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研究生:王佳淇
研究生(外文):Wang, Chia-Chi.
論文名稱:臺灣閩南語輕讀音節的鼻化程度研究
論文名稱(外文):An Airflow Study of Nasalization in Taiwanese Southern Min - With Special Reference to Weak Elements
指導教授:謝豐帆謝豐帆引用關係
指導教授(外文):Hsieh, Feng-Fan
口試委員:張月琴王旭
口試委員(外文):Chang, Yueh-ChinWang, Hsu
口試日期:2018-01-29
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立清華大學
系所名稱:語言學研究所
學門:人文學門
學類:語言學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:英文
論文頁數:98
中文關鍵詞:臺灣閩南語輕讀音節鼻化
外文關鍵詞:TSMairflowweaknasalization
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本研究旨在從氣流研究的角度探討臺灣閩南語(1)單音節詞的鼻化與鼻音協同構音現象,以及(2)輕讀音節(如小稱詞綴-a及所有格標記-e)的鼻化現象。本文的最主要的發現是,輕讀音節(CVN-VWeak elements)中的元音,比起其對應結構的實詞 (CVN.NV和CV.NV)中的第二音節元音,鼻化程度要來得較高。此外,本研究也發現,輕讀音節中的中介輔音(interlude consonant)的時長(duration)比起複合詞裡的中介輔音要來得短,因此比較CVN.NV和CVN-VWeak elements 和CV.NV三種結構的中介輔音,三者之間形成了一個非音位(non-phonemic)的對比。一般認為輕讀音節的特色在於其較低的音高(pitch),較低的響度(loudness),及較短的時長,而本文的貢獻在於發現輕讀音節在鼻音環境時會有較高程度的鼻化。
This study aims at investigating the patterns of coarticulatory nasalization in (1) monosyllables and, more importantly, (2) weak elements (affixes, clitics, etc.) in Taiwanese Southern Min. As a baseline, we firstly conducted a more comprehensive airflow study of nasalization in monosyllables (cf. Hsieh 2011, Hsieh et al. 2011) and the principal findings are that nasalization of weak elements (i.e., the so-called “diminutive suffix” –a, or the “genitive marker” –e) is implemented differently. Precisely, the weak elements under investigation (CVN-VWeak elements) are more nasalized if compared with their counterparts in compounds or phrases (in the CVN.NV and CV.NV formats). It is also found that these weak elements are shorter in the duration of the consonant interludes, yielding a non-phonemic three-way contrast between geminates (CVN.NV; compounds), “derived” geminates (CVN-VWeak elements) and “singletons” (CV.NV). Taken together, the major contribution of the present study is that weak elements, or, better known as “non-prominent,” “unstressed” elements, may be phonetically realized distinctively by means of a higher degree of nasalization, in addition to the well-established characteristics such as lower pitch, lower loudness and shorter segmental duration.
摘要 i
Abstract ii
致謝辭 iii
List of Figures vii
List of Tables viii
Chapter 1 Introduction - 1 -
1.1 Overview - 1 -
1.2 Taiwanese Southern Min (TSM) - 3 -
1.2.1 Diminutives - 6 -
1.2.2 The genitive marker ‘-e’ - 8 -
1.3 Motives and research goals - 10 -
Chapter 2 Literature Review - 13 -
2.1 Techniques on studying nasalization - 13 -
2.2 Nasalization of monosyllabic words - 15 -
2.2.1 Nasal coarticulation - 15 -
2.2.2 Nasal consonants - 16 -
2.2.3 Homorganic voiced stops and nasals - 16 -
2.3 Cross-syllabic nasalization - 18 -
2.3.1 Weak elements - 19 -
2.3.2 Gemination - 20 -
Chapter 3 Research Methods - 22 -
3.1 Materials and corpus - 22 -
3.2 Participants - 27 -
3.3 Data collection - 27 -
3.3.1 Acoustic data - 28 -
3.3.2 Airflow data - 28 -
3.4 Data analysis - 28 -
3.4.1 Segmentation - 31 -
3.4.2 Measurements of vowel nasalization - 33 -
Chapter 4 Nasalization in monosyllabic words - 37 -
4.1 Syllable structure and vowel nasalization - 37 -
4.2 Onset effects on vowel nasalization - 40 -
4.2.1 Onset effects in CVN - 40 -
4.2.2 Onset effects in CṼ - 43 -
4.2.3 Interim summary - 44 -
4.3 Nasal consonants and vowel nasalization - 45 -
4.3.1 Nasality of nasal consonants - 45 -
4.3.2 Vowels in nasal environments - 49 -
4.3.3 Interim summary - 50 -
4.4 Vowel height and nasalization - 51 -
4.5 Nasal effects on oral onsets - 54 -
4.6 Homorganic voiced stops and nasal consonants - 55 -
4.7 Summary - 57 -
Chapter 5 Nasalization in weak elements - 59 -
5.1 Methods - 60 -
5.1.1 Corpus - 60 -
5.1.2 Experiments and measurements - 61 -
5.1.2.1 Duration - 61 -
5.1.2.2 F0 - 63 -
5.1.2.3 Aerodynamics - 63 -
5.2 CVN.V-DIM (diminutive words) - 64 -
5.2.1 Duration - 64 -
5.2.1.1 Duration of interlude nasal consonants - 64 -
5.2.1.2 Duration of V2 - 66 -
5.2.2 F0 of V2 - 68 -
5.2.3 Aerodynamic data - 69 -
5.3 CVN.V-GEN (genitive words) - 70 -
5.3.1 Duration - 70 -
5.3.1.1 Duration of interlude nasal consonants - 70 -
5.3.1.2 Duration of V2 - 71 -
5.3.2 Aerodynamic data - 72 -
5.4 Effects of interlude nasal consonants on vowel nasalization - 73 -
5.4.1 Nasalization of V1 - 74 -
5.4.2 Nasalization of V2 - 75 -
5.4.3 A comparison between nasalization of V1 and V2 - 78 -
5.5 Comparison: CVN.V-DIM vs. CVN.V-GEN - 79 -
5.5.1 Nasalization of weak elements - 79 -
5.5.2 Duration of weak elements - 81 -
5.6 Summary - 82 -
Chapter 6 Conclusion - 83 -
6.1 Discussion and summary - 83 -
6.1.1 Nasal coarticulation - 83 -
6.1.2 geminates vs. derived geminates vs singletons: a three-way contrast - 84 -
6.1.3 Weak elements - 85 -
6.2 Concluding remarks - 86 -
References - 87 -
Appendix - 95 -
Table A. Wordlist of monosyllabic words (The gray grids indicate that there is no such combination in TSM.) - 95 -
Table B. Wordlist of CV.NV structure - 98 -
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