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研究生:黃冠蓁
研究生(外文):Guan-Jen Huang
論文名稱:適用於電力線資料傳輸網路之樹狀拓樸演算法
論文名稱(外文):Design and Implementation of Tree Topology Algorithm for Power Line Communication Network
指導教授:邱日清
指導教授(外文):Jih-Ching Chiu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:電機工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:98
中文關鍵詞:維護程序電力線傳輸建網程序樹狀拓樸
外文關鍵詞:Maintain procedureStartup procedurePLCTree topology
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「智慧電網」的概念提出至今,已有一定規模的成果,美國、英國、日本等國家在多年前便開始汰換傳統電表並安裝智慧電表,且都有10%以上的市占率,台灣也預計在2018年開始安裝智慧電表。搭配智慧電表,智慧電網能更加迅速、穩定的蒐集電表資料以及針對各地區用電量做供電調整等多種智慧供電控制。
智慧電網的通訊中包含多種通訊方式,其中一種重要的傳輸方式是電力線傳輸(Power Line Communication, PLC),由頻寬可分為窄頻、寬頻PLC,其中G3-PLC為用於長距離傳輸的窄頻PLC中較廣泛被使用的標準,然而,PLC容易受到電線老舊、線路干擾等原因影響傳輸,經過實測,干擾常會出現在有大電流流過的線路;再者,G3-PLC雖然提供較穩定的傳輸效能,但是其路由方式採AODV的架構易造成封包的碰撞,且有較繁雜的建網程序,導致建網速度較慢,因此,若在電力線佈建較密集、且有較大用電流量的建築或工廠地區,G3-PLC的效率會降低。
本論文提出一樹狀網路演算法,建立於與G3-PLC相同的媒體存取控制層(Media Access Control Layer, MAC Layer)協定IEEE 802.15.4 (適用於低速無線個人區域網路, Low-rate Wireless Personal Area Networks, LR-WPAN),由於和Wi-Fi、Ethernet相比,G3-PLC屬於較慢速網路,且有上述提到容易發生封包碰撞的現象,但若是建立如串列網路等多跳躍的網路拓樸,會降低傳輸效率。因此,本演算法透過樹狀拓樸,建立節點之間的父子關係,讓節點間的溝通為單一路線,以簡化協調節點(Coordinator)與其他節點之間的傳輸路徑並降低封包的碰撞。本演算法亦提出較簡單的建網程序,改善G3-PLC建網速度較慢的問題;另外,本演算法提出網路中若是節點中斷連線,孤立節點重新加入網路的維護程序,假設因為父節點中斷連線而被孤立的子節點,在環境允許下可以透過維護程序重新加入網路,以增加網路的穩定性。另外,此架構在MAC Frame Payload建立類似於EtherCAT的封包格式,並乘載Modbus協定,讓協調節點能更有效率地與其他節點溝通。
本論文使用Network Simulator-3(NS3)網路模擬平台驗證演算法的可行性及效能,提出演算法中相關參數的設置建議,並將演算法實現於Atmel SAM4CP16C-EK 開發模組,經由實測比較本演算法的建網速度較G3-PLC的建網速度快6.7倍至49倍。
The concept of smart grid has been proposed for years. Many countries, such as United State, England and Japan, have been replacing traditional electric meters with smart electric meters in recent years. There are lots of communication methods used in smart grid, power line communication (PLC) is an important one among them. G3-PLC is a widely-used specification for long-distance PLC, however, PLC is sensitive to old power lines and the interference caused by large electric current flowing through the power line. Moreover, although G3-PLC has stable performance of communication, the AODV routing protocol and the complex startup procedures results in taking long time for G3-PLC devices to finish the whole startup procedures.
To reduce the time to finish the startup procedures in G3-PLC, in this paper, a tree topology algorithm is proposed. In the tree topology algorithm, a simple startup procedure is provided, by setting up the parent-child relationship between nodes, the routes for nodes in networks are simplified. Furthermore, a maintain procedure is also provide in the algorithm, in the maintain procedure, the nodes in networks can use Check Alive mechanism to check the connection between their parent nodes and child nodes, when a broken connection is found by a node, the node will use Recovery mechanism to rescue the isolated nodes.
In this paper, the feasibility of the tree topology algorithm is verified by NS-3 platform, and suggestions of the suitable value of the parameters in the algorithm are proposed. In addition, the algorithm is implemented on Atmel SAM4CP16C evolution kits, the measurement results show that the time for PLC devices to finish the startup procedures of the tree topology algorithm is at least 6.7 times less than G3-PLC specification.
