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研究生:黄晴美
研究生(外文):Ching-mei Huang
論文名稱:感潮帶人工濕地溫室氣體季節排放特性及碳匯功能解析-以援中港濕地西區為例
論文名稱(外文):Seasonal Variation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Carbon Sink from a Tidal Constructed Wetland - A Case Study of West Yuanjhong Harbor Wetland
指導教授:袁中新袁中新引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chung-Shin Yuan
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立中山大學
系所名稱:環境工程研究所
學門:工程學門
學類:環境工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:186
中文關鍵詞:碳收支溫室氣體連續監測感潮帶人工濕地日夜及季節變化全球暖化潛勢
外文關鍵詞:in-situ continuous monitoring of greenhouse gases (GHGs)Tidal constructed wetlandglobal warming potential (GWP)diurnal and seasonal variationcarbon sequestration
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濕地為地球三大生態系統之一,在氣候變化、生物多樣性、水文學和人類健康方面扮演著關鍵角色,其具有高初級生產力、底泥厭氧環境及有機質分解緩慢等特性,能將有機碳儲存於濕地的土壤、底泥和植物中,使濕地成為陸域生態系統中碳密度最高及地球上重要的碳儲存場(carbon stock)。此外,當濕地中的植物行光合作用時,則可將空氣中二氧化碳(CO2) 轉換為醣類而儲存於植物體中,但濕地因長期淹水的狀態,沉積物在厭氧環境下,微生物會經由甲烷化(methanogenesis)作用、硝化(nitrification)及脫硝(denitrification)作用,分別產生甲烷(CH4)及氧化亞氮(N2O)。
本研究選擇台灣南部的援中港濕地,並針對濕地內三種主要棲地環境(泥灘、植物相及水面),分別進行溫室氣體排放濃度之在線連續監測及植物淨初級生產量的估算,並深入探討季節、晝夜、潮汐對於溫室氣體排放量之影響。本研究採用自行設計之開放式動態浮動氣罩(open dynamic floating chamber)結合非分散性紅外線光譜儀(NDIR),進行四季(每季六天)之溫室氣體在線連續監測,計算不同棲地環境的溫室氣體的排放通量及淨初級生產量,並推估二氧化碳排放當量(CO2e)及碳匯能力,以暸解感潮帶人工濕地對全球暖化的影響潛勢。
研究結果顯示,感潮帶人工濕地溫室氣體排放濃度呈現明顯的日夜變化趨勢,其中CO2為日低夜高,而CH4及N2O則為日高夜低。溫室氣體排放通量在季節變化大致呈現夏季>秋季>春季>冬季的趨勢。就三種不同棲地環境(泥灘、植物相及水面)而言,植物相的排放量明顯高於其他棲地環境。在三種溫室氣體中,以N2O的CO2e為最高,因GWP(265)值較高所導致,使得N2O (2,203 g CO2e m-2 yr-1)對於全球暖化的影響明顯大於CO2 (635 g CO2e m-2 yr-1)及CH4 (313 g CO2e m-2 yr-1)。援中港濕地淨初級生產量為26.13 t C yr-1,碳吸存量為1,030.5 g C m-2 yr-1,濕地全球暖化潛勢為1,008.0 g CO2e m-2 yr-1,屬碳匯型濕地,土壤碳儲存量為158.3 t C。
Wetland is one of three most important ecosystems and natural resources on the earth. Due to its botanical productivity, high water levels, anaerobic underground environment, and slow decomposition of organic matters, wetland is able to uptake carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere and convert it into organic carbon captured in soil, mudflat, or scrap plants, in a process called carbon sequestration. In the case of sediments hypoxia, the microorganisms produce CH4 via methanation, while nitrification and incomplete denitrification processes produce N2O transmitting to the water, and finally emit to the atmosphere. Consequently, it is important to monitor the emissions of GHGs released from the wetlands. For this particular study, we developed an NDIR GHG monitoring system to continuously monitor GHG emissions from a tidal constructed wetland at three habitats (mudflat, mangrove, and water surface) for 6 day in four seasons. Compared to the traditional gas chromatography, the GHG monitoring system is able to explore the diurnal variation of GHG emissions from the wetlands, and estimate more accurately the GHG emission based carbon budget of the wetlands.
