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研究生:涂念慈
研究生(外文):Tu, Nien-Tzu
論文名稱:臺灣龜山島海域產美軟魚Malakichthys elegans之漁業生物學研究
論文名稱(外文):Fishery biology of Malakichthys elegans in surrounding waters of Guei-Shan Island, northeastern Taiwan
指導教授:王世斌
指導教授(外文):Wang, Shyh-Bin
口試委員:劉光明邱萬敦
口試委員(外文):Liu, Kwang-MingChiou, Wann-Duen
口試日期:2018-01-26
學位類別:碩士
校院名稱:國立臺灣海洋大學
系所名稱:海洋事務與資源管理研究所
學門:商業及管理學門
學類:其他商業及管理學類
論文種類:學術論文
論文出版年:2018
畢業學年度:106
語文別:中文
論文頁數:80
中文關鍵詞:龜山島美軟魚(Malakichthys elegans)漁業生物學
外文關鍵詞:Guei-Shan IslandMalakichthys elegansfishery biology
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本研究針對臺灣龜山島海域產美軟魚(Malakichthys elegans)之漁業生物學進行研究,採樣期間自2010年11月至2012年1月止,共計採得樣本1299尾,其中雌魚648尾、雄魚649尾、無法辨識2尾。本種全長(TL ,cm)與體重(BW ,g)的關係式經變積分析檢定後有顯著差異,故分開表示,分別為雌魚:BW = 0.0206TL2.8678 (n=648),雄魚:BW = 0.0163TL2.9384 (n=649)。本種耳石的輪紋一年形成一輪,輪紋形成期在每年的11月至隔年1月間,雌、雄魚之輪紋數最多分別可讀至8輪和7輪;本種依非線性迴歸法所估算之von Bertalanffy成長方程式經檢定有顯著差異,故雌魚:Lt=21.02(1-e-0.3016(t+1.0318)) (n=319),雄魚:Lt=18.78(1-e-0.448(t+0.2529)) (n=299),而以體重(g)表示則分別為Wt=127.93(1-e-0.3016(t+1.0318))2.8678 (雌魚)及Wt=90.08(1-e-0.448(t+0..2529))2.984 (雄魚)。本種週年均有產卵跡象,但其產卵盛期在每年的9月至隔年1月間,50%性成熟體長雌魚約16.5 cm、雄魚約16.0 cm,而其產卵型態型態則為非同步成熟型(Asynchronous)。孕卵數在5,159粒至21,128粒之間;而其性比除了2011年4月至7月、11月及12月外,其餘月份雌雄均無顯著差異。本種肥滿度週期較不明顯,唯秋冬季似有稍高於春夏季的情形,而肝臟指數雌雄之季節變動亦不大,但非產卵盛期的1~7月似乎相較於其他月份為高;內臟指數則在10月以後有較為明顯的上升趨勢,並在隔年1月降至相對低值,由於本種主要攝食季節亦在秋、冬之際,故推論其生殖期間能量來源除部分來自肌肉、肝臟與內臟外,亦須靠不斷的攝食而得。
Fisheries biology of Malakichthys elegans in surrounding waters of Guei-Shan Island, Taiwan was examined based on samples collected between Nov. 2010 and Jun. 2012. In total, 1299 specimens including 648 males, and 649 females, as well as 2 sex undifferentiated individuals were collected. Significant difference in total length – body weight relationships between sexes was found. The separated equation for females is BW = 0.0206TL2.8678 (n=648), and BW = 0.0163TL2.9384 (n=649) for males. The formation of annuli for this species was found between November and January. The maximum ages for female and male fishes were estimated to be 8 and 7, separately. The von Bertalanffy growth equation in length (cm) which was found to be different between sexes, were Lt=18.8169(1-e-0.6156(t+0.6843)) (n=319) for females, and Lt=18.1372(1-e-0.588(t+0.3335)) (n=299) for males. In terms of weight, they were Wt=93.11(1-e-0.6156(t+0.6843))2.8678 for females, and Wt=81.35(1-e-0.588(t+0.3335))2.984 for males. The species spawn all year round with a peak occurred between September and January. The size at 50% maturity for females was 16.5 cm, and 16.0 cm for males. An asynchronous oocyte development pattern also was found for the species, and the fecundity was estimated to be ranged from 5,159 to 21,128. There was no difference in sex ratio for most months except for period between April and July, and November and December of 2011. Seasonal variations in condition factor (CF) for both sexes was less evident, with relative high values occurred during the fall and winter. The hepatosomatic index (HSI) also showed minor seasonal variations, with relatively high value occurred in the none spawning season, while the visceral index (VI) showed an increasing trend after October and dropped to low value in January. Because major feeding activity of the species also occurred in fall to winter period, it was suggested that energy required for spawning for M. elegans may be fueled partially by the reserves in muscle, liver and visceral, and partially from continuous feeding.
