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研究生:陳雅珣
研究生(外文):Chen, Ya-Hsun
論文名稱:性別政治:哈尼村寨與中國現代性的遭逢
論文名稱(外文):Gender Politics: Hani Villagers’ Encounter with Chinese Modernity
指導教授:蔣斌蔣斌引用關係何翠萍何翠萍引用關係
指導教授(外文):Chiang, BienHo, Tsui-Ping
口試委員:簡美玲林開世
口試委員(外文):Chien, Mei-LingLin, Kai-Shih
口試日期:2018-07-12
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:人類學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:人類學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:117
中文關鍵詞:哈尼性別政治道德社群現代性計劃生育
外文關鍵詞:Hanigender politicsmoral communitymodernityfamily planning policy
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本文檢視哈尼村寨與中國現代化政策的遭逢下,原有的生命歷程、性別與婚姻理想皆受到影響,因而產生的以性別政治為核心的道德社群,以及兩性各自在城市、村寨的進出之間的不同經驗與選擇。
首先,在義務教育、經濟發展之下,哈尼人對於生命歷程的期許出現轉變。社群一方面將原屬婚入婦女的義務與責任,視為對女性個人發展與追趕現代性的阻礙;另一方面卻仍仰賴婚入婦女祭祀篾盤,以維護家戶的存在與平安。因此,當婚姻對女性個人發展成為負面因子的同時,卻又是社群平安存在的關鍵,兩者之間因而矛盾。再者,中國在一胎化政策下導致性別比例失衡,婚姻市場中的女多男少,讓弱勢的農村男性面臨找不到配偶的困境。此一情勢使得哈尼社群對男性結婚樂見其成並加以鼓勵,一反其在年輕女性身上將婚姻視為負面的看法,也形成性別間婚姻論述的矛盾。當個人面對鄉村、城市的不同社群,年輕女性駕馭了道德價值的落差,在進出間形塑個人的行為;男性則在地方社群與國家現代性的夾擊中,只能回歸原有位置,並面對配偶難尋的落寞。
國家現代性論述下,引發了哈尼人群生命歷程論述的轉變,以及社群對兩性婚姻截然相反的態度。各種效應互相纏繞,並疊合了哈尼社群原有的性別規範,擠壓出哈尼村寨中焦慮而矛盾的性別政治。透過此案例,也期能替中國當代的道德景觀,加入一個少數民族的視角。
This paper examines how narratives of gender and marriage in a Hani minority village have been twisted within the context of the marriage market under the impact of socioeconomic growth and birth control policy in contemporary China.
First, the expectations of the life course have changed because of the implementation of mandatory education and economic development policies. Marriage has become an obstacle for women’s personal career development in their efforts to catch up to the so-called modernity. However, the Hani community and family rely on married women to worship their ancestors in order to keep the family safe. Therefore, the role of marriage is conflicted between women’s pursuit of modernity and the community’s need for existence. Also, as a consequence of the imbalanced sex ratio caused by the implementation of the one-child policy, men in the village have been facing challenges finding a spouse. Therefore, young women's negative conceptions of marriage have largely been invisible to young men. On the contrary, people tended to be happy for and encouraged men to get married as early as possible. The different perceptions of marriage between genders have become a further conflict in village life. While faced with different value systems between the village and the city, young women have adapted to different standards and rules of morality and learned to act according to diverse condition. Men, on the other hand, have largely been stuck in the gap between their local community and modernity as propagated by the state. They see no choice but to return to their original position in the village and faced the loneliness and desperation of finding no spouse.
To conclude, aspects of women's life course, interaction between men and women, and the village’s safety and existence have all been disrupted and squeezed into a new contradictory and anxious gender politics under the state’s narrative of modernity. With this article, I aim to amplify and contribute the voices of an ethnic minority community to the research on the moral landscape of contemporary China.
摘要
目錄
第一章、導論 1
一、研究源起 1
二、問題意識與主旨 2
三、文獻回顧 3
(一)道德論述與研究取徑 3
(二)社會關係、經濟與道德 6
(三)道德與性別 8
(四)當代中國變遷與道德 10
第二章、田野地點與研究對象 15
一、綠春哈尼人 16
二、地理位置 - 綠春縣小小村與大大村 17
三、氣候、生計型態與經濟生活 22
(一)氣候與農事 22
(二)經濟作物與當代經濟生活 25
(三)教育與文化意識 27
四、哈尼村寨的祭儀 28
(一)祭祖篾盤 28
(二)十月年 30
(三)祭龍 35
五、小結 39
第三章、綠春哈尼的性別與婚姻 40
一、聯姻群體與給妻者的身分 40
二、哈尼的婚禮 42
(一)婚禮的儀式 42
(二)婚禮的宴客 43
三、「認」的親戚 45
(一)社會身分缺乏的滿足 - 兒子、乾女兒與認娘家 45
(二)命名與乾父母 47
四、婚姻意義 – 生活與生命 48
五、性別角色與婚姻論述 50
(一)家戶、篾盤、以及性別 50
(二)婚入婦女的生活限制 51
(三)性別在家務、經濟活動與祭儀的分工 52
第四章、中國現代化政策下的哈尼婚姻市場與個人生命歷程 54
一、改革開放經濟下的打工浪潮 54
二、教育下的人群階級劃分 56
三、婚姻與生育政策 59
四、現代性論述下的生命歷程 62
五、當代中國的婚姻市場 67
六、性別政治與婚姻市場碰撞下激化出的道德社群 70
七、小結 73
第五章、哈尼村寨的個人選擇與性別地位反轉 75
一、大大村的性別政治與道德社群 75
二、外出的女性 – 道德社群的進出與行動變換 80
三、外出打工與家庭動力學 82
四、繼承轉為束縛-現代性論述下性別位置的翻轉 83
五、限制亦是選擇-大大村女性的自我規範 87
六、小結 90
第六章、結論 93
一、哈尼社群與中國現代性遭逢下的婚姻與性別 93
二、道德社群的存在與維繫 96
三、道德的再生產與個人經驗 97
四、性別政治與道德社群 99
五、綠春哈尼與中國當代的道德景觀 101
六、綠春哈尼的定位與其哈尼特色、意識 102
(一)大大村、小小村與元陽縣「草坡村」的比較 103
(二)綠春哈尼的定位 104
(三)村寨人群的哈尼特色 105
(四)村寨人群的哈尼意識 107
七、結語 108
參考文獻 110
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