1 壓電性 13
2.1.2 壓電效應 14
2.2 薄膜特性分析 16
2.2.1 壓電性 16
2.2.2 分析壓電材料 17
2.3 氧化鋅(Zinc Oxide, ZnO)結構與特性 19
2.4 反應性射頻磁控濺鍍原理 22
2.4.1 輝光放電 22
2.4.2 磁控濺射 24
2.4.3 射頻濺射 25
2.4.4 反應性濺鍍 26
2.4.5 薄膜沉積過程 27
2.5 SMR 理論 29
2.5.1 SMR 的特點 30
2.5.2 SMR 的基本設計 31
2.6 Mason 等校電路模型 35
2.7 品質因子(Quality factor;Q) 37
2.8 有效機電耦合係數k2eff 37
第三章 實驗與步驟 38
3.1 SMR諧振器的ADS仿真步驟 38
3.2 SMR有限元件模擬 41
3.3 實驗流程 45
3.4 晶圓清洗 47
3.5 交直流濺鍍系統與薄膜沉積 49
3.6 反應性射頻磁控濺鍍系統與黃光微影製程 55
3.7 SMR的製作流程 60
3.8元件設定參數 61
3.9元件性能量測 61
第四章 結果與討論 63
4.1 布拉格反射層 63
4.1.1 探討高聲阻抗的鉬反射層 63
4.1.2 探討低聲阻抗的二氧化矽反射層 64
4.1.3 探討高低聲阻抗的布拉格反射器 65
4.2 壓電層的探討 68
4.2.1 濺鍍壓力 68
4.2.2 濺鍍功率 69
4.3 SMR 元件頻率響應量測 73
4.4 SMR 元件品質及特性 80
4.5 傾斜濺鍍ZnO壓電層的分析 82
第五章 結論與未來展望 84
參考文獻 86
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