謝辭 I
摘要 II
Abstract III
目錄 IV
圖目錄 VI
表目錄 IX
第一章、前言 1
第二章、材料與方法 4
2-1. 樣本採集與處理 4
2-2. 年齡與成長研究 4
2-2-1. 耳石的處理 4
2-2-2. 年齡判讀 5
2-2-3. 年齡判讀精確度之分析 5
2-2-4. 輪紋形成期的判定 5
2-2-5. 體長體重關係式 6
2-2-6. 體長與耳石徑關係式 6
2-2-7. 成長方程式參數之推估 6
2-2-8. 成長表現指標 7
2-3. 成熟與生殖研究 7
2-3-1. 生殖腺組織學觀察 7
2-3-2. 能量儲存指標之分析 9
2-3-3. 最小性成熟體長與50%性成熟體長之估計 9
2-3-4. 性比 9
2-3-5. 孕卵數之計數 10
2-3-6. 孕卵數與體長、體重、生殖腺重、生殖腺指數及各項能量儲存指標之關聯度分析 11
第三章、結果 12
3-1. 體長頻度分佈及體長體重關係式 12
3-1-1. 體長頻度分布 12
3-1-2. 體長體重關係式 12
3-1-3. 不同量測體長之換算關係式 12
3-2. 年齡與成長研究 12
3-2-1. 輪紋的對應性 13
3-2-2. 讀輪鑑定精確度分析 13
3-2-3. 體長與耳石徑之關係 13
3-2-4. 耳石輪紋形成期的判定 13
3-2-5. 各輪紋形成時之平均輪徑 13
3-2-6. 各輪紋形成時之反推算體長 (TL) 14
3-2-7. 成長方程式與成長曲線 14
3-2-8. 年齡結構 15
3-2-9. 成長表現指標 15
3-3. 成熟與生殖之研究 15
3-3-1. 肥滿度指數 (Condition Factor, CF) 15
3-3-2. 生殖腺指數 (Gonadosomatic Index, GSI)與生殖期的判定 16
3-3-3. 肝臟指數 (Hepatosomatic Index, HSI) 16
3-3-4. 內臟指數 (Visceral Index, VI) 16
3-3-5. 最小性成熟體長與50%性成熟體長之估計 16
3-3-6. 性比之月別與體長別變化 16
3-3-7. 生殖腺組織學觀察 17
3-3-8. 生殖腺成熟階段劃分 19
3-3-9. 產卵型態 20
3-3-10. 孕卵數與體長、體重、生殖腺重、生殖腺指數於各項能量儲存指標之關聯度分析 20
3-3-11. 月別飽食度分析 20
第四章、討論 22
4-1. 年齡與成長研究 22
4-2. 生殖特性及能量儲存變化探討 23
4-3. 性比 25
4-4. 產卵型態 25
4-5. 結語 27
參考文獻 28
圖 37
表 72
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Vaughan, D. S., and Kanciruk, P. (1982). An empirical comparison of estimation procedures for the von Bertalanffy growth equation. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 40(3) : 211-219.
Von Bertalanffy, L. (1938). A quantitative theory of organic growth (inquiries on growth laws. II). Human biology, 10(2), 181-213.
Wang, S. B., Ou, J. C., Chang, J. J., and Liu, K. M. (2007). Characteristics of the Trash Fish Generated by Bottom Trawling in Surrounding Waters of Guei-Shan Island, Northeastem Taiwan. Journal of the Fisheries Society of Taiwan, 34(4) : 379.
Wang, S. B., Chen, W. K., and Joung, S. J. (2013). Seasonal dynamics of flatfish assemblage in coastal waters off northeastern Taiwan: with implications for shift in species dominance of the ecosystem. Journal of Marine Science and Technology, 21: 23-30.
Wang, S. B., Chen, Y. L., and Liu, K. M. (2015). Recent Observations on the Change of Reproductive Traits of Japanese Butterfish, Psenopsis Anomala, in Waters off Northeastern Taiwan. Journal of Marine Science and Technology, 23(2) : 249-257.
Yamanoue, Y., and Yoseda, a. K. (2001). A new species of the genus Malakichthys (Perciformes Acropomatidae) from Japan. Ichthyol reasarch, 48: 257–261.
Yoneda, M., Sakai, T., Tokimura, M., Horikawa, H., and Matsuyama, M. (2002). Age and growth of the lizardfish Saurida sp. 1 in the East China Sea using otolith ring marks. Fisheries Research, 55(1) : 231-238.
Zaki, S., Jayabalan, N., Al-Kiyumi, F., Al-Kharusi, L., and Al-Habsi, S. (2012). Maturation and spawning of the Indian oil sardine Sardinella longiceps Val. from the Sohar coast, Sultanate of Oman. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India, 54(1) : 100-107.
Zhang, J., Takita, T., and Zhang, C. (2009). Reproductive biology of Ilisha elongata (Teleostei: Pristigasteridae) in Ariake Sound, Japan: Implications for estuarine fish conservation in Asia. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 81(1) : 105-113.
