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研究生:范氏玉河
研究生(外文):Pham, Thi Ngoc Ha
論文名稱:Timing and petrogenesis of collisional and post-collisional rocks of Guéra Massif, Republic of Chad
論文名稱(外文):Timing and petrogenesis of collisional and post-collisional rocks of Guéra Massif, Republic of Chad
指導教授:Shellnutt, John Gregory
指導教授(外文):Shellnutt, John Gregory
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:地球科學系
學門:自然科學學門
學類:地球科學學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:英文
論文頁數:167
中文關鍵詞:GranitesGuéra MassifPan-African OrogenySaharan Metacraton
外文關鍵詞:GranitesGuéra MassifPan-African OrogenySaharan Metacraton
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The poorly-studied Saharan Metacraton of North-Central Africa is located between the Arabian-Nubian Shield in the east, the Tuareg Shield in the west and the Central African Orogenic Belt in the south. The Republic of Chad, constrained within the Saharan Metacraton, comprises a Phanerozoic cover overlying Precambrian basement outcroppings in five distinct massifs: The Mayo Kebbi, Tibesti, Ouaddaï, Yadé and the Guéra. The Guéra Massif is the least studied of the five massifs but it likely preserves structures that were formed during the collision between Congo Craton and Saharan Metacraton. It is composed of diverse igneous rock types including granites, rhyolites, and gabbros. The first zircon U/Pb geochronology of the silicic rocks from the Guéra Massif yielded three main age groups: ~590 Ma, ~570 Ma, ~560 Ma, while a single gabbro yielded an age of ~580 Ma.
The ~590 Ma granites are metaluminous to peraluminous, alkali calcic to calc-alkalic and magnesian in composition. They are similar to granitic rocks typical of cordilleran or volcanic-arc settings (collisional rocks). The younger (≤ 570 Ma) granites and rhyolite are peraluminous to metaluminous, alkali calcic to calc-alkalic but ferroan and are similar in compositions to post-collisional granites (high K, calc-alkaline). Both magnesian and ferroan rocks show the enrichment in LREE with distinct negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.04-0.88). The negative εNd(t) isotopes (εNd(t) = -14.5 to -0.2), variable ISr values (0.7037-0.7176), low TZr (~700oC) and abundant inherited zircons indicate the granitic rocks are derived primarily from crustal sources.
The ~580 Ma gabbro has a similar age and composition as a mafic, within-plate alkaline complex in West-Cameroon and matches the age of inherited zircons from different rock types around Lake Chad and Lake Fitri suggesting that there was a regional magmatic event at that time despite the dearth of rocks. The major and trace element geochemistry of the gabbro is similar to alkaline within-plate basalt suggesting that it was derived from a garnet-bearing mantle source. The enriched Sr-Nd isotopes (ISr = 0.7056, εNd(t) = -4.6) with the lack of crustal contamination indicates that it may originate from an enriched mantle (EMII) reservoir.
The geochronology and geochemical data indicate that there is a temporal evolution in the composition of rocks with the old, high εNd(t), magnesian collisional granites shifting to young, low εNd(t), ferroan post-collisional granites. The results suggest that the granites in the Guéra Massif were probably derived by the repeated melting of a single crustal source region, from an initially ‘fertile’ source to a ‘less fertile’ source at distinct intervals. The enriched isotopic composition of the Guéra Massif granites contrasts with the depleted compositions of the associated Neoproterozoic granites in southern Chad (Mayo Kebbi Massif, Lake Fitri inliers) indicates a thicker crustal root may exist under the Guéra Massif. The emplacement of different rock types in the Guéra Massif marks the tectonic regime transition from subduction and collision to post-collision within a span of ~40 million years.
Acknowledgement i
Table of contents ii
List of figures iv
List of pictures v
Abbreviations vi
Abstract 1

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION 3
1.1 General introduction 4
1.2 Literature review 6
1.2.1. The Gondwana supercontinent 6
1.2.2. Pan-African orogeny 9
1.2.3. Granitic rocks and their classification 13

CHAPTER II. GEOLOGICAL BACKGROUND 17
2.1 Domains of the Saharan Metacraton in Chad 20
2.1.1. Tibesti Massif 22
2.1.2. Ouaddaï Massif 23
2.1.3. Guéra Massif 23
2.2 Domains of CAOB in Chad 29
2.2.1. Mayo Kebbi Massif 29
2.2.2. Yadé Massif 30
2.3. Phanerozoic sedimentary basins 30

CHAPTER III. PETROGRAPHY 32
3.1 Granitic rocks 33
3.1.1. Biotite granites 33
3.1.2. Hornblende granites 38
3.1.3. Hornblende-biotite granites 43
3.2. Rhyolite 45
3.3. Gabbro 47

CHAPTER IV. METHODS 51
4.1 In situ LA-ICP-MS geochronology 52
4.1.1. Principles of zircon U-Pb geochronology 52
4.1.2. Procedure of U-Pb geochronology 52
4.2. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry 55
4.2.1. Principles of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry 55
4.2.2. Procedure of method 56
4.3. Inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) 60
4.3.1. Principles of ICPMS 60
4.3.2. Procedure of trace element analysis 60
4.4. Isotopes analysis by Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) 63
4.4.1. Principles of TIMS operation 63
4.4.2. Procedure of experiments 64

CHAPTER V. RESULTS 68
5.1 Zircon geochronology 69
5.1.1. Granites 71
5.1.2. Gabbro 72
5.1.3. Enclave 73
5.2. Geochemistry 76
5.2.1. Major and trace elements 82
5.2.2. Isotopic geochemistry 91

CHAPTER VI. DISCUSSION 92
6.1. Age of rocks in Guéra Massif and regional correlation 93
6.2. Zircon saturation temperature TZr (oC) 95
6.3. Petrogenesis 98
6.3.1. Granites 98
6.3.2. Gabbro 103
6.3.3. Enclaves 107
6.4. Tectonic implication 110
6.4.1. Granites 110
6.4.2. Gabbro 113
6.5. Suggested model integration for the formation of Late Neoproterozoic rocks in Guéra Massif. 114

CHAPTER VII. CONCLUSIONS 118

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APPENDIX 136
Appendix A. Petrography descriptions of rocks from Guéra Massif. 137
Appendix B. Zircon LA-ICPMS geochronology results. 148
Appendix C. Regional geochronology and isotopic data 154
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