Field measurement results demonstrated that the continuous monitoring technique is feasible and valuable for assessing the variation of GHG uptake/emission to/from wetlands. Daytime CO2 emissions were always lower than those at nighttime, while an opposite trend was observed for CH4 and N2O emissions. Seasonal variation of GHGs showed the highest GHG emissions was observed in summer, and followed by fall, spring, and winter. For three habitats, mangrove emitted more amounts of GHGs than other habitats. However, among three GHGs, the effect of N2O (2,203 g CO2e m-2 yr-1) on global warming was much higher than CO2 (635 g CO2e m-2 yr-1) and CH4 (313 g CO2e m-2 yr-1). The net primary production of the mangrove constructed wetland was 26.13 t C yr-1, the carbon sequestration was 1,030.5 g C m-2 yr-1, and the global warming potential of the mangrove constructed wetland was 1,008.0 g CO2e m-2 yr-1, and the carbon stock was 158.3 t C.
論文審定書 i
誌謝 ii
摘要 iii
Abstract iv
目錄 vi
圖目錄 ix
表目錄 xii
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究緣起 1
1.2 研究目的 3
1.3 研究範疇及架構 4
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 溫室氣體背景資料 5
2.1.1 溫室氣體的排放來源 5
2.1.2 溫室氣體的排放現況 9
2.1.3 濕地的溫室氣體排放機制 13
2.2 濕地背景資料 17
2.2.1 濕地之定義及種類 17
2.2.2 濕地的功能與重要性 26
2.2.3 濕地環境的碳、氮循環 28
2.2.4 全球碳庫及濕地碳匯 32
2.3 濕地溫室氣體排放量測技術 35
2.4 國內外濕地溫室氣體排放相關研究 38
第三章 研究方法 42
3.1 研究對象與規劃 42
3.1.1 援中港濕地 42
3.1.2 採樣時間規劃 44
3.1.3 採樣樣區規劃 45
3.2 採樣及分析方法 46
3.2.1 溫室氣體採樣及在線連續監測方法 46
3.2.2 淨初級生產量分析方法 49
3.2.3 土壤碳庫分析方法 51
3.2.4 水質在線連續監測方法 55
3.3 濕地碳收支估算方法 57
3.4 濕地全球暖化潛勢估算方法 59
3.5 相關性分析方法 60
第四章 結果與討論 62
4.1 援中港濕地環境與氣象條件 62
4.1.1 環境概況 62
4.1.2 氣象條件現況 62
4.2 援中港濕地溫室氣體排放濃度變化趨勢 72
4.2.1 CO2排放濃度變化趨勢 72
4.2.2 CH4排放濃度變化趨勢 77
4.2.3 N2O排放濃度變化趨勢 83
4.3 援中港濕地溫室氣體排放通量變化趨勢 89
4.3.1 CO2排放通量變化趨勢 89
4.3.2 CH4排放通量變化趨勢 90
4.3.3 N2O排放通量變化趨勢 92
4.4 援中港濕地溫室氣體與水質及環境參數之相關性分析 94
4.4.1 雷達圖分析 94
4.4.2 主要影響參數的三相圖分析 97
4.4.3 多項式迴歸分析 100
4.5 援中港濕地淨初級生產量估算 102
4.6 援中港濕地碳收支估算 106
4.7 援中港濕地全球暖化潛勢估算 107
4.8 援中港濕地碳庫估算 110
4.8.1 土壤碳含量 110
4.8.2 土壤碳密度 112
4.8.3 土壤碳儲存量 113
第五章 結論與建議 114
5.1 結論 114
5.2 建議 116
參考文獻 117
附件 126
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