Zwanenburg, K. C. T. (2000). The effects of fishing on demersal fish communities of the Scotian Shelf. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 57(3) : 503-509.

日本文獻(按比劃順序排列)
宗清正廣、桑原昭彦 (1984). 若狹灣西部海域におけるタチウオの產卵期と性比. 日本水産学会誌, 50(8), 1279-1284.

中文文獻(按比劃順序排列)
王世斌 (1985),臺灣龜山島海域產瓜子鯧之形態與生殖研究。國立台灣海洋學院漁業研究所碩士論文,120頁。
王玟琦 (2008),漁獲壓力對於臺灣東北部海域大眼鯛生殖與成長之影響。國立臺灣海洋大學海洋生物研究所碩士論文,79頁。
尤志華 (2010),臺灣龜山島海域產日本發光鯛 (Acropoma japonicum)之漁業生物學研究。國立臺灣海洋大學環境生物與漁業科學學系碩士論文,80頁。
石念祖 (2004),臺灣海域產帶魚之年齡成長及生殖生物學研究。國立臺灣海洋大學環境生物與漁業科學學系碩士論文,102頁。
沈偉、姜亞洲、程家驊 (2009),東海發光鯛的年齡與成長特性。中國水產科學,16(4):588-595頁。
林龍山、鄭元甲、劉勇、張寒野(2006),東海區小型魚類生態研究–小型魚類的種類組成及季節變化。海洋科學,30(8):58-63頁。
胡家維 (2013),利用航程紀錄器及拍賣資料分析臺灣東北部水域拖網漁況之研究。國立臺灣海洋大學環境生物與漁業科學學系碩士論文,74頁。
殷名稱 (1998),魚類生態學。基隆:水產出版社,537頁。
黃向文、王世斌、王勝平、呂學榮、陳志炘、廖正信、劉光明、蘇楠傑 (2016),台灣海洋漁業資源利用的現況與挑戰,載於:藍色經濟與海洋保育(黃向文、邱文彥主編) 議題三 416-504頁。國立臺灣海洋大學、財團法人台灣研究基金會,基隆、台灣,519 頁。
莊立在 (2007),臺灣東北部海域鬼頭刀(Coryphaena hippurus)之季節性出現與魚群結構分析。國立臺灣海洋大學海洋事務與資源管理研究所碩士論文,110頁。
陳文深 (1995),臺灣龜山島海域日本馬頭魚Branchiostegus japonicus 之漁業生物學研究。國立臺灣海洋大學環境生物與漁業科學學系碩士論文,85頁。
張仕章 (1982),病理切片技術。大學圖書出版社,158頁。
張晉嘉 (2008),漁業開發對台灣東北龜山島海域產黑口Atrobuccanibe生活史參數之影響評估。國立臺灣海洋大學海洋事務與資源管理研究所碩士論文,89頁。
張雅雯 (2014),臺灣東北部海域白腹鯖年齡成長與生殖生物學研究。國立臺灣海洋大學環境生物與漁業科學學系碩士論文,96頁。
許向儀 (2007),台灣西南沿海產七星魚之生殖生物學研究。國立高雄海洋科技大學漁業生產與管理研究所碩士論文,86頁。
歐任淳(2008),臺灣龜山島海域角魚類之群聚結構分析與優勢種姬角魚 Lepidotrila hime 之漁業生物學研究。國立臺灣海洋大學海洋事務與資源管理研究所碩士論文,85頁。
蔡政南(2014),臺灣東部海域雨傘旗魚之營養階層結構與攝食生態研究。臺灣大學海洋研究所學位論文,132頁。
劉胤良(2009),臺灣北部沿近海嘉鱲魚Pagrus major之漁業生物學研究。國立臺灣海洋大學海洋事務與資源管理研究所碩士論文,97頁。
劉子豪(2010),臺灣龜山島海域產菲律賓尖牙鱸Synagrops philippinensis之漁業生物學研究。國立臺灣海洋大學海洋事務與資源管理研究所碩士論文,96頁。
劉光明、金建邦(2012),漁業管理新思維—以生態系為基礎。海大漁推,(42) : 48-56頁。
劉庭佑(2017),臺灣北方三島周邊水域產日本緋鯉Upeneus japonicas 之漁業生物學研究。國立臺灣海洋大學海洋事務與資源管理研究所碩士論文,83頁。
蕭韵穎 (2011),漁業與環境變動對東北海域花腹鯖成熟體長影響之研究。國立臺灣海洋大學環境生物與漁業科學學系碩士論文,86頁。
鍾易達 (2007),臺灣北部海域底拖網漁業網目選擇性之研究。國立臺灣海洋大學環境生物與漁業科學學系碩士論文,105頁。

其他
漁業統計年報(1999-2015),行政院農業委員會漁業署
台灣漁業資料庫 http://fishdb.sinica.edu.tw
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