論文審定書+i
摘要+ii
Abstract+iv
目錄+v
圖目錄+viii
表目錄+xii
第1章 簡介+1
1.1 前言+1
1.2 研究動機+2
1.3 研究目的+2
1.4 論文架構+3
第2章 背景知識及相關研究+4
2.1 窄頻PLC技術+4
2.1.1 PRIME及G3-PLC+5
2.2 G3-PLC+6
2.2.1 LoWPAN Bootstrapping Protocol+7
2.2.2 6LoWPAN Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing+9
2.3 Modbus通訊協定+10
2.3.1 Modbus封包格式+10
2.3.2 Extend Modbus+12
2.4 實現環境+13
2.4.1 Atmel SAM4CP16C-EK開發模組+13
2.4.2 傳輸品質參數介紹+14
2.4.3 基本實測+14
第3章 適用於電力線資料傳輸網路之樹狀拓樸演算法+19
3.1 適用於電力線資料傳輸網路之樹狀拓樸演算法架構 +19
3.1.1 基本架構+19
3.1.2 節點及表格功能定義+20
3.1.3 封包傳輸機制+24
3.1.4 封包格式+32
3.2 建網程序+33
3.2.1 註冊封包定義+34
3.2.2 建網程序內容+39
3.2.3 Routing Request重傳機制+43
3.3 維護程序+45
3.3.1 維護封包及表格定義+45
3.3.2 Check Alive機制+51
3.3.3 Recovery機制+55
第4章 模擬驗證及實現成果+61
4.1 模擬平台介紹+61
4.1.1 Network Simulator-3+61
4.1.2 用於樹狀演算法之NS3參數設置+62
4.2 NS3模擬驗證+63
4.2.1 建網程序模擬數據及分析+63
4.2.2 維護程序模擬數據及分析+77
4.3 實現成果+79
第5章 總結+83
參考文獻+84
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[2]J. Chiu and Y. Chen, “Programmable Real-time Distributed Computing Architecture on EtherCAT,” M.S. thesis, Dept. Electron. Eng., Sun Yat-sen Univ., Kaohsiung, R.O.C, 2017.
[3]PRIME Alliance. http://www.prime-alliance.org/
[4]G3-PLC Alliance. http://www.g3-plc.com/home/
[5]PLC G3 Physical Layer Specification, Électricité de France S.A., Available: https://www.edf.fr/en/meta-home
[6]Specification for PoweRline Intelligent Metering Evolution, PRIME Alliance Technical Working Group, Available: http://www.prime-alliance.org/
[7]Narrowband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing power line communication transceivers – Power spectral density specification, ITU-T G.9901, TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDIZATION SECTOR OF ITU, Available: https://www.itu.int/en/pages/default.aspx
[8]Narrowband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing power line communication transceivers for G3-PLC networks, ITU-T G.9903, TELECOMMUNICATION STANDARDIZATION SECTOR OF ITU, Available: https://www.itu.int/en/pages/default.aspx
[9]M. Hoch, April, 2011, Udine, Italy. Comparison of PLC G3 and PRIME. Presented at IEEE International Symposium on Power Line Communications and Its Applications.
[10]J. Matanza, S. Alexandres, and C. Rodriguez-Morcillo, “Performance evaluation of two narrowband PLC systems: PRIME and G3,” Computer Standards & Interfaces, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 198-208, November 2013.
[11]Z. Sadowski, June, 2015, Lagow, Poland. Comparison of PLC-PRIME and PLC-G3 protocols. Presented at International School on Nonsinusoidal Currents and Compensation (ISNCC).
[12]Wireless Medium Access Control and Physical Layer Specifications for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks, IEEE 802.15.4-2006, IEEE Computer Society.
[13]Commissioning in 6LoWPAN, Network Working Group of IETF, Available: https://www.ietf.org/
[14]6LoWPAN Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (LOAD), Network Working Group of IETF, Available: https://www.ietf.org/
[15]D. F. Ramírez and S. Céspedes, “Routing in Neighborhood Area Networks: A survey in the context of AMI communications,” Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 55, pp. 68-80, September, 2015.
[16]Microchip G3-PLC Firmware Stack User Guide, Microchip, Available: http://www.microchip.com/design-centers/smart-energy-products/power-line-communications/g3-based-plc-solutions
[17]Network Simulator-3. https://www.nsnam.org/
[18]Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Network (LR-WPAN). https://www.nsnam.org/docs/models/html/lr-wpan.html
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