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研究生:林芝羽
研究生(外文):Lin, Chih-yu
論文名稱:優秀青少年競走選手下肢動作的生物力學分析
論文名稱(外文):The biomechanical analysis of lower limb movement in elite junior race walkers
指導教授:黃長福黃長福引用關係
指導教授(外文):Huang, Chen-Fu
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣師範大學
系所名稱:體育學系
學門:教育學門
學類:專業科目教育學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:76
中文關鍵詞:競走青少年生物力學下肢動作
外文關鍵詞:RacewalkingJuniorBiomechanicsLower limb
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田徑運動的競走項目是近年來東方人在奧運會中屢創佳績、嶄露頭角的競技項目,優異的成績表現取決於成熟的技術能力,其中許多文獻指出下肢動作是主要的技術關鍵。本研究目的欲探討國內優秀青少年競走選手在不同速度(高速90%、低速60%)的下肢動作技術之差異。方法:國內優秀青少年競走選手八名(身高:1.64 ±0.08公尺、體重:55.5±6.5公斤、年齡:14.6±0.7歲、訓練年齡3±0.5年)參與實驗。使用兩台測力板 (Kistler, 1000 Hz) 和8台紅外線攝影機(Vicon, 200Hz)拍攝競走動作,實驗中取五次成功的兩個週期步態,以其中最穩定的一步(Step)擷取運動學和動力學參數,所得之數據使用成對樣本 t 檢定 (Paired-Simples t Test) 進行比較分析,顯著水準為α = .05。結果:步態支撐期的腳跟觸地階段(Heel Strike),下肢踝關節的背屈(Dorsiflexion)角度,呈現高速大於低速。腳尖離地階段(Toe-Off)踝關節的蹠屈(Plantarflexion)角度,呈現高速小於低速。下肢膝關節於腳跟觸地階段,伸展角度呈現低速大於高速。左、右腳於支撐期著地的最大地面反作用力(GRF)皆呈現高速顯著大於低速之情形。高速時,擺盪期的時間比顯著大於低速呈現49:51。結論:(1)以低速進行長距離的訓練,選手的下肢關節在支撐期有較佳的關節角度控制,並使其能完全伸展下肢動作,進而有效增加關節活動度的使用。(2)高速時,支撐期的地面反作用力較大,有效率地使用踝關節力量能幫助身體的向前帶動。(3)高速時,支撐期的時間減少,擺盪期的時間隨之增加。
Introduction: In recent years, Asian athletes have become more competitive in the field of race walking, most notably in their performance at the Olympics. The improvement in performance can be attributed to more advanced training techniques. Previous studies indicate that lower limb movement is the most important factor in overall performance of race walkers. The purpose of this study is to compare the lower limb movements of Taiwanese elite junior race walkers at two different speeds (high speed 90% and low speed 60%) in order to observe any differences in technique. Methods: Eight elite junior race walkers in Taiwan ( 4 males and 4 females, height: 1.64 ±0.08 m, weight: 55.5±6.5 kg, age: 14.6±0.7 years, training age: 3±0.5 years, ) participated in this study. Eight Vicon Motion System cameras ( 200Hz ) and two Kistler force plates ( 1000Hz ) were used in conjunction to capture lower limb movement. Five successful gait cycles for two speeds were collected, of which the most stable gait cycle out of the captured movements was used for comparison of the kinematic and dynamic parameters. A paired sample t test was performed for statistical analysis ( α = .05 ). Results: At the point of the heel strike, the ankle’s angle of dorsiflexion is significantly larger when walking at the higher speed, while the knee does not extend as fully for both speeds. In toe off phase, the ankle’s angle of plantar flexion is significantly smaller at higher speed. Both left and right feet’s GRF in the stance phase is considerably larger at higher speed. At high speed, the stance phase to swing phase time ratio is 48.9 : 51.1, while at low speed the time ratio is 51.9 : 48.1. As the speed increases, time spent in stance phase decreases, while time spent in swing phase increases. Conclusion:(1)When training at low speed for long distances, the athlete’s lower limb joints have more control over the angle of movement in stance phase and can fully extend their movements, therefore effectively increasing utilization of joint mobility.(2)At higher speed, the GRF during stance phase is greater and efficient use of ankle strength can help to drive the body forward.(3)Also at higher speed, time spent in stance phase is reduced, while time spent in swing phase is accordingly increased.
中文摘要 iii
英文摘要 iv
謝誌 v
目次 vi
表次 vii
圖次 x

第壹章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景 1
第二節 研究目的 6
第三節 研究假設 8
第四節 研究的重要性 9
第五節 研究範圍與限制 9
第六節 名詞操作性定義 10

第貳章 文獻探討 12
第一節 走路、跑步和競走的步態差異 12
第二節 競走規則與技術要領 19
第三節 相關競走的技術研究 26
第四節 文獻總結 32

第參章 研究方法 34
第一節 研究對象 34
第二節 實驗時間與地點 35
第三節 實驗測量儀器和設備 35
第四節 實驗流程與步驟 38
第五節 實驗設計架構圖 41
第六節 資料處理 42

第肆章 結果 46
第一節 步長、步頻與步態身體重心垂直位移 46
第二節 支撐期和擺盪期下肢關節角度 47
第三節 支撐期最大地面反作用力 50
第四節 支撐期和擺盪期時間比 51

第伍章 討論 52
第一節 步長、步頻與步態身體重心垂直位移之探討 52
第二節 支撐期的下肢關節角度 55
第三節 擺盪期的膝關節角度變化 57
第四節 最大地面反作用力與支撐期步態的比較 59
第五節 比較支撐期與擺盪期的時間比 61

第陸章 結論與建議 62
第一節 結論 62
第二節 建議 62

參考文獻 64
中文部分 64
英文部分 64

附錄 67
附錄一 67
附錄二 68
附錄三 69
附錄四 71
附錄六 72
附錄七 73
附錄八 74
附錄九 75
附錄十 76
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