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研究生:莊宗益
研究生(外文):Chuang Tsung-Ti
論文名稱:以共振頻率可調式壓電懸臂樑實現獵能與擾動扭矩吸收
論文名稱(外文):A Piezoelectric Cantilever with Self-Adjusting Resonant Frequency for Energy Harvesting and Disturbing Torque Absorbing
指導教授:王郁仁
指導教授(外文):Wang Yu-Jen
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:機械與機電工程學系研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:機械工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:英文
論文頁數:122
中文關鍵詞:吸震器壓電懸臂樑共振 頻率自我調整獵能器
外文關鍵詞:Energy harvesterAbsorberPiezoelectric cantileverSelf-adjusting resonant frequency
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近年來,綠色能源和環境污染問題受到頻繁的討論,如何將環境中的能量轉換為可用的電能以取代具有污染性的發電方式已經成為目前的研究和發展趨勢。本研究致力於開發微型能量獵取裝置,將轉動環境中的動能轉換成足以供給無線胎壓監測系統 (Tire pressure monitoring system, TPMS) 運作的電能,以解決TPMS必須定期更換電池的麻煩以及減少廢棄電池對環境所造成的污染。
本研究設計一壓電懸臂樑安裝於輪子的徑向,利用固定方向的重力,使其在轉動的輪子上反覆變形,並產生電能。一般而言,懸臂樑的共振頻率為一定值,而本研究所提出的梯形懸臂樑獵能器,其共振頻率可隨不同車輪轉速自我調整,這使得該系統能在不同的車速下保持共振模態,以輸出較大的能量。調頻機制是利用離心力調整不同車速時梯形懸臂樑的作用長度,且在不同的作用長度下,梯形懸臂樑的固定端有不同的截面慣性矩,進而改變其共振頻率。本研究透過拉格朗日方程式 (Lagrange equation) 建立系統的物理模型,並利用推導之運動方程式設計合適的幾何參數。在發電的同時,配重懸臂樑亦可視為離心單擺吸震器 (Centrifugal Pendulum Vibration Absorber, CPVA) 吸收非預期的震動或扭矩。因此,本研究也進行了輪子受到干擾扭矩時的動態分析。
獵能器雛型機的加工,以及相關的實驗與驗證方法已建立完成,並驗證了本研究所建立之物理模型的正確性。實驗結果顯示,在240~1200 rpm之轉盤轉速下,能產生77~134微瓦之發電量,足以供給TPMS正常運作。另外,吸震的實驗顯示,雛型機的有效吸震頻寬約為130 Hz,且在60~110 Hz之間的振動干擾之下,能有超過58%的吸震效果。這些結果表明,在合適設計之下,配重懸臂樑可以同時具有發電和吸收干擾震動的能力。
In recent years, the problems of renewable energy exploitation and environmental pollution have been frequently discussed. Converting the energy in the environment into electric energy to reduce wastes from power sources has become the focus of research and development. This thesis aims to develop an energy-harvesting device that converts kinetic energy in rotating environments into electrical energy which can be used as a power source for a tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS) to replace chemical batteries.
This study developed an energy harvester with a well-weighted trapezoidal cantilever that had the ability to self-adjust its resonant frequency approaching to the wheel rotation speed to keep a resonant mode in order to generate a higher amount of output power. The weighted length of the trapezoidal cantilever is tuned by the centrifugal force from a rotating wheel to vary the area moment of inertia at the cantilever root. The dynamic equation was derived through the Lagrange method. Moreover, the well-weighted cantilever can also be considered as a centrifugal pendulum vibration absorber (CPVA) to absorb unexpected vibrations or torque. Therefore, this study analyzed the dynamic behavior of the wheel when a disturbing torque was applied to it.
The experimental results revealed that the output power of the prototype was approximately 77–134 µW at the wheel rotation speeds in the range of 240–1200 rpm. This demonstrated that the proposed device has the potential to replace batteries in the TPMS. The effective vibration absorption bandwidth of the prototype is approximately 130 Hz, and more than 58% of the vibration absorption effect was observed under disturbing vibration between 60–110 Hz.
摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
致謝 iv
CONTENTS v
LIST OF FIGURES viii
LIST OF TABLES xiv
LIST OF SYMBOLS xv
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Motivation 1
1.2 Literature Survey 2
1.2.1 Kinetic Energy-Harvesting Methods 2
1.2.1.1 Electromagnetic Generators 3
1.2.1.2 Electrostatic Generators 5
1.2.1.3 Piezoelectric Generators 7
1.2.2 Broadband Vibration Energy Harvesting Methods 10
1.2.2.1 Application of Tire Pressure Monitor System 10
1.2.2.2 Broadband Vibration Energy Harvesting from Rotational Environments 12
1.2.3 Energy-Harvesting Vibration Absorber 20
CHAPTER 2 CONFIGURATION AND GOVERNING EQUATIONS 24
2.1 Weighted Cantilever with a Uniform Cross Section Structure 24
2.2 Trapezoidal Cantilever Energy Harvester 32
2.3 Well-Weighted Cantilever Energy Harvester 34
CHAPTER 3 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS 43
3.1 Dynamic Analysis of the Well-Weighted Cantilever 43
3.2 Analysis Conducted After Applying a Disturbing Torque to the Wheel 51
CHAPTER 4 POWER GENERATION ANALYSIS 60
4.1 Power Consumption of TPMS 60
4.2 Mechanical–Electrical Coupling Model 62
4.3 Numerical Results for Piezoelectric Cantilever in Power Generation 65
CHAPTER 5 EXPERIMENTAL RESULT 73
5.1 Experimental Setup and Prototype 73
5.2 Experimental Results of the Power Generation 76
5.3 Experiment Results of the Disturbing Torque Absorption 85
CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK 89
6.1 Conclusions 89
6.2 Future Work 90
REFERENCES 92
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