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研究生:江俞慶
研究生(外文):Chiang, Yu-Ching
論文名稱:以體積像素加速之即時全域照明
論文名稱(外文):Real-time Global Illumination using Voxel Cone Tracing
指導教授:張鈞法
指導教授(外文):Chang, Chun-Fa
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:資訊工程學系
學門:工程學門
學類:電資工程學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:32
中文關鍵詞:全域照明體積像素追蹤間接照明環境遮蔽即時繪製
外文關鍵詞:global illuminationvoxel cone tracingindirect lightingambient occlusionreal-time rendering
相關次數:
  • 被引用被引用:1
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  • 下載下載:12
  • 收藏至我的研究室書目清單書目收藏:0
隨著顯示設備的發展與VR、AR等實境裝置的推出,人們對於畫面品質的要求也跟著上升。全域照明(global illumination, GI)的計算,是追求繪製畫面擬真度非常重要的一環。全域照明的計算成本很高,往往需要耗費大量的運算資源以及時間來計算。非即時的全域照明演算法能計算出細緻且精確的間接照明,但卻很難應用在需要與使用者互動的動態場景中,即時地計算全域照明一直是計算機圖學中非常熱門的課題之一。
本篇論文將探討利用體積像素(voxel)與錐形光線追蹤(cone tracing)[1],即時的全域照明演算法。以即時的體積像素化(voxelize)演算法簡化場景,將必要的場景資訊與照明資訊以體積像素儲存於三維貼圖中,結合近代OpenGL的新API與compute shader平行化處理體積像素資訊,建立mipmap克服光線追蹤方法常見的雜訊問題。利用錐形光線追蹤從體積像素結構中取樣先前儲存好的資訊,在動態場景中即時的計算出近似的間接照明以及環境遮蔽效果。最後以近代的GPU設備測試此全域照明演算法之效能。
With the advance of display technology, the demand of visual quality has raised.
Global illumination(GI) plays an important role in rendering realistic scenes. Generally, it costs vast quantity of computational resource and time to calculate GI. Those off-line GI algorithms are committed to produce accurate indirect illumination results, however, which are not applicable in games or other interactive applications. Therefore, calculating GI in real-time has always been an important research field in computer graphics.
In this paper, we will discuss a real-time GI algorithm called "Voxel Cone Tracing"[1], as well as implementation details using modern OpenGL and compute shaders. In the algorithm, we first simplify the triangle based scene through real-time voxelization, and store necessary scene information and material data in voxel. Furthermore, we filter the voxel data by generating mipmaps in order to prevent noises and aliasing. Finally, we can calculate approximate indirect illumination and ambient occlusion with the voxel data which can be sampled efficiently through cone tracing.
附表目錄 v
附圖目錄 vi

第一章 簡介 1

第二章 相關研究探討 3
第一節 Reflective Shadow Maps (RSMs) 4
第二節 Light Propagation Volume (LPV) 5
第三節 Voxel Cone Tracing 6

第三章 演算法概要 8
第一節 場景Bounding Box 9
第二節 體積像素資料結構 10
第三節 體積像素的儲存 11
第四節 場景體積像素化 12
第一項 體積像素資訊之三維貼圖寫入衝突 14
第二項 體積像素直接照明計算 14
第五節 Mipmapping 15
第六節 Voxel Cone Tracing 16
第一項 環境遮蔽(ambient occlusion, AO) 18
第二項 間接漫射(indirect diffuse) 19
第三項 間接鏡面反射(indirect specular) 20

第四章 結果與討論 21
第一節 體積像素化之資料同步 21
第二節 Conservative Rasterization對效能與畫面的影響 22
第三節 Cone參數設定 24
第四節 體積像素解析度對畫面與效能分析 26
第五節 相關演算法結果比較 29

第五章 結論與未來展望 30

參考著作 31
[1]C. Crassin, F. Neyret, M. Sainz, S. Green and E. Eisemann, "Interactive Indirect Illumination Using Voxel Cone Tracing," Computer Graphics Forum, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 1921-1930, 2011.
[2]C. Dachsbacher and M. Stamminger, "Reflective Shadow Maps," in Proceedings of the 2005 symposium on Interactive 3D graphics and games - SI3D '05, 2005.
[3]A. Kaplanyan and C. Dachsbacher, "Cascaded light propagation volumes for real-time indirect illumination," in Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics and Games - I3D 10, 2010.
[4]A. Kaplanyan, "Light propagation volumes in cryengine 3," in SIGGRAPH 2009 Course, 2009.
[5]A. Panteleev, "NVIDIA VXGI DYNAMIC GLOBAL ILLUMINATION FOR GAMES," in Game Developers Conference - GDC15, 2015.
[6]J. Villegas and E. Ramirez, "Deferred voxel shading for real-time global illumination," in 2016 XLII Latin American Computing Conference (CLEI), 2016.
[7]J. McDonald, "Alpha Blending: To Pre or Not To Pre," NVIDIA, 31 1 2013. [Online]. Available: https://developer.nvidia.com/content/alpha-blending-pre-or-not-pre. [Accessed 20 8 2018].
[8]M. Takeshige, "The Basics of GPU Voxelization," NVIDIA Developer, 2015. [Online]. Available: https://developer.nvidia.com/content/basics-gpu-voxelization.
[9]C. Crassin and S. Green, 'Octree-Based Sparse Voxelization Using the GPU Hardware Rasterizer', in OpenGL insights, P. Cozzi and C. Riccio, Eds., Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press, 2013, pp. 303-319.
[10]F. J. Blinn, "Models of light reflection for computer synthesized pictures," in Proceedings of the 4th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, California, 1977.
[11]"NVIDIA Nsight Visual Studio Edition," NVIDIA Corporation, [Online]. Available: https://developer.nvidia.com/nsight-visual-studio-edition.
[12]C. Crassin, "Voxel Cone Tracing and Sparse Voxel Octree for Real-time Global Illumination," in GPU Technology Conference – GTC12, 2012.
[13]C. Crassin, "Octree-Based Sparse Voxelization for Real-Time Global Illumination," in GPU Technology Conference – GTC12, 2012.
[14]J. T. Kajiya , "The rendering equation," ACM SIGGRAPH Computer Graphics, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 143-150, 1986.
[15]M. Pharr and G. Humphreys, Physically Based Rendering, 2nd ed., Morgan Kaufmann, 2010.
[16]J. Kessenich, G. Sellers and D. Shreiner, OpenGL Programming Guide, 9th ed., Addison-Wesley Professional, 2016.
[17]D. Gomes, Voxel Based Real-Time Global Illumination Techniques, 2